Our recent study of the Astronomical Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day, in the context of Jon Nessle’s OT History Class [Session 15] has opened some of the in-depth ramifications of the events related to this Bible record, as presented by Rev. Nessle, Ren Manetti and myself. This blog, picks up where my teaching on Chapter 3, Session 15b left off in OT History Class; The Eclipse and the Great Pyramid. We will start this initial blog of 2023 with a brief review of our Nov. 2022 blog on Joshua’s Long Day, focusing on how the key Hebrew words for the Sun and Moon standing still [dom and amad] are in this context held figuratively as synonymous. In this Jan. 2023 blog, we will see more on how this relates to the Great Pyramid, along with Jesus as the King’s Son. We will begin with some related comments and word studies below for further study, on Josh. 10 & Hab. 3 from our previous blog for context, to see where that leads us…

Habakkuk 3:11:
The sun and moon stood still in their habitationAt the light of Your arrows they went,
At the shining of Your glittering spear.

Sun and moonstand still’ on high (ʿāmad zəbūlâ) / as Your arrows fly in brightness, Your flashing spear in brilliance.” The connection between this poetic source in the book of Habakkuk and the story of the miracle in the book of Joshua is clear and has been accepted by many interpreters throughout the ages.21 However, the syntax of the first line of the verse and the meaning of the word zəbūlâ posed major problems for them.22 Zəbūl in this verse is usually interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god.23 The noun zəbūl appears four times in the Bible in addition to this passage in Habakkuk.24 In Isa 63:15, it clearly refers to a place high in the heavens where God usually dwells and from which He looks down on the earth. This is similar to one of the meanings of the Ugaritic term zbl; sometimes interpreted as the throne of a divine being in the heavens.25 The construction bêth zəbūl appears in Solomon’s speech at the temple’s dedication in 1 Kings 8:13 and its parallel in 2 Chr 6:2, 26 In this speech, scholars distinguish two parts: the first part, consisting of the opening two verses, 12–13, in which the construct bêth zəbūl appears; and the second, longer part, comprising the remainder of the speech from verse 14 to verse 53. 1

The authors continue with comments related to King Solomon’s building the first Temple to the true God, with the “additional words in the Greek text that constitute the first colon of a parallelism, with “The LORD has said that he would dwell in thick darkness” (v. 12) constituting the second cola. This extra line in the LXXSeptuagint includes added information that can contribute meaningfully to our topic, since it includes a reference to the sun: “Then Solomon said [concerning the house when he finished building it: He (the LORD) revealed the sun in the sky;] 28 the Lord has chosen to abide in thick clouds.” This shows that bêth zəbūl in the next verse corresponds to the place in the sky where the sun dwells. 2

Plate 1. Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405. 3

The solar eclipse of 1405 BC with the blue band showing the zone of totality. 

In our previous Nov. 2022 blog we presented evidence for the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day as a Total Solar eclipse, specifically the solar eclipse of July 14th, 1405 BC, visible over Canaan. We will expand on this idea in this study, especially the idea linked to the Hebrew words for the “Sun and Moonstand still’ on high (ʿāmad zəbūlâ) in Josh. 10:12 and Hab. 3:11. The comment above in  reference to “Zəbūl in this verse usually interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god,” is an idea we will expand on, in light of Scripture and Hebrew culture. In Jewish life, the Tabernacle and Temple embodied the center of their spiritual and social life activities. This sanctuary and Holy place where the people interacted with Priests and Prophets, that ministered to the Almighty in the Holy of Holies, responding to the oracles of God’s Covenant with Israel, also included the King, and whether or not his administration followed the godly ordinances, doing good or evil in God’s sight, fits with Zəbūl above being interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god. What is interesting is the link to the Sun and Moon here, since the state of light or darkness was dependent on how the king ruled to uphold God’s Covenant for Israel.

It is interesting that Christ as the King of kings embodies the light of God as the apex of the royal line, and consummation of the kings of Israel in the Davidic Dynasty as the Lion of Judah. As Mal. 4:2 statesBut unto you that fear My Name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his wingsrefers to Jesus Christ, who embodied more of God’s names than any other. In this light, we will investigate the references to the king’s coronation process, and their implications below, as found in the records in Kings & Chronicles.

This is consistent with a comparison of this verse to Josh 10:13: zəbūl in Hab 3:11 seems to parallel the “midheaven” (ḥaṣî haššāmayim) in Joshua.30 The second part of the speech expresses a clear underlying view that the earthly temple is not intended to be the dwelling place of God, but only the place where His name dwells.31 As explained in detail in the speech, people will pray to God facing the earthly temple in Jerusalem, and God will hear their prayer from His dwelling in heaven.32 The concept of zəbūl as a divine place in the heavens is found in a non-biblical scroll from Qumran in which “the holy zəbūl (of God)” is the place of the angels33 and the location from which the two great luminaries come. 4

Echoes of the view that the sun has a home are found in the Bible; See Ps 19:5–7. The root bwʾ, “come,” refers to the disappearance of the sun over the western horizon, and the root yṣʾ, “go out,” refers to its appearance in the east (Gen 19:23; Judg 5:31; Isa 13:10). That is also the “location” of the sun in Eccl 1:5, as rising and setting points on the Horizon. It may even be that gebūrātô, “its might,” in “the sun precisely, the entry of the sun god into his heavenly palace, means that the sun has gone dark. [under the earth at night] This can also represent the collective temple of the Sun/Son of God moving on the ecliptic through the 12 Houses/Tribes/ Apostles of Israel as the head/apex and capstone of the Great Pyramid. [See Figs 1 & 3 below]

The word zebul/zebula is interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god,
it is fitting Biblically that bêth zəbūl appears in Solomon’s speech at the Temple’s dedication in Jerusalem in 1 Kings 8:13, 27, 42. As a reflection and earthly representation of God’s true temple in Heaven, it embodies the physical and spiritual light of God, the Father of Lights for all Creation, the main two being the Sun and Moon. The interrelation between these primary two sources of light on earth is witnessed in the eclipse cycle, which is the subject of Joshua’s Long Day, also in Hab. 3:11. The Word study below includes the main related roots alongside dom, of amad H59755976amad,
5977omed, and H5982-ammud. We will start with Scriptural references of amad H5975, as follows;

The word translated stand still in [Josh. 10:12-13Hab. 3:11 is amad H5975prime root to stand, lit./fig. trans & intrans. also abide, appoint, arise, cease, confirm, continue, dwell, endure, estab. leave, make ordain, be over, place, present one, raise up, remain, repair, set forth, settle over, settle up, stand; by, firm, fast, still, stay, tarry.]  31:17 ‘are these evils not on us because our God is not among us?’-as in our day… TODAY! Josh 3:16- the waters of Jordan parted [stood up] so Israel could walk into the Promised Land. Josh. 11:13. A. To stand before a king, ie. serve, minister; Gen. 41:46,-Joseph serving Pharaoh as Grand Vizier. Deut. 1:38, Joshua, who stood beforeserved Moses with Caleb as the only two who entered the Promised Land, from the wilderness; I Kgs. 1:28, 10:8, Dan. 1:4-5, minister to Jehovah, used of Prophets, I Kgs. 17:1, 18:15, Jer. 15:19, Judg. 20:28, Ps. 134:1, a Psalm of Degrees. Levi18:23a. Princes of the 12 tribes set over anyone-used of men; Gen. 24:303141:17, [in Pharoah’s dream interpreted by Joseph, He stood upon the riverbank…out of which came the 7 cattle] and inanimate things, Num. 7:2, b. confide in anyone, Stand by or defend one, as by Michael, the ArchangelDan. 12:1-4, Esth. 8:11, 9:16. The Jews stood unified vs. Haman’s genocide plot2. to Stand For, Stand Firm, remain, endureStehen bleiben, Ps. 33:11, Jehovah’s decrees stand forever, Ps. 102:25-27, the heavens shall perish, but God remains, Ex. 18:23, Amos 2:15, Hos. 10:9, Esth. 3:4-6, Stand firm in battle before anyone. Josh. 21:44, there stood not a man of all their enemies before them. 23:9, Ecc. 4:12, Dan. 11:8, 15, 25. Persist, persevere in anything. Ecc. 8:3,
To be constituted, set, appointed, Ezr. 10:14, let our rulers be appointed.

To desist from anything, leave off, Gen. 29:35, 30:9. 4. To Stand up, arise, Dan. 12:1, 13, a new prince; AC, Dan. 8:23, 25, 11:2, 3, 20, Ecc. 4:15, of war springing up, 1 Chron. 20:4, rise up against anyone, Dan. 11:14, 1Chron. 21:1, Satan stood up against Israel to provoke David to do a census of the population. Levi. 19:16 No Talebearing5.  Dan. 11:31. A/C in AntiochusactionsHiphil, a. Cause to stand, Ps. 31:9, Ezek. 33:26,-[take your stand leaning upon your swords, the posture taken by Necromancers waiting for the rites, of witchcraft. Isa. 47:12, marginal Bull-note]. Ezek. 13:5-7, False Prophets of Israel didn’t resist or stand firm. Ps. 76:8, 130:3; a Psalm of the degrees, 147:17, Nah. 1:68, [Nahum served c. 603 BC in Hezekiah’s 14th year of living the prophecy of the 15 years added to his life, prior to the eclipse over Nineveh preceding Jonah-possibly relating to Nah. v.8 darkness pursuing their enemies?

The sea becomes tranquil, Jon. 1:15, cp. 2 Kgs 4:6; miracle oil in the cruse endured for the widow. Levi 14:11-20. Priest presented [caused to stand] the leper to be cleansed before the Lord @ the door of Tabernacle of Congregation, w/proper offerings for his cleansing & atonement. Fig. to decree, 2 Chron. 30:5, 33:8; to destine/promise anyone, impose a law on anyone, Neh. 10:33, Seat in office or function: 1 Kgs. 12:32, made priests of the lowest of the people. I Chron. 15:16. David speaks to the Chief Levites to appoint musicians like Asaph in the Temple service. 2. To cause to stand firm, establish, endure, preserve, 1 Kgs. 15:4, 2 Chron. 9:8, Prov. 29:4, to confirm; 2 Chron. 35:2, Dan. 11:14, confirm the vision by the event. 3. Stand Still, 2 Chron. 18:34, 4. Raise, to set up as idols; 2 Chron. 33:19, a house, Ezr. 2:68, 9:9, to repair the wall and house of the Lord. to arouse, stir up, Neh. 6:7, Dan. 11:11, 13. Hophal; to be set, placed, Levi 16:10, the goat on which the lot fell… to remain, 1 Kgs. 22:35.

 2Kgs. 23:3, the king stood by a pillar in the 10 steps of his coronation at the entrance of the TempleEzek. 17:14, Keep, stand by the Covenant, Ex. 9:28-remain in same place, or state both people or things, Levi. 13:5, 37, Jer. 32:14, 48:11, Dan. 10:17, 11:6. Stay amongst the living, Ex. 21:21. 3. Stillstehn, stand Still, stop, 1 Sam. 20:38, used of the sun standing still in its course; Josh. 10:13, Deut. 31:15, God in the cloudy Pillar, appeared over the Tabernacle door. 31:17 ‘are these evils not on us as our God is not among us?’6     

[5976amad=shake, be at a stand.] Ezek. 29:7 thou have made all their loins to shake, cp. Ps. 69:23. The context of Ezek. 29:2-ff is Pharaoh of Egypt, the great dragon/crocodile of the Nile who invaded and captured Gaza, [Jer 47:1] Bullinger says Pharaoh Hophra called Apries by the Greeks, who also hit Zidon in assault and battled the Prince of Tyre on the Sea [Herodotus ii, 161, 169] cp. 2 Kgs. 24:7, Jer. 46:2, battle of Carchamesh 37:5-8. Egypt thus caused Jerusalem’s destruction. [Jer. 44:30, 46:25-26.] Ezek. 29:4 uses the same language here describing Leviathan in Job as Cetus the decan of the sea monster, and Rahab=Egypt in Isa. 51:9-16, 30:7, the strength of Egypt is to sit still. Ps. 74: 13-14. As Israel under Zedekiah relied on Egyptian support which faltered [Ezek. 29:6-7] making their loins to come to a standstill, shake or “be a stand“=this usage of [H5976amad]. God divided the sea by His strength, breaking the heads of dragons in the waters, the heads of Leviathan in pieces… see Job 40-41, Hislop p. 293 talks of this Pharaoh as the embanker of the Nile.  7

In light of the astronomical meanings of the root ʿāmad (see below, section 4.2), if we read zəbūlâ in Hab. 3:11as it is vocalized in the Masoretic Text,43 the verse can be understood in its plain sense, without any need for emendations: the moon in its orbit went—unexpectedly—into the orbit of the sun and made it go dark. With the little light that remained on the earth, the flying arrows and the heads of the spears appeared to the soldiers to shine like the glow of stars. As explained below (section 4.4), observers can distinguish both the sun and the moon covering it only during an annular solar eclipse.8 [or a total solar eclipse seen through the overcast skies that spawned the hailstorm of Josh. 10:11

Thus, the aspect of darkness of dôm is directed primarily to the sun, which stopped shining in the middle of the day, while the aspect of cessation refers primarily to the moon, which appears as if it were “standing in front of the sun, as explained in verse 13, “And the sun went dark/halted, And the moon stood (still).” Other scholars, beginning in the 1940s, arrived at the conclusion that the two verbs used in this descriptiondôm and ʿāmād, express an unexpected cessation of the sun’s illumination and not the sun’s halting in its heavenly orbit,55 a result arrived at by various Jewish  commentators in the Middle Ages. The interpretation of the root dwm/dmm as a cessation of the sun’s illumination accords with one of the meanings of the root, which sometimes refers to the (usually sudden and unexpected) cessation of something from its natural, designated activity, as, for example, in Jer 47:6, in which the sword is asked to stop slaying, and in 1 Sam 14:9—in a parallel to ʿāmād, as in our verse—where it refers to non-participation in a battle.56 The same is true of ʿāmad, primarily with the preposition m-, as in Gen 30:9, where it refers to Leah’s ceasing
to bear children.57] 9

Later, J.F.A. Sawyer58 also interpreted the biblical description as a solar eclipse and suggested identifying it with the eclipse that occurred on September 30, 1131 BCE. He interpreted dôm as “stillness,” meaning that the sun ceased to shine. He explained the word ʿāmād and the clausedid not press, [or proceed] to set a whole day…10

[5977omed=a spot as being fixed, stood upright, from [H5975]. 2 Chron. 34:31, a place, where one stands, as King Josiah stood on his platform, Dan. 8:17-18. 11 H5982-Ammud also occurs in I Kgs. 7:2, cloudy pillar, Ex. 33:9-10, God’s presence [v.14] in the cloudy pillar at the Tabernacle door  to talk with Moses face-to-face, like the pillar of fire at night in [Ex. 13:22, 40:34-38]. Also used of pillars of heaven in Job 26:11 and pillars of the earth, Job 9:6. [2.] a Platform or scaffold; 2 Kgs. 11:14, 23:3. There is conjecture in the meaning of this pillar or column [H5982-ammud= Judg. 16:25-26, The pillars upon which the temple of Dagon of the Philistines standeth [H3559-kuwn= w/o God no human line is perpetuated, Isa. 9:6, Ps. 89:37, Judg. 16:26, 29]; that Samson was set between that he leaned on before destroying this temple w/ worshippers] God guarantees a kingship by establishing His Sanctuary among His people; Ex. 15:17, Isa. 2:2]. 12

2 Chron. 34:31-33
31 Then the king stood in his place and made a covenant before the Lord, to follow the Lord, and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of the covenant that were written in this book32 And he made all who were present in Jerusalem and Benjamin take a stand. So the inhabitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of God, the God of their fathers. 33 Thus Josiah removed all the abominations from all the country that belonged to the children of Israel, and made all who were present in Israel diligently serve the Lord their GodAll his days they did not depart from following the Lord God  of their fathers.

The teaching of this “place” where the King stood is at least two-fold, first being a physical place or platform, where he stood. Secondly, the spiritual foundation of his standing. King Josiah was a reformer who returned the kingdom of Israel to the precepts of righteousness, within God’s Covenant. We will look into this in greater detail below, in our study of 2Kgs. 23:3 and the king’s coronation record. The King’s coronation was always held in the temple, served by the prophets and priests who ministered in the ordination and installment of the King according to godly standards, as we find in the installment of King Josiah. It will help to understand better the celestial/astronomical implications of these temple pillars, for context.

A key aspect of the Temple layout regards the two large Brass Pillars at the entrance of the Temple at Jerusalem, and their relation to the Pi ratio. They are described in I Kings 7:13-15 below.

1 Ki 7:13 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. [14] He was a widow’s son of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass: and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work. [15] For he cast two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits high apiece: and a line of twelve cubits did compass either of them about.

The word for “line” in verse 15 above indicates a line for measuring, thus a closer look at these brass pillars is called for. The Pi ratio has long been considered transcendental number, or constant of  mathematics (3.14159…), linking a straight diameter to a curved circumference. The archaeologist and mathematician Charles Funk-Hellet points out that:

“Solomon had Hiram contribute to building a temple whose brass columns were 18 cubits high, and 12 cubits around. In other words, one cubit equaled the twelfth part of the circumference of the arc of 30 degrees, or pi/6. By subtracting the circumference from the height, they obtained 6 cubits in a straight line, which was equal to 1/2 the circumference, or the exact value of pi; so that 1000 years before Christ the Hebrews knew that a cubit was a mathematical entity dependent on the circumference, and were able to resolve pi to four points of decimal.” 13 

Figure 1. Pi ratio applied to the circle of 12 signs or Constellations of the ecliptic.

Funk-Hellet’s observation that: “By subtracting the circumference from the height, they obtained 6 cubits in a straight line, which was equal to 1/2 circumference, or the exact value of pi/6.…“ is worth noting when we come to the subject of the celestial symbolism of the Menorah, and its application of pi, building on what we have found here. Funk-Hellet goes on to say that: “the Biblical cubit is equal to the Egyptian Royal cubit, that was incorporated into the Jerusalem Temple as pi/6, or 523.6 mm. Using one unit of measure as the radius of a circle, the ancients found the trigonometric value of 30 degrees to be pi/6, (that divided the full circumference of the circle into 12 equal parts, as the 12 signs of the zodiac are divided into 12/30 degree segments) and was the value of the royal cubit, or .5236 of the unit used: 3.1416/6= .5236“ 14 (parenthesis & emphasis mine)

Figure 2. Solomon’s Temple with Brass Pillars at the Entrance. 15

Brass Pillars at the Entrance of Solomon’s Temple

In effect, we have an architectural representation of the twelve-fold division of the heavens preserved in the dimensions of the Temple’s Brass columns, all based on the mathematical standard Pi, long before most modern scientists imagined the ancients knew anything about Pi at this level of accuracy. This provides more evidence showing the Creator’s perfect wisdom and Nature’s Great Geometer, at work in the dimensions of His Temple, as an illustration of heavenly realities [Heb. 8:5], which He gave to King  David by revelation. Also symbolically contained in the dimensions of the Temple’s brass columns, is a figure of 12 calendar months of 30 days, totaling the 360 days of their year, a calendar also used going all the way back to Noah’s time, in the context of the 360-degrees of the ecliptic. This reveals a true origin of the 12 – 30° segments of the ecliptic, as a standard celestial measure, and also reveals the Pi ratio at the root of the Hebrew Calendar matching the 360 degrees of the circle with the 360 days of the year on the Calendar of the Biblical Patriarchs. And since Noah was already 600 years old when the Bible records the details of his luni-solar calendar in Genesis 7, it also implies that it was used by the earlier Biblical Patriarchs prior to the flood, and centuries before history and human science thought this level of sophisticated astronomical timekeeping was in use. For more information on Noah’s Calendar, please check our website link @try-god.com. As we find other Biblical uses of the Hebrew word “qav,” God’s application of the Pi concept far exceeds any previous application in human history. Views based on scientific Materialism will never account fully for the realities of God’s Creation. Only from the Creator’s viewpoint in His Word, and the Works of His Hands, do these applications of pi make sense. Only He could apply pi to the ecliptic and the dimensions of planet Earth, an idea borne out in greater detail, in how pi is symbolically and architecturally appliednot only in the Hebrew Tabernacle and Temple, but moreso in the Great Pyramid, [Fig. 3, below]. Since the pattern shown to Moses for the Tabernacle was by divine revelation, just as the Temple’s pattern was shown to King David, these men of God did not calculate the blueprints for these sacred edifices, or their related measurements, by scientific trial and error. Thus, they didn’t need to wait centuries on the Greeks-like Archimedes, generally considered the greatest of ancient scientists, to rediscover or apply them in divine architecture. Although Archimedes is to be commended for his application of the pi ratio, at his later time in history, respectfully it pales compared to what we find in the Biblical uses of “qav” relating to pi.

Figure 3. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images 16.

Image result for Golden Ratio Great Pyramid of Giza

In Isa. 9:6, one of the great prophecies of the promised seed, it is used of the Messiah as Sar-Shalom, the Prince of Peace, the one who brings peace to all Creation, [Eph. 2:11-18]. The word Sar as the root of saros doubtless linked to the Hebrew word [H8269] of the same spelling, meaning; “ruler, prince captain, chief, leader, head.”17 The word retained this meaning even in modern usage, as in the Tsar of all the Russias. As a witness linking to the roots of very early human language, Aesar is a word for “God” in both, Icelandic and Irish, Osar in Egyptian like Osiris was the prince. Even the English word “sir” and the RomanCeasar” are traceable to this root. It is used in Daniel 10:13 & 20, referring the arch-angel Michael who routed the fallen angel (Daimon), opposing the messenger angel that God sent to answer Daniel’s prayer. The meaning of “sar” is Jesus Christ as the Prince of Peace embodies “the sum of creation, as the prince of Creation.” The most important date on the calendar of Israel then becomes the birthday of Jesus Christ on New Years Day, Tishri 1, 3 BC. Because the Hebrew calendar was lunar based [saros] as to the start of its months, the coordination of the lunar and solar cycles set the basis for the signs marking the birth of Christ. “With every 19 solar years plus 2 hours, the Sun and Moon return to meet each other at the same appointed time and place in the sky. The saros, however being an eclipse lunar cycle, consists of 19 eclipse years, which is only 18 solar years plus eleven days. An eclipse year consists of 346.62 solar days, which is equal to 11.738 full moons. When we divide the saros by 11.738, we get 1.618, (or phi), accurate to 4 digits!”18 This shows us a comparison between 2 lunar cycles (eclipse years & full moons) that harmonize according to the phi ratio. Since the Sun intersects a lunar Node two times every 346.62-day eclipse year, we see how the solar and lunar cycles might also be linked by the phi proportion. As we consider the Calendar of Israel, which unified the luni-solar cycles according to phi, in concert with Israel’s sacred fifty-year cycle of Jubilees, the impact of this pattern in the Natural Order is evident, since there are 618 full Moons in any given 50-year Jubilee cycle.

According to Hislop, The Chaldean version of this word: Zer, meaning “to encompass” gives us not only the English basis for; “Zero signified by a circle among the Chaldeans,” but also Zero; “the seed.”19 It further relates to the Hebrew word “zera” [H2233], used referring to the promised seed in Genesis 3:15. To this end the Chaldean word for the “woman’s promised seed” was Zero-ashta, that also formed the basis of the name Zoroaster. We should note here that the Zoroastrian writings in the Zend-Avesta predicted the return of Zoroaster as a Messianic savior who would renew all existence in preparation for the Last Judgment. These references to the woman’s promised seed point directly to the general sign of the Celestial Prelude. Hislop also notes:

 “In many nations, not only was a great god known under the name of Zero or Zer; the seed, and a great goddess under the name of Ashta or Ishta; the woman, but the great god Zero is frequently characterized by some epithet which implies that he is The only One.”20

This evidence provides a strong basis for a direct correlation to Coma, the seed as the desired of the nations, [Hab. 2:7] especially when we view the supernova in this child’s head, as the promised seed, pictured in the woman’s lap in the decan of Coma, as the general sign of the Celestial Prelude. Hislop goes on to say: “As he who by the Chaldeans was regarded as the great Seed was looked upon as the Sun incarnate, and as the emblem of the Sun was a circle, the hieroglyphic relation between zero; “the circle,” and zero; ‘the seed‘ was easily established.”21

The Maya were also familiar with the concept of zero long before it reached Europe through India and the Arab traders. They used a shell shape to symbolize zero, but to them “it was not a symbol for nothing; but it represented completion and the seed from which all could be derived.”22

From the information above we can see related cultural connotations for Sar-zero in the sun, embodied as the promised “great seed” [Mal. 4:2], the ecliptic upon which the sun travels [Psalm 19:4-6], in its course, moon (saros), and the “encompassing” circle, in spite of being separated by culture and time. The history of “zero” from a mathematical viewpoint is interesting in this light, because the Arabs, from whom we have taken it, got it from the Chaldeans. In our modern usage, zero is the absence of quantity, the point where a continuous function changes its sign from positive to negative [or from the physical to spiritual] as in, for example, zeropoint energy Physics. From a Biblical viewpoint, this transition between the physical and spiritual realms is embodied in Jesus Christ who is the crown of Creation. As the Word made flesh, seated at the right hand of God at the utmost peak of the cosmos, Jesus gives mankind our only access to the true spiritual side of life that arches over our physical “reality,” [II Cor. 4:18]. As the ideal man and mediator, he embodies the relationship between all humanity on Earth and our Heavenly Father. This becomes more interesting when we consider that, according to ancient Sumerian myth, Sar also symbolized the totality of the cosmos. The Sumerian conception of this was dual, meaning there was an upper totality called An-Sar, and a lower totality known as Ki-Sar. “An” meant heaven, and “Ki” meant Earth to the Sumerians, who believed that originally these two were unified in one place, until circumstances demanded that Earth be set aside for humanity in its fallen state. The Sar was the prince who would once again unify these disparate aspects of Creation resulting from the temptation and fall of man. As we consider the Sumerian cosmos, we find the ancient concept of a layered Celestial Sphere within the great circle of An-Sar that encompasses the lesser ellipses or pillars of the eclipticEquator, the planetaryearthly and lunar orbits.

As the high priest after the order of Melchisedek, Jesus inherits his double square breastplate of 12 precious stones, symbolizing the authority of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah as Priest-King over Israel’s 12 [4 x 3] tribes [Ex. 28:15-30]. Keeping with the celestial symbolism theme, the breastplate, was designed with a niche holding the Urim and Thummim, or lights and perfections; representing the two great lights of the Sun and Moon. As oracles of the High Priest, these two stones revealed the wisdom and glory of the Creator, even as the movements of the Sun and Moon in the sky declare God’s glory [Ps. 19:1]. We find more references to these 12 stones and their variants in the living stones of I Pet. 2:4-7

Another element in understanding the celestial/astronomical implications of these temple pillars, includes the astronomy of the birth of Christ. This is a natural progression from the Kings of Israel, starting with King David and the Davidic Dynasty leading to the promised seed and King of Kings, the apex of this royal spiritual line in Jesus Christ.

Other notable researchers have acknowledged the correlation of Rosh Hashanah not only at the Birth of Christ on Sept. 11th, 3 BC, but also as his birth relates to his victorious return as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, with the Rev. 12 heavenly birth signs replaying in 2017 and beyond, in light of the Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy of the Great Pyramid. The principal on the Signs of the End web- site isDaniel Matson, @[http://watchfortheday.org/signsoftheend/giza2024.html]. 23

He broached this topic with the question; “Could Rosh Hashanah be the real factor? His basic idea is  that the pyramid complex is a map of the heavens of a point in time when Christ returns. The pyramids show what is to be at meridian (Al Nitak in Orion), taking into account the causeways heading east from the pyramids, showing the importance of the rising sun or other items rising in the east. That the Sphinx also looks to the east is a factor as well. The point though was to see when a candidate for an alignment of Rosh Hashanah and the meridian alignment of Orion at dawn.”24

An earlier version of this was realized in the Great Pyramid’s Rosh Hashanah alignment of 2017,

As we have posted in numerous blog studies, the heavenly signs marking the birth of Christ seen in Rev12 will also mark his victorious return, and we have documented how the heavenly signs in the 2014-2015 Blood Moon Tetrad and the signs leading up to the 2017 fall equinox, established this truth. However, the 2017 alignment was not alone as a possible marker for Christ’s Return. The next alignment of this type is coming in 2028, when dates for Rosh Hashanah may match the sky picture of signs as described in Rev. 12. In 2017 Matson showed a key relationship between the Christ Angle of the Great Pyramid and the Rosh Hashanah date starting-sundown on Sept. 20th-21st, 2017, two days before the Feast of Trumpets on 9-23-2017. As Matson said, “this was the first year from when he marked Rosh Hashanah coming immediately after Sept20th—the time Al Nitak hits the meridian precisely at dawnand also when Regulus hits the Christ angle.”25 Thus, the Christ angle not only bisects Bethlehem as a prophecy of Christ’s birth, but it also bisects Regulus as in 2017, at this point in time again in 2028, as a potential time of his Return.

The Sept. 20th alignment of Venus-Regulus related to the Great Pyramid, is seen in Fig. 4 below.

Figure 4. Great Pyramid Passage Alignments on Rosh Hashanah 2017. 26

Signs of the End – The Oracle in Stone

Here the passages of the Great Pyramid according to the Christ Angle, map out the signs of the
Celestial Sphinx, as Regulus and Venus are aligned in Leo the Lion, while Jupiter is in Virgo.

The first clincher here is that on Rosh Hashanah-2017Venus the bright and Morning Star is in
conjunction with Regulus at dawn, aligned with the Christ Angle, visible above the horizon. Second, below the horizon is Jupiter–called the “scepter” in [Num. 24:17], as King planet of the Jews, is positioned equi-distant via the Christ angle to Regulus & Venus above the horizon. The dawn VenusRegulus union reminds us of the testimony of the Apostle Peter;

2 Peter 1:19-21
And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark placeuntil the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts; knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

In Fig. 5 below the Christ angle in the Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid is aligned with the Venus-Regulus union in Leo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah. The key note here is the star Regulus, the brightest star on the ecliptic, is located at the heart of Leo, and when this glorious dawn of the sixth administration breaks, the Morning Star Jesus Christ arises in our hearts, enlightening us for eternal glory, as we are raptured with Christ to God’s own right hand, forever. The 2nd part of this Pyramid alignment on Rosh Hashanah, when Al Nitak hits the meridian precisely at dawn,  extending through the Pyramid’s apex, to the star Al Nitak on Orion’s Belt. The apex and chief cornerstone of the Great Pyramid itself is also the subject of numerous messianic prophecies [Ps. 118: 22] where the stone rejected by the builders has become head of the corner, or the chief cornerstone. This 5th cornerstone of the Great Pyramid sits atop the superstructure of the Great Pyramid, unifying the four cornerstones at the Pyramid’s base, into the spiritual body of Christ’s Church, [Eph. 2:20]. This would activate the celestial image of the Great Pyramid, to unify the capstone with the body of the Great Pyramid, as a prophecy of Christ’s return FOR his saints.

The Almighty has provided many examples from History and Nature, not to mention countless Biblical miracles confirming His Prophetic Word, in the dual witness of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy, of the Great Pyramid providing excellent depictions of this verse with Venus the Morning Star aligned in the King Star Regulus at dawn on Rosh Hashanah, Sept. 21st, 2017, according to the measures of the Great Pyramid’s Ascending/ Descending passages, [Fig. 5 below]. If indeed these heavenly signs are pointing to The Dawn of The Day of the Lord’s Return FOR his Saints in 2028, then it will truly be the dawn of a New Day and Age of Everlasting Righteousness in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Figure 5. The Great Pyramid’s Ascending Passage alignment with the Venus-Regulus union in Leo, 9-20-2017.  27

This view of the prophecy of the Great Pyramid in its Ascending and Descending Passage angles agrees with what Scriptures say about the witness of the Great Pyramid in Isaiah 19:19-20. What is evident from this graphic [Fig. 4] is the key role of the planets Jupiter and Venus in marking the Birth and 2nd Coming of the Lord. Historically, ancient Pyramid researchers have made key observations concerning the dimensions and symbolism of the only ancient world wonder still intact. Scholars from Herodotus to Agatharchides oCnidus in the 2nd Cent. BC, emphasized mathematical and geometric principles governing the building and conception of the Pyramid complex on the Giza Plateau, as opposed to their specific measures. A modern scholar, Livio Stechini in analyzing the past work of Pyramid researchers, has focused on the meridian triangle of the Great Pyramid, which provided precise values of both the Pi and Phi ratios, in the four triangular faces of the Great Pyramid. Agatharchides found dimensions for two of the meridian sections of the Pyramid based on Pi, with the other 2 triangle sections based on Phi.28 As we may recall from our High School Geometry class, Pi resolved the circle’s relationship between its diameter and circumference. In Sacred Geometry, a spiritual view of geometric principles is held, where the Circle symbolizes the Eternal Creator [Elohim], while the Diameter embodies God as Jehovah in relationship with His Creation. Jehovah is seen reaching out to humanity in His only begotten Son, where Jesus as the diameter line, links the centerpoint; [Mancreation] to the Creator seen as the eternal Circle, outside of Creation. So Christ is the perfect mediator between God and Man, [I Tim. 2:5].

Rosh ha-Shanah on Tishri 1, was the “head” of the Judean calendar as New Year’s day and Jesus’ birth-day, the first day of the 50year Hebrew cycle of Jubilees. This set a foundational temporal pattern of the seasons, holidays and feasts of Israel’s sacred calendar.

During the “Great Wonder” of Rev. 12:1, the feet of the woman, Virgo fall at the intersection of the ecliptic and the Celestial Equator, which is also known as the autumnal equinox, one of the so-called four pillars of heaven,” the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon. This celestial point was generally marked on the Hebrew calendar by the Feast of Tabernacles, which occurred later during this Sabbath of Months. V.P. Wierwille refers to the significance of Tishri 1 the seventh month, with the following:

 “Just as age was reckoned from Tishri 1 to Tishri 1, so were the regnal years of Judean Kings. The blowing of trumpets of Rams Horns was also part of the coronation ceremony of these Judean Kings.” 29

We find added evidence for this in the star cycle of Sirius, as a symbol embodying a dual-nature of the Morning Star. Its fallen archaic nature is seen in Lucifer, the first Morning Star [Isa. 14:12], while the risen nature is seen in Christ [Rev. 22:16]. This becomes more intriguing when we look at aspects of the stellar mythos of the star cycles of Sirius A & B, of the African tribe called the Dogon.

The Dogon celestial mythology says the cycle of SiriusB,” a White Dwarf companion star in joint orbit with SiriusA“, is a 50-year cycle, a fact verified by modern astronomers. Thus, it is instructive to see how half the fifty-year cycle of Sirius B exhibits the luni-solar kinship inherent in the 50-year cycle of Hebrew Jubilees, according to the golden section, or phi ratio. This key to the celestial coordination of the luni-solar cycle, along with the star cycle of Sirius as the three main calendars referred to in Gen. 1:14-16. Since the sidereal Sirius year, or Sothic Calendar as the Greeks called it, requires a highly advanced knowledge of the heavens, capable of selecting the lone star in the sky that dictates a year-365¼ days long, we find more support for these advanced astronomical practices about 1000+ years prior to Abraham, in ancient Egypt.

Although the historical correlation of the 50-year Jubilee and the 50-year Sothic cycle is unsettled, we have seen the Jubilee cycle is central to the timing of Christ’s birth, and stands out in the celestial events making up the great wonder of Rev. 12. According to Schwaller de Lubicz, who broke down the 50-year Sothic cycle into two 25 year cycles: says a twenty-five year cycle corresponds to 309 lunations. The calculations are:

25 x 365 = 9125 days, and
9125 = 29.5307 days per lunation in 309 lunations

This in itself reveals extremely accurate observations. Modern Astronomy reckons the lunation as 29.53059 days, a difference of about a second. But Schwaller de Lubicz notes the intriguing equivalence of twenty-five years to 309 lunar months. 309 = (Ø -1 x 1000 and its choice as the number determining the cycle cannot have been accidental.                                   2

Ø – 1 x 1000.)=618.  A double cycle comprising 50 years; expresses the Golden Section. 30 
            2

Thus the inception of Jesus’ reign as King of Kings is marked on his birthday of Tishri 1, the “Day of Trumpets.” The significance of the king’s coronation tied to Rosh Hashannah, New Year’s Day and the head of Israel’s calendar, is that Christ is the King of Kings presiding over all temporal, civil and sacred matters as the King-High Priest of Israel. Thus, his birth on this key day of the calendar was foreordained by God, from before the foundations of the world. An example of this coronation tradition in the kingdom of Israel can be seen in II Kings 11:

2 Kings 11:12-14
And he brought forth the king’s son, and put the crown upon him, and gave him the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king. [13] And when Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she came to the people into the temple of the Lord. [14] And when she looked, behold, the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets: and Athaliah rent her clothes, and cried, Treason, Treason.

The figure Polysyndetyn is evident in 2 Kings above as seen with the use of manyands” separating the steps of the king’s coronation, starting with bringing forth the king’s son in v. 12, and concluding with the blowing of trumpets, and Athalia tearing her clothes and crying Treason as the 13th step of rebellion in v.14, resulting in her death.

The chronological alignment that we are recognizing with regards to the regnal years of Judean kings,  calculated from New Years Day, Rosh ha-Shanah on the Hebrew Calendar, from Tishri 1 to Tishri 1, that coincides with the birthday of Jesus Christ is established in a celestial coronation ceremony of the promised seed, with the triple planetary union of Jupiter-Regulus following Christ’s birth in  BC. In the Book of Kings, Jesus is the King’s son, in the Red Thread title, that unveils each book in God’s Word according to the ministry of Christ. These steps recorded in the king’s coronation here in II Kings 11:12-14, start with the king being brought forth, the ninth of which is “the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was.” Verse 13 above notes that the coronation ceremony took place in the Temple of the Lord, which is logical since the king was ordained and anointed of God. Below we find the celestial rendition of Christ’s Coronation, with the first of 3 unions of Jupiter, the King planet and Regulus the king star, in 3-2 BC. In Fig. 6 below, the path of Jupiter from Sept. 3 BC to Nov. 2 BC is depicted as Jupiter crowns Regulus. This involves the coordination of the luni-solar, planetary and star cycles all synched in honor of the prophesied appearance of the promised seed, God’s only begotten Son, Jesus Christ, the King of kings.

Fig. 6. The Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Regulus on Sept. 14th 3 BC. 31

In the Astronomy of the Birth of Christ, we also found a series of at least 7 lunar occultations of Regulus, signifying the serpent’s efforts to obstruct the purposes of God in the time of Christ’s birth. There is evidence that these lunar activities marked the workings of the serpent’s seed in bringing about death and destruction. This dark lunar symbolism relates to the Moon’s eclipse cycle resulting in the recurrent lapse of the Sun’s life-giving light. In the final analysis however, persecution by the adversary does not directly hinder the movement of God’s Word, it only will ultimately assist in its abundant dispersion.

II Chronicles 23:3-11 shows us this record in greater detail.
3 Then all the assembly made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said to them,“Behold, the king’s son shall reign, as the Lord has said of the sons of DavidThis is what you shall do: One-third of you entering on the Sabbath, of the priests and the Levites, shall be keeping watch over the doors one-third shall be at the king’s house; and one-third at the Gate of the Foundation. All the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LordBut let no one come into the house of the Lord except the priests and those of the Levites who serve. They may go in, for they are holy; but all the people shall keep the watch of the LordAnd the Levites shall surround the king on all sides, every man with his weapons in his hand; and whoever comes into the house, let him be put to death. You are to be with the king when he comes in and when he goes out.”

So the Levites and all Judah did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded. And each man took his men who were to be on duty on the Sabbath, with those who were going off duty on the Sabbath; for Jehoiada the priest had not dismissed the divisions. And Jehoiada the priest gave to the captains of hundreds the spears and the large and small shields which had belonged to King David, that were in the temple of God. 10 Then he set all the people, every man with his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, along by the altar and by the temple, all around the king11 And they brought out the king’s son, put the crown on himgave him the [a]Testimony, and made him king. Then Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, “Long live the king!”

Death of Athaliah

12 Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people in the temple of the Lord13 When she looked, there was the king standing by his pillar at the entrance; and the leaders and the trumpeters were by the king. All the people of the land were rejoicing and blowing trumpets, also the singers with musical instruments, and those who led in praise. So Athaliah tore her clothes and said, “Treason! Treason!

2Kgs. 23:3, the king stood by a pillar at the Temple’s entrance in the 13 steps of his coronation. As Ezek17:14, tells us, if the king kept God’s Covenant, the kingdom would stand, explaining why the coronation ceremony was held in the Temple where God’s name dwelt.

2 Chronicles 23:13-15
[13] And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason. 14 And Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds who were set over the army, and said to them, “Take her outside under guard, and slay with the sword whoever follows her.” For the priest had said, “Do not kill her in the house of the Lord.”
15 So they seized her; and she went by way of the entrance of the Horse Gate into the king’s house, and they killed her there.

The Trumpets that accompanied the King’s coronation ceremony on Rosh Hashanah in v.13 above, are very appropriate to the pomp and circumstance of the occasion. There has been conjecture as to the meaning of this pillar or column [H5982-ammud=Judg. 16:25-26, I Kgs. 7:2, pillar of cloud, Ex. 33:9-10, and the pillar of fire in Ex. 13:22. Also used of pillars of heaven in Job 26:11 and pillars of the earth, Job 9:6-7. Job here mentions the earthly pillars in the same breath as the sun not giving its light, along with the stars being sealed up. The earth’s seasons of winter, spring, summer and fall, located at the equinoxes and solstices, are called the earthly pillars. [2.] a Platform or scaffold; where the King stood by his pillar2 Kgs. 11:14, 23:3.

The record in 2 Chron. 23 puts this “pillar at the entering in,” and if the entrance of the temple is meant, it refers to the Temple’s large pillars of brass called Jachin and Boaz. This agrees with the New Bible Dictionary which states: “The entrance to Solomon’s Temple was flanked by 2 huge bronze pillars of key significance, [I Kgs 7:15-22]. They were thought to indicate the divine presence as the pillars of fire and cloud in Ex. 33:9, Deut. 31:15. It was apparently by one of these that the king stood on ceremonial occasions, [2 Kings 23:3, 2 Chron. 23:13].”32

 In II Chron. 34:31, King Josiah stood in his place (H5977omed) and made a covenant before the Lord to keep His commandments. The word translated “place” has the same Hebrew root [H5975amad] as the wordpillar” above.

1 Kings 7:21 And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.

Thus, as the kings of Israel stood in their place, by their pillar in the temple during the king’s
coronation ceremony, so the coronation of the King of kings, seen in the stellar heralding of his birth, was also marked by one of the four celestial pillars of heaven. At this center point in history, near the autumnal equinox, with the Moon at the feet of Virgo, with the setting of the star Spica-Al Zemach, the moments of the birth of Jesus Christ were framed in the heavens. This was followed 3 days later by the first union of a triple planetary coronation with first
Jupiter-Regulus Conjunction in Leo.

Fig. 7. The Scene at Sunset on 9-11-3BC with the Sun in Virgo with the Moon at her Feet.33

jupiter-regulus

This graphic marks the scene described in Rev. 12 with “the woman [Virgo] clothed with the sun, and the Moon at her feet. The Moon also happens to mark the autumnal equinox, with the crossing of the Celestial Equator and the Ecliptic or path of the Sun. This picture represents the view from Jerusalem on Sept. 11th, 3, BC, at sunset at 6:18pm, and moonset at 7:39pm, as the Sun and Moon frame the setting of the Star Spica which marked the birth time of the Messiah Jesus Christ. 34

This reference to the Feasts of Tabernacles and Passover in the pillar’s chapiters dividing the year in half according to the sacred calendar, remind us of the relation of the luni-solar year that is evident in the cycle of Jubilees. The Feast of Tabernacles was the third of the great annual feasts of the Hebrew sacred calendar, beginning on the fifteenth of the month, which was the height of the full Moon. It determined the start, and closed the annual sacred cycle of the Sabbatical year and the agricultural year, while also marking the change of seasons. Coming during the seventh or most sacred month with its Moon at full strength, shows us another stamp of seven in the temporal order of this feast. Edersheim comments on the significance of the number seven in his book The Temple, where he states:

“What the seventh day, or sabbath was to the week, the seventh month seems to have been to the year.” 35

Thus it would follow that, as Pentecost was to Passover in that it followed it by fifty days (7×7+1), so the Jubilee followed in yearsLeviticus 25:8 relates the “seven Sabbaths of years” to the 50th year of the Jubilee, which fell on the Day of Atonement, or the tenth day of the holiest 7th month of Tishri. In the same way that liberty was proclaimed in the Jubilee, throughout all the land and to all its inhabitants [Levi. 25:10], so Jesus set at liberty them that were bruised, while proclaiming the acceptable year of the Lord at the opening of his ministry. This is interesting when we observe that there are thirty Jubilees that bring us from the Exodus to the opening of Christ’s ministry, when opening the scroll to Isa. 61:2, he certified the “acceptable year of the Lord” in a 7-fold prophecy, (Lk. 4:18-21).36 This fits neatly with the truth that in fulfilling the O.T. Law as the embodiment of the Passover male lamb of the first year [Exod. 12:5), Jesus was in the first year of his manhood according to Hebrew reckoning, beginning at 30 years old. During this specific period of 70 weeks; [Dan. 9:24] decreed by God as the period to fulfill this Messianic redemption wherein he ministered to Israel, he was crucified, resurrected, & ascended, exploding the myth that his ministry lasted till he was thirty-three.

In summary, the January Blog of 2023 has illustrated how the potential eclipse of Joshua’s Long Day relates to the luni-solar cycle through the eclipse cycle and even the lunar occultations of Regulus,
to highlight Biblical Astronomy keys of the coronation of the King of kings. Behind it all, we find
God’s mighty Hand guiding us in our search for Biblical truth, continuing to inspire us as we uncover invaluable nuggets along our ultimate path to being seated in Christ at God’s right hand, according to His eternal purposes.

God Bless!

Rene’

 

Footnotes

1. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
2. IBID.
3. Plate 1. Picture Credit, (courtesy of the NASA website)
4. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
5. IBID.
6. Gesenius HebrewChaldee Lexicon- H5975:amad.
7. IBID, 5976amad.
8. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
9. IBID.
10. IBID.
11. Gesenius HebrewChaldee Lexicon- 5977-omed.

12. IBID, H5982-ammud.
13. A History of Pi, p. 16, Petr Beckmann.
14. Secrets of the Great Pyramid,  Peter Thompkins, p. 263
15. Fig. 2, picture credit. Solomon’s Temple with Brass Pillars at the Entrance.
 [alaymanlooksattheword.blogspot.com]
16. Figure 3. picture credit from Bing images; Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza.
17. Strong’s Concordance; H8269-saros, James Strong.
18. Sun, Moon and Earth. Robin Heath, p.28
19. The Two Babylons Hislop, p. 59
20. IBID Hislop, p. 18
21. IBID.
22. Serpent in the Sky J..A. West, p. 94.
23. http://watchfortheday.org/signsoftheend/giza2024.html
24. IBID.
25. IBID.
26. IBID, Signs of the End – The Oracle in Stone.
27. Fig. 5 Picture credit. [endtimesforecaster.blogspot.com]
28. Secrets of the Great Pyramid,  Peter Thompkins, p. 374-375.
29. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, American Christian Press, VP Weirwille
30 Serpent in the Sky J..A. West, ppg. 94-95.
31. Fig. 6 picture credit, Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, p. 61, American Christian Press.
32. New Bible Dictionary, ppg. 544-545, Tyndale House Publishers.
33. Fig. 7 picture credit, Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, p. 70-71, American Christian Press.
34. IBID, p. 70.
35. The Temple.  Alfred Edersheim
36. IBID

 

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Birth of Jesus Christ

Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ


Merry Christmas 2022 Everyone as we recognize the true Reason for the Season!

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During the Holiday Season we always do our best to acknowledge the truth behind the idea of the “Star of Bethlehem,” and its biblical and astronomical significance. This subject represents the roots of the Try-God website and blog research, found in the articles posted on Try-god.com going back 20 years to the early 2000’s. This month we are first posting a recent article linked to the 2020 union of Jupiter and Saturn as it relates to the history of the star of Bethlehem. Secondly, we will repost a number of our studies from the last two decades, regarding the “Birth of Christ” topic, and what I’ve referred to as “The Celestial Prelude” pertaining to the celestial signs preceding Christ’s Birth, that set the foundation for the Magi to recognize these heavenly signs, as they came to pass.

Below is an article that appeared in Astronomy Magazine on Friday, December 18, 2020, that generally aligns with my approach to the Star of Bethlehem. This will serve as an introduction to some of my blog post research that follows, on various aspects of this subject. In fact, the last of my links listed below deals with the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Dec. 2020, which is the subject of this article from
Astronomy Magazine, below.

 The Star of Bethlehem: Can science explain what it really was?

For centuries, scholars have suggested the Star of Bethlehem may have actually been a “great conjunction” of bright planets. 1
RELATED TOPICS: STARS | JUPITER | SATURN
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“Could the Star of Bethlehem have been caused by a “great conjunction” of the bright planets Venus and Jupiter? On June 17, 2 B.C., the planets had come so close they would have almost appeared as one object, similar to the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 2020.  Ron Miller/Astronomy magazine

On December 21, 2020 Jupiter and Saturn will come together in a “Great Conjunction” unlike any seen in nearly 800 years. The two planets will appear so close together in Earth’s night sky on winter solstice that they’ll almost look like a single object.

That’s prompted some to dub the sight a “Christmas Star,” and others to wonder about a similar sounding celestial event that coincided with the biblical first Christmas: the Star of Bethlehem. But did such a cosmic sight ever really exist? And if so, what does astronomical science tell us about what could have caused it?

Interestingly, there’s some evidence that a pair of planetary conjunctions — not unlike the coming Great Conjunction — happened around the historically accepted time frame for the birth of Christ. That could potentially explain the Star of Bethlehem. But, of course, not everyone agrees with the idea.

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The three wise men, or Magi, arrived after Jesus’ birth carrying gold, frankincense and myrrh, as captured in this Byzantine mosaic created in 565 A.D.  Wikimedia Commons

The Star of Bethlehem

The story of the Star of Bethlehem appears only in the Book of Matthew. The gospel tells us that a bright star appeared in the eastern sky when Jesus was born, famously seen by a group of wise men. These biblical “Magi,” sometimes called kings, now adorn nativity scenes around the world.

The Bible describes how these wise men saw the new star as a sign of the birth of the King of the Jews, so they set out for Jerusalem to worship him. Once they arrive, they inquire about baby Jesus with Herod, the region’s ruler appointed by Rome. “Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage,” Matthew tells us.

But Herod is worried by the idea. He and his own wise men supposedly seek to discover Jesus’ birthplace. Eventually, they call on the wise men to ask when the star appeared. And thanks to Micah’s prophesy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, Herod sends the trio to Bethlehem to search for Jesus. (Supposedly, Herod also ultimately kills the infants of Bethlehem in an attempt to snuff out Jesus.)

According to Matthew, “When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.

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Supernova RCW 86, the oldest known supernova in recorded history, was seen by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D.
X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO & ESA; Infared: NASA/JPL-Caltech/B. Williams (NCSU)

Evidence for the Star of Bethlehem

For centuries, astronomers have looked to the historical record in search of evidence for what could explain this Star of Bethlehem. Scholars have been discussing potential causes since at least the 13th century. Perhaps it was a supernova, a comet, a solar flare or an alignment of planets. Or, alternatively, maybe it never happened at all. The truth is, science will likely never know the truth.

But let’s entertain the idea that it was a real celestial event. What are some science-backed explanations that could explain the Star of Bethlehem?

Well, the story is relatively vague, but it does give us some clues.

Some things are easily ruled out. For example, the Star of Bethlehem couldn’t have been a meteor — a chunk of space rock that brightly burns up in Earth’s atmosphere — which would’ve appeared and faded in an instant. There’s no way three wise men could have tracked a meteor for weeks.

It’s also unlikely that a supernova — the explosive death of a star, which drastically increases its brightness for days, weeks or months — could explain the Star of Bethlehem. Supernovae, or “guest stars” have been consistently witnessed and recorded going back thousands of years. So if one had happened, other cultures likely would have taken note.

And even if it somehow escaped the written historical record, astronomers have observed remnants of many other ancient supernovae. And by estimating their peak brightness, researchers have even tied some remnants to events seen on Earth in the past. Yet telescopes haven’t found any evidence for a supernova remnant that sync up with the timing of the Star of Bethlehem. In fact, the only supernova that was visible from Earth around the time of Christ’s birth actually happened in the year 185 A.D. and was recorded by Chinese astronomers.

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Italian painter Giotto di Bondone witnessed Halley’s Comet when it appeared in 1301 A.D. Then, he painted the Star of Bethlehem as a comet burning bright above Jesus in the manger.  Wikimedia Commons

A Christmas Comet?

In the past, some interested astronomers have also suggested the Star of Bethlehem was a comet passing near Earth. These icy bodies from the distant solar system often shine quite brightly when they venture into the inner solar system and are heated by the Sun. They’re also known for sometimes visibly lingering in the sky for weeks or months at a time. And like supernovae, we also have historical records from other cultures regarding comets.

Sure enough, in the year 5 B.C., Chinese astronomers noted the appearance of a “Broom Star” that many researchers have interpreted as a comet. Like supernovae, Chinese scholars noted many historic comets, and even recorded a number of times that meteor impacts killed people.

In the 1970s, researchers caught onto the timing coincidence of this Chinese “Broom Star,” and a string of papers started popping up in scientific journals debating the idea, among other inspirations. All the back and forth culminated in a 1977 story in The New York Times written by legendary science journalist Walter Sullivan that suggested it could have been a comet, conjunction, nova or simply myth. Clearly, no consensus opinion has emerged in the decades since, either.

So, could a comet have been the Star of Bethlehem? There’s no way to rule it out, but there is one obvious reason to doubt it.

Keep in mind that people in the ancient world typically saw comets as symbols of pending doom — an evil omen of bad things about to happen. So, if a comet suddenly started shining brightly in the night sky, it’s hard to imagine three wise men would interpret it as a sign that their savior had finally been born.

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A triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in 7 B.C. At first glance, these illustrations look the same, but compare the positions of the planets with the background stars. On May 29, Jupiter passed Saturn (both moving right to left) for the first time. Jupiter passed Saturn again September 30 with both moving to the right (west). Finally, the planets resumed eastward motion, and Jupiter passed Saturn for the third time December 5.

Astronomy/Roen Kelly

Ancient great conjunction

What about a mash-up of planets like the upcoming Great Conjunction of 2020? Could that explain the Star of Bethlehem?

When you rewind the motion of the planets — something that’s easy to do with observing software these days — you can see that several interesting conjunctions played out in the years around the life of Jesus. (A planetary conjunction happens when two planets make a close approach to each other in Earth’s night sky. The two objects aren’t actually near each other, though, they just look that way from our vantage point.)

In the year 7 B.C., Jupiter and Saturn had three conjunctions in the same constellation, Pisces. Because the planets move in their orbits at different speeds, and are located at different distances, sometimes they appear to pass one another in the night sky. They can also appear to hold still or move backward in the sky, which astronomers call retrograde motion. This trick is like passing a slower car on the highway. As you get close to the other vehicle, it seems to hold still beside you. Then, as you pull away, it drops backward. The same thing happens as Earth zips around the Sun much faster than the outer planets.

However, Jupiter is closer to the Sun than Saturn, so it also appears to move faster in our night sky.

So, if Jupiter and Saturn had three close conjunctions in a relatively brief period of time, it’s easy to imagine that ancient astronomers — really, astrologers — would have taken note. And they also likely would have ascribed some meaning to the event.

These same astrologers wouldn’t have had to wait long for an even more striking planetary encounter. Four years later, in the summer of 3 B.C., Jupiter and Venus met in an event that would have looked much like the upcoming Christmas Star,” also referred to as the Great Conjunction of December 2020.

On the morning of August 12 in 3 B.C., Jupiter and Venus would’ve sat just 1/10th a degree apart in the dawn sky. That’s one-fifth the diameter of the Full Moon. (The December 2020 conjunction between Jupiter and Saturn will have an identical separation, albeit in the evening sky.) That wasn’t the end of the show, either. Venus and Jupiter continued their dance over most of the next year before finally appearing to merge into a single star in June.

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Though not perfect, your hand (with your arm fully outstretched) is a great tool for estimating angles in the night sky.  [The Conversation]

The idea that a conjunction between bright planets could explain the Star of Bethlehem isn’t new. A note in the Annals of the Abbey of Worcester from 1285 A.D. points out an alignment of Jupiter and Saturn that happened at the time of Jesus’ birth. And Johannes Kepler himself touched on the idea in the 17th century.

Myth or reality?

Since then, many enthusiastic astronomers — and eager amateurs — have also pointed to other celestial positions playing out around the same time as further evidence that ancient astrologers would’ve found meaning in these events. Bright stars and planets were moving through important constellations. Still others have suggested that the Star of Bethlehem might not have been one celestial event at all. Instead, taken together, the combined effect of years of these astronomical events may have led the Magi to see signs a new king had been born.

But could any of these things have really caused the Star of Bethlehem?

With this part of the article in Astronomy Magazine, we will be able to see to a great extent how our evidence supports the position of “a Celestial Prelude” that allowed the Magi to recognize the series of celestial signs that led them to the Star that marked the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ. We will start with the links for the Dec. 14th, 2014 blog post on Jesus Christ’ birth date; Parts 1 & 2, attended by the May 16th, 2015 study on the Blood Moon Tetrad and the Celestial Prelude. This is followed by our study on the Jupiter-Venus triple union marking the birth of Christ in 3-2BC. Our next installment pertains to evidence for the Coma Super-
nova leading up to and following Christ’s birth, explaining how a supernova witnessed by 2 of the most renown ancient astronomers, Hipparcus and Ptolemy, has a key bearing on the birth of Christ. The reader will note that our position is based on a more exhaustive view of the history of JupiterSaturn conjunction cycles, and their impact on biblical events related to Jerusalem & the history of the Biblical Patriarchs, bringing many details to light, heretofore unseen or realized.

December 14th Birth date of Jesus Christ [Pt. 1]

 December 25th Birth date of Jesus Christ [Pt. 2]

 May 16th Blood Moon Tetrad and the Celestial Prelude

July 26th Jupiter-Venus triple conjunction and Regulus with the Birth and Return of Christ

November 20th New Evidence of the Coma Supernova and the Birth of Christ.

Oct. 20th The Biblical Astronomy of the Birth and Return of Jesus Christ and the Dual Fulfillment of Revelation 12, [Part 1]

Nov. 15th The Biblical Astronomy of the Christmas Day Signs in 2 BC and 2017

 Sept. 10th Comet Giacobini-Zinner and the Birth and Return of Jesus Christ.

 November 1st  The Celestial Prelude and the Blood Moons of 5 BC, [Part 1].

 Dec. 17th, The Jupiter-Saturn Timeline, The Celestial Prelude and The Coma Supernova.

With this selection of research posts, we trust that the reader is presented with enough evidence from scientific astronomy, not astrology which is forbidden in Scripture, as to the true nature of the Star of Bethlehem, not only in prophecy that was fulfilled, but also with verifiable scientific evidence. This allows the Scriptural narrative of the Bethlehem star to be separated from mythology to truth of Scripture. I welcome any questions and feedback!

As we abide vigilant in the Hope of Christ’s Return, may we all enjoy the riches of God’s Blessings in the abundant life He has called us to, rejoicing in the truth with our brothers and sisters in the Church of the spiritual body of Christ!!

God Bless,

Rene’

 

Footnotes

1. Astronomy Magazine on Friday, December 18, 2020; The Star of Bethlehem: Can science explain what it really was? This reprint is an excerpt of the article by Eric Betz.

2. The links supplied to conclude this month’s blog are all from the archives of previous blog posts [@blog.try-god.org], or my website studies [@try-god.com]

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The Biblical Astronomy of the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day

In Jon Nessle’s current OT History class, we have learned of key errors linked to the dating of the conventional chronologies, of history, and the assumptions that accompany their popularized time placement, that have caused no end of confusion for archaeology, Bible historians, and students. We will see how Courville’s redating of Bible History has provided much-needed answers to the numerous problems linked to the conventional chronology. We will also note some modern historians and Bible Archaeologists that not only agree with Courville’s redating, but provided key evidences in support of it. The following quotes from Courville provide the context of this position along with the benefits that come with their acceptance. This provides an important backdrop for the subject of this month’s blog, an astronomical event known as Joshua’s Long Day. The focus of this study is an alternative timeline to the conventional chronology, along with some existing and newer research connected to Joshua’s Long Day. The first reference from Courville addresses certain cultural innovations that the Hebrews brought in their invasion and conquest of Palestine, led by Joshua.

“The pottery of the period is exceptionally fine… At Megiddo there is a complicated succession of building periods …. Early in the sequence comes a very fine town wall… and is a most impressive example of the town walls of this period. This phase can be taken as representative of the fully developed culture of Canaanite [sic] Palestine, a culture of prosperous city-states. Against the background of the revised chronology, the ancient Hebrews were far from being a cipher culturally. It was the Hebrews who introduced the use of bronze into Palestine; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of the fast wheel in making pottery; it was the Hebrews who introduced the high level of culture to be observed in Palestine at the beginning of Middle Bronze and which was never exceeded; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of drainage systems and the use of cisterns as a means of preserving water from the rainy season; it was the Hebrews who introduced improvements in the architecture of dwellings and defense walls; it was very probably the Hebrews who introduced the technique for obtaining iron from its ores in quantity. These and other contributions to the culture of Middle Bronze Age in Palestine should be credited to the Hebrews and not to their pagan
contemporaries, the Canaanites or the Amorites. However, all this is true only if it is possible to erect a satisfactory chronological structure of the ancient world on the foundations laid by a redating of the end of Early Bronze to c. 1400 B.C., some 600 years later than dates currently attributed to this change of culture. This is an exceedingly large IF. While it has already been shown that a number of large problems in archaeology are provided solutions by this alteration, this is only a start. It must also be shown that every significant synchronism which has been used to support the conventional structure is either ill-founded or else, that it continues to hold for
the revised structure; it must be shown that the almost infinite bits of information gleaned archaeologically can be rationally interpreted against this revised background; it must be shown that all of the chronologies of other ancient nations can be revised as necessary to fit into this revised scheme; it must be shown that the various methods of dating that have been used in arriving at the presently accepted structure are not valid, including the so-called astronomical dating methods.”

“And finally, it must be explained why most scholars in the field for the last half-century and more have fallen into the same errors of fallacious reasoning without being able to recognize the nature of their mistakes which have led them to the currently accepted views. Not only is this possible, it can be done with the continued elimination of numerous added difficulties characterizing the conventional structure and with the appearance of a number of noteworthy synchronisms that have not been previously recognized. The writer does not ask the reader to accept these claims per se. He only asks that the reader follow carefully and critically the developments outlined in the subsequent chapters of this work, evaluating for them the evidence which are presented in support of a revised chronology of Egypt which agrees with Bible chronology and with Bible history without an appreciable flaw.” [HEBREW CULTURE p. 113-114 THE EXODUS PROBLEM] 1

At this point, we are content to note that the same shift in dating at the end of Early Bronze which provides solutions to anomalies at Jericho, and at Ai, as well as providing a ready solution to the enigmas of Hittite chronology, also provides the proper setting for the events of the Exodus, the Conquest of Joshua, and the era of the Judges. A major issue with the Conventional Chronology where the history of ancient Egypt is concerned, is the lack of precise evidence to delineate epochal divisions between Stone, Bronze & Iron ages, to mark the transitions between these epochs. Courville is one of the very few who has aligned the layers of the archaeological digs starting in Jericho, as documented by Kenyon, from the end of the Jews 40-year wilderness wandering after the Exodus, with Joshua’s conquest and displacement of the Canaanites, Amorites, et al. in Palestine.

On the basis of the multiplicity of synchronisms indicating that the Conquest should properly be set at the end of Earlv Bronze IV, it was concluded that the Exodus occurred at the point of the fall of the Old Kingdom, approximately marked by the end of Dynasty VI. This point is marked by a similar eclipse of power in Egypt which lasted for a pluralitv of centuries. [3] On the basis of the demands of the redating of the end of Early Bronze, it was necessary to recognize both these periods as one and the same2

The identification of the line of Pharaoh’s just before the Hyksos kings, puts us in the proper position to reveal the pharaoh of the Oppression, which provides confirmation of this general structure. Thus, it will be possible also to show clearly the identity of the Pharaoh of the Oppression who carried out an extensive building program in brick in the eastern Delta region where the Israelites lived. A famine inscription appears, dated almost exactly at the point required by Old Testament Chronology relative to the Exodus, dated c. 1445 B.C., with a multiple of confirming evidences for the proposed setting of the Exodus. This scenario put forward by Courville in THE EXODUS PROBLEM, is the setting of my Nov. 2022 blog, that handles details of Joshua’s Conquest, to agree with the Scriptural and historical account of events as seen in Joshua 10. 3

Joshua 10:1-6
1 Now it came to pass when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among themthat they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mightyTherefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.” Therefore the five kings of the Amoritesthe king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachishand the king of Eglon, gathered together and went up, they and all their armies, and camped before Gibeon and made war against it. And the men of Gibeon sent to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, saying, “Do not forsake your servants; come up to us quickly, save us and help us, for all the kings of the Amorites who dwell in the mountains have gathered together against us.”

This Biblical record begins in verse 1 by recounting how “Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and
how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them.” This is in general agreement with Courville’s redating of the conventional chronology, to a time when Joshua was conquering the cities of Jericho, and Ai, as we find in the following reference from Courville.

XII. “Other Peoples Migrated out of Palestine at the End of Early Bronze age, in line with Scripture, as it was not alone the Hittites who were to be displaced by the incoming Israelites. If the proposed redating of the Conquest is correct, then there should be evidence of the settlement of other peoples in areas outside Palestine that previously had resided within this territory. The Phoenicians who settled along the northern coast of the Mediterranean refer to themselves as the Canaanites, [60] people also displaced from Palestine by the Israelites. The Mitannians appear to be a remnant of one branch of the Hurrians who similarly dwelt in Palestine previously. [61] The Amorites were in the Palestine area from the time of Abraham. They were displaced at the time of the Conquest, and appear in the area north of Palestine as the Amurru, a name associated with the Amorites. [62]
A consistent picture results from the recognition that Early Bronze represents the era just prior to the conquest of Joshua and the following transition period is that of the Conquest itself.”  [p. 98 THE EXODUS PROBLEM.] 4

As this Biblical record agrees with Courville’s redating of Joshua’s Conquest at the End of Early Bronze age, confirmed by the displacement of the men of JerichoAi, and the Amorites, many other thorny historical problems associated with the Conventional Chronology find solutions also.

Joshua 10:7-11 
So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valorAnd the Lord said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have delivered them into your handnot a man of them shall stand before you.” 9 Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly, having marched all night from Gilgal. 10 So the Lord routed them before Israel, killed them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, chased them along the road that goes to Beth Horon,
and struck them down as far as Azekeh and Makkedah.
 11 And it happened, as they fled before Israel and were on the descent of Beth Horon, that the Lord cast down large hail-stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they diedThere were more who died from the hailstones than the children of Israel killed with the sword.  

This was a singular battle in world military history because as verse 11 above recounts; it was  the Lord who cast down large hailstones from heaven on the fleeing Amorites. The Lord of Hosts was fighting from Heaven for Israel against their enemies in Palestine, and the large hail-stones God sent raining down in a meteor shower on them, killed more of the enemy than the Israelites themselves. This harmonizes with Josh. 10:8 above, which says “I [God] have delivered them into your hand,” but this miracle, that recalls the signs from heaven akin to the destruction of Sodom and Gommorah, [Gen. 18:17-32] to a lesser degree, was only an astronomical foretaste of what was in store for these enemies of God’s people.

Joshua 10:12-15 12 Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of IsraelSun, stand still over GibeonAnd Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” 13 So the sun stood stillAnd the moon stoppedTill the people had revenge upon their enemiesIs this not written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day14 And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that the Lord heeded the voice of a man; for the Lord fought for Israel15 Then Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

The locations of Gibeon, Beth Horon and the Valley of AijalonAzekah and Makkedah as Joshua pursued the Amorites, are shown in figure 1. 5

Map of ancient Canaan showing the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, according to Joshua 10:9–10.

This Map of ancient Canaan shows the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, then to the great slaughter @ Gibeon, to pursue them unto Beth Horon, where the large hail-stones started falling, then Aijalon over which the Moon stood, [Josh. 10:12], then unto Azekah and Makkedah according to Joshua 10:9–11. The book of Joshua continues in the Old Testament, after an all-night march from Gilgal, the Israelites attacked the Amorites at Gibeon, and then pursued them to Azekah and then to Makkedah (fig. 1). As evidence from historical geography shows the locations of these sites: Gibeon was about 10 km northwest of Jerusalem, Azekah about 30 km southwest of Gibeon, and Makkedah about 20 km south of Azekah. 6

Prior research into this topic by Humphreys and Waddington aids the conventional chronology of astronomy, with related data in the fields of Egyptology and Hebrew studiesSo how did these two physicists proceed in their research regarding an event that’s only obliquely referred to in an ancient Bible text? Their multidisciplinary task according to them, required a foray into ancient Hebrew, a rethinking of Egypt’s royal history, and some complex calculations about the Earth’s rotation. Their inquiry began with the translation of the Hebrew word dôm,” from Joshua 10. In English versions of the Bible, it’s usually translated as “stopped,” as in the sunstopped moving.” When discussing the word with Alan Millard, a professor of Hebrew and ancient Semitic languages, Humphreys pondered whether it could actually mean the sun stopped shining”—that may suggest an eclipse. In order to date the eclipse, the Cambridge researchers included a new eclipse code” which examined variations in the Earth’s rotation over time. 7

Earlier researchers also only looked at total eclipses, failing to consider that the text may refer to an annular eclipse, in which the moon passes directly in front of the sun, but is too far away to cover the disc completely, they said. From their calculations, the Cambridge researchers found that the only annular eclipse visible from Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC was on Oct. 30, 1207 BC, in the afternoon.

Historical evidence from the Merneptah Stele, a text from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, shows that the Israelites were in Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC. This large granite block held in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo says that it was carved in the 5th year of Merneptah’s reign and mentions a campaign in Canaan in which he defeated the people of Israel. If correct, it enables academics to date the reigns of Ramesses the Great and his son Merneptah, to within a year.

Figure 2. The Merneptah Stele. 

The Merneptah Stele (ca. 1208 BC) is a 10-foot tall, granite victory monument, which names Israel as a nation in Canaan.

The most famous, and arguably the most important discovery related to Moses and the Exodus is the Merneptah Stele. In ca. 1208 B.C. Pharaoh Merneptah erected a 10-foot tall victory monument (called a stele) in a temple at Thebes to boast of his claims of victory in both Libya and Canaan. It was discovered in 1896 by Sir Flinders Petrie. On it, Merneptah boasts, “Israel is wasted, its seed is not; And Hurru (Canaan) is become a widow because of Egypt.”9

Most scholars agree that this is the oldest definitive reference to Israel as a nation outside of the Bible, and certainly the clearest Egyptian reference to Israel. It is also important because it points towards an early date for the Exodus (ca. 1446 B.C. agreeing with Courville) and not the late date that some scholars hold to (ca. 1270 B.C.). It is doubtful that there would be enough time from 1270 B.C. to 1208 B.C. to account for the Exodus, the 40 years of wandering in the desert, the seven-year conquest of Canaan, the settlement of the tribes in their territories, and the establishment of a national presence in the land, all before Merneptah claims to have conquered them. Merneptah’s Canaanite campaign instead likely dates to the time of the Judges, when the nation of Israel was already settled in Canaan. The Merneptah Stele is evidence that the Exodus from Egypt, led by Moses, took place in the 15th century BC, as the biblical data indicates. 10

The later dates from mainstream Egyptologists for the reign of Ramesses II are c. 1279–1213 BC, with his son Merneptah reigning from c. 1213–1203 BC (Shaw 2003Horning et al. 2006Kitchen 2013). These dates are subject to some uncertainty, with the latest possible dates for Ramesses II being 1270–1204 BC, and for Merneptah 1204–1194 BC (Kitchen 2013). Some other researchers, most notably Rohl (1995), have proposed an alternative chronology for ancient Egypt in which these dates are advanced by several hundred years. Their “New Chronology” has achieved widespread publicity alongside widespread criticism from mainstream Egyptologists. In this “New Chronology,” the 5th year of Merneptah is 867 BC. 11

Changes to Egyptian history that Humphreys suggests pertain to the ruling period of each pharaoh, including Merneptah, during whose reign the Merneptah Stele was carved. Merneptah was the son of Rameses the Great, one of Egypt’s most famous pharaohs, and there’s been considerable debate over the years about when Rameses was in power. With the combination of a date from the solar eclipse, and the carving of the Stele, Humphreys and Waddington have proposed years for the pharaohs’ reigns that narrow their reigns down to plus or minus one year. They argue Rameses the Great ruled from 1276 to 1210 BC, while Merneptah was in power from 1210 to 1200 BC.

Prof. Humphreys added: “Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient worldEclipses have also shaped human events, says Duncan Steel, author of Eclipse: The Celestial Phenomenon That Changed the Course of History. “Historically, they have been pivotal in deciding battles,” including the 585 BC eclipse that stopped a battle between the Medes and the Lydians. The Greek philosopher Thales had predicted the eclipse, and when darkness did fall, the warring sides viewed it as an omen and hurried to come to a peaceful agreement. 12

The Bible puts the Israelites in Canaan from the beginning of the Conquest through the destruction of the Temple in about 586-5 BC, so this gives a span of many centuries for a potential conflict between Egypt and Israel. Why choose the first year of that span as the date, when Merneptah’s reference on the stele must have occurred? A primary reason to link Merneptah’s stele with Israel’s conquest of Canaan seems to be first based on tradition, that the Exodus occurred during the reign of Ramesses II. Second, that the Merneptah Stele is the consensus among Egyptologists and historians as the oldest reference to Israel in the history of ancient Egypt, providing an anchor point for their thesis, with this eclipse linked to it. Thus the conclusions of their research are grounded, assuming the conquest happened congruently with Merneptah, as proof that Merneptah reigned during the time of the conquest in 1207 BC, near the possible Joshua eclipse date of the same year. Also if the idea of an exclusive annular eclipse is correct, as the only eclipse candidate to suffice in the situation, eliminating the possibility of other partial eclipses, it would seemingly strengthen their position.

Previous claims of the earliest recorded eclipse include images carved into stone cairns at Loughcrew in Co Meath, Ireland, over 5,000 years ago, while Greek astronomer Ptolemy claimed that the first recorded eclipse was observed by the Babylonians in March 721 BC. The results are published in the Royal Astronomical Society Journal of Astronomy & Geophysics. 13

Were Humphrey’s & Waddington the first to propose an eclipse interpretation for Joshua’s Long Day? In fact, another linguist named Robert Wilson came to the same conclusion of an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10, nearly 100 years earlier. And while previous scientists had attempted to find solar eclipses for that period and failed, they’d never thought to look for an annular eclipse, which occurs when the moon only partially covers the sun, leaving a ring of light visible at the edges. “That convinced me that ‘eclipse’ was the right translation,” Humphreys says.

Humphreys looked to the giant stone inscription on the Merneptah Stele, as corroboration that the Israelites really were in Canaan during the time of a supposed eclipse. He referenced the Egyptian text believed to be the earliest textual reference to Israel, specifically its final few lines of hieroglyphics that refer to a battle with the Israelites in Canaan, correlated to the Old Testament.

If these words are describing a real observation, then a major astronomical event was being reported (“There has been no day like it, before or since”, Joshua 10:14), but what does the text mean? The Hebrew word dôm means to be silent, dumb or still. The term amad is a broader word meaning to stop or stand. Modern English translations of this passage, such as the NRSV quoted above, have all followed the King James Authorized Version (of 1611), and assumed that the Hebrew text means the Sun and Moon stopped moving. However, a plausible alternative meaning is that the Sun and Moon stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining. In other words, the text is referring to a solar eclipsewhen the Sun stops shining. As a solar eclipse can only occur with the Moon directly between the Earth and the Sun, the Moon itself is not visible and so it is not reflecting sunlight to the Earthlike the Sun, it has “stopped shining” as well. 14

As the first person to suggest that Joshua 10:12–14 was referring to a solar eclipse, the linguist Robert Wilson (1918), who over 100 years ago gave the following translation:

Be eclipsed, O sun, in Gibeon, And the moon in the valley of Aijalon! And the sun was eclipsed and the moon turned back, while the nation was avenged on its enemies.

Wilson claimed that in Babylonian cuneiform texts there are words with the same root as the Hebrew dôm that are used in Babylonian astronomical tablets in connection with eclipses, meaning “to be dark”. However, at that time, 100 years ago, it was not deemed possible to investigate this further because of the laborious nature of the calculations required15 (Russell 1918).

As we check the Hebrew words used in Joshua 10:1213, from the same Hebrew root as dôm, they  generally agree with the Babylonian meaningto be dark.” The related Hebrew words included from Strong’s Concordance [H1820, H1826 and H1724]. H1820– “damah= to cease, rest, silenced, be quiet, make an end, destroyed, laid waste, desolate, cut off, to perish.” The Hebrew verb refers to violent ends, seen in Isa. 15:1, Jer. 14:17, Hos. 4:56. All 3 of these references include the word “night [H3915] with the darkness linked to it, as in Gen. 1:5 where God divided the day from the night, and Gen. 1:14, where the heavenly lights of the firmament divide the day from the night, for signs, seasons, days and years. See also [Ps. 19:2, Ex. 13:21-22]. Solar and Lunar eclipses surely qualify as key heavenly signs, in the Creator’s celestial order, so this favors a Scriptural view of an eclipse interpretation for Josh. 10:12-1416

Sawyer (1972) followed up the suggestion of Wilson (1918) that Joshua 10:12–14 refers to a solar eclipse and considered the dates of all total solar eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (giving generous limits to the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan). He found that there were only two such eclipses, on 19 Aug. 1157 BC and on 30 Sept. 1131 BC. However, both these dates are significantly later than the latest date that Humphreys and Waddington calculations allow for Joshua to have entered Canaan, as the latest possible date for the fifth year of Merneptah, 1200/ 1199 BC, using the Merneptah Stele as their anchor for this claimHistorians and Bible scholars in agreement with their calculations have therefore, to date ruled out a solar eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:12–14. 17 

However, as we will see below, there are other eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC, within these “generous limits” for the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan, but much earlier, c1400 BC than 1207 BC, which we will discuss presently.

People in the ancient world did not distinguish between total and annular solar eclipses. It is not until as late as 1292AD, that we find a separate expression in the Chinese eclipse records to describe an annular eclipse; both of the annular eclipses of 7 August 198 BC and 27 July AD 306, were recorded by the Chinese as being total. Thus they revisited the solar eclipse interpretation of Josh. 10:1214 to see if there was an annular eclipse visible in the same time frame as was used by Sawyer. [18]

The calculations of the Cambridge researchers found the only annular eclipse visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (using the same limits to the possible dates of entry of Joshua into Canaan as did Sawyer [1972]) was on 30 October 1207 BC, in the afternoon. The calculated track of the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC is shown below in figure 2, which passed directly over the land of Canaan. 19

Figure 2. The path of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC. 20

The path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, over-shadowed the land of Canaan in the afternoon. The shadow left the Earth’s surface at sunset over modern-day Iraq. The map is centered on Azekah, which is marked by a circle. 21

Solar eclipse of 1207 BC

 Because the eclipse occurred in the afternoon, it was probably seen from near Azekah, from where the annular eclipse would have started at 15:27 (local apparent time as given by a sundial), with annularity occurring between 16:48 and 16:53. The Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. During annularity, 86% of the solar disc’s area was covered by the Moon. 22

An interesting feature of the Joshua text is the observation that not only did the Sun stop (shining) but the Moon also stopped (shining). As the Moon is in conjunction at the time of a solar eclipse it is effectively absent from the sky for a couple of days (it has “stopped shining”). As the Israelites used an observationally based lunar calendar they would have been well aware of this monthly period of lunar invisibility and so could have timed their surprise night-time attack at Gibeon to take advantage of the lack of natural night-time illumination at this time.

After reporting that the Sun stopped (shining), the book of Joshua states further that “The Sun did not hurry to set for about a whole day” (Joshua 10:13, NRSV), which has given rise to the term “Joshua’s Long Day.” What did the writer mean? Figure 3 shows the level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse and Figure 4 shows the appearance of the Sun as viewed from Azekah at three-minute intervals. 23

Figure 3. The level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, as a function of the local apparent time as given by a sundial. The thin line shows the normal illumination in the absence of an eclipse. The red line gives the illumination during the eclipse, showing the double-dusk effect. 24

Figure 4. The appearance of the Sun viewed from Azekah on 30 October 1207 BC, at three-minute intervals. The Sun was still partially eclipsed at sunset. 25

All ancient civilizations would have been accustomed to the Sun going down in the afternoon, leading to daylight turning into dusk, and then turning into night. However, on this occasion, in the afternoon the light from the Sun on Canaan started decreasing from its normal level at about 15:30 until at about 16:50, it was approximately ten times less intense than normal, and dusk set in (notice that figure 3 is plotted on a logarithmic scale to match the approximate response of the human visual system). However, by around 17:10 the level of illumination would have been somewhat restored before dusk fell againand then the Sun finally set at about 17:38. What the Israelites would have witnessed was a double dusk. 26

In attempting to describe this double dusk it is only natural that the Israelites would have done so in terms of their normal experience of the diurnal cycle. Although aware that on this occasion the time interval between the two dusks was less than the normal day, the book of Joshua records “about a whole day” (NRSV) for this period of time. In fact, the Hebrew text here is “like a whole day”, the preposition like also means as, and so the phrase can mean “as on a whole day” (Millard, private communication). 27

The appearance of the annular eclipse of 30 Oct. 1207 BC we are considering is shown in figure 4. Both before and after annularity, the eclipse takes on the appearance of a crescent, mimicking the form [crescent] of the Moon around both the end and beginning of a lunar month.

What Humphrey’s and Waddington have failed to mention in their proposed annular eclipse of Oct. 1207 BC, as seen in Figure 4 above, is that their thesis rests upon the exclusivity of an annular eclipse, separate from a solar eclipse. However, with annularity occurring only between 16:48 and 16:53 pm, briefly for 5 min, the rest of this event falls into the category of a Partial Lunar eclipse, as the Crescent Moon covers increasing parts of the Sun for 81 min. leading up to annularity from the eastafter which the Moon uncovers the Sun for 45 added minutes till dusk, as the Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. So for the entire eclipse period of 131 minutes duration of this annular solar eclipse, it was a Partial Lunar eclipse for 126 minutes.

The article by Humphreys and Waddington prompted rabbinic scholar Eli Gurevich to contact David Rohl with this idea of a partial eclipse fitting the requirements just as much as an annular eclipse. He referenced the NASA eclipse tables, which show partial eclipses typically crossing Canaan several times in every decade. Remarkably, a total eclipse passed just north of Canaan on July 141405 BC
(one year needs to be added to the NASA numbers to arrive at the correct BC date). This lines up perfectly with a common early date proposed for the Exodus of 1446 BC, with the Conquest starting in 1405 BC. 28

Figure 5. Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405. 29

The solar eclipse of 1405 BC with the blue band showing the zone of totality. 

A Total Solar Eclipse most likely is better suited to fit the Biblical context of Joshua 10, more than an annular eclipse because the darkness experienced in a total solar eclipse is greater than the annular eclipse, especially if both the Sun and Moon stood still during totality. This would have increased the shock and awe on the Amorites, not only making them easier prey for the attacking Israelites, but also agreeing with details of the Biblical text. In the comparison of the Hebrew text with the Babylonian cuneiform above, we looked at the Hebrew word H1820damah, a prime root for the related Hebrew word H1826damam, meaning to be dumb, astonished, put to silence, or to stop, stand still. If the eclipse stood still, stopping in its tracks during totality, the Israelites were allotted the extra time needed to complete the destruction of the Amorites, that Joshua had prayed for [Josh. 10:12] during this Long Day. 30

According to some critics, Humphrey’s and Waddington paper is a watered-down analysis of the Biblical account that is a consistent pattern for Colin Humphreys. He wrote a book on the Exodus that attempts to explain its occurrences as having been fulfilled by natural events rather than outright miracles, that he seems to discount here. Critics also call into question, how and why the paper Humphrey’s published in October 2017 with W. Graeme Waddington, is practically identical to, but did not credit a January 2017 published work by three Israelis: physicist Ḥezi Yitzḥak, Bible scholar Daniel Weinstaub, and archeologist Uzi Avner, in  Hebrew journal Beyt Mikra requires further clarification. Despite the fact that this Israeli journal is in Hebrew, does Humphreys claim independent inspiration for his thesis? 31

Critics also point out an even bigger problem, that Joshua’s long day couldn’t possibly have taken place in 1207 BC, according to the biblical account, since 1 Kings 6:1 states that building the First Temple began 480 years after the Exodus. It is evident that Joshua’s battle occurred soon after the 40 years of the Exodus. Advancing the date of 1207 BC, an additional 440 years into the future puts the building of the First Temple at 767 BC, which is 200 yrs after the traditionally accepted date of 970 BC. Historians have encountered difficulties in accounting for the detailed Biblical history of Israel in Canaan, listing each Judge and King, with the lack of time to compress every event in the books of Joshua, JudgesRuth, and Samuel to fit between the 237 odd years from 1207 BC to 970 BC.

Added reasons to question the designation of the eclipse of 1207 BC as the only candidate to date the conquest, are the 20 factors from archaeology and the Bible that demonstrate that Ramesses II just does not fit with as the pharaoh of the Exodus. Some of these are highlighted in the documentary film and more are found in the book, both with the title Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. The Biblical example from I Kings 6:1 above, also includes the fact that 1 Kings 6:1 has the Exodus occurring in the 480th year before Solomon began building the Temple, which puts it in the 1400s BC not the 1200s. Many attempt to dismiss this verse as merely being figurative of an abbreviated period, but a reference from Jephthah, of Israel’s judgessupports a more literal interpretation of the 1 Kings 6:1 chronology. It puts Israel already in the land for 300 years, long before the time that the House of David ascended to the throne and began to reign. 32

“While Israel lived 300 years in Heshbon and its villages, in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, why didn’t you take them back at that time?”

– Judges 11:26 (ESV)

Speaking of this history, Courville says “the critical area of the structure is that from Jephthah to Saul. Jephthah stated that 300 years had elapsed from the conquest of Heshbon under Joshua to his own day. 25 Since the figure is a round number, it is evident that the figure was intended to be only approximate. It is here assumed that the actual period was closer to 290 years and this figure is here used in setting up the tentative chronology of [Figure 1]. On the late end of the 480-year period, we must allow 3 years in the reign of Solomon, 40 years for David, and 40 years for Saul. With the 40 years between the Exodus and the Conquest, 413 of the 480 years are accounted for. This leaves 67 years for the period from the victory over the Ammonites by Jephthah to the reign of Saul.” 33

In a new publication by Egyptologists and Biblical scholars Manfred Görg, Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis suggest that there may be an even earlier reference to Israel in Egyptian records. Manfred Görg discovered a broken statue pedestal containing hieroglyphic name-rings in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and, after studying it with colleagues Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis, they suggest that one of the name-rings should be read as “Israel.” Not all scholars agree with their reading because of slight differences in spelling, but Görg, van der Veen and Theis offer strong arguments, including supportive parallels in the Merneptah Stele itself. This newly rediscovered inscription is dated to around 1400 B.C.—about 200 years earlier than the Merneptah Stele. If Görg, van der Veen and Theis are right, their discovery will shed important light on the beginnings of ancient Israel. 34

Figure 6. The Berlin Pedestal. 35

Berlin Pedestal

The Berlin Pedestal from the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. It has three name rings; the one on the far right has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.” Photo: Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain. Reconstructed Drawing: Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg, “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687.” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.

The Berlin Pedestal is an Egyptian inscription housed in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin that almost certainly refers to Israel as a nation in Canaan. The inscription has three name rings, two of which clearly read “Ashkelon” and “Canaan,” and a third that has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.”43  In a recent re-examination of the inscription, Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg noted that names Ashkelon and Canaan largely were written consonantally and better reflecting examples from the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II (15th cent. BC), than those from the times of Rameses II and Merenptah (13th cent. BC).44 While the inscription reads “Ishrael” instead of “Israel,” there is no other candidate near Canaan and Ashkelon, other than biblical Israel. It may be that the “sh” spelling is an older way Egyptians spelled Israel, or perhaps borrowed from the cuneiform version.45 If this interpretation is correct, it would indicate that the Israelites had migrated to Canaan sometime in the middle of the second millennium BC,46 exactly at the time the Bible says they did.

Figure 7. Granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep. 36

Evidence for Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus

This granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep, was once part of a sphinx. It is currently housed in the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, Germany. Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0

Numerous scholars have identified Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus31; he was reigning in 1446 BC when the Israelites left Egypt. Amenhotep II is known to have spent considerable time in the delta region, likely in the 18th-Dynasty palace at Avaris where he would have met with Moses. According to Egyptologist, Charles Aling, Amenhotep II was born and raised in this area [the Nile delta region], built there, had estates there, and in all probability resided there at times, at least in his early regonal years.”32 Interestingly, (and in keeping with the 10th plague – the death of the first-born), Amenhotep II was not the firstborn son of his predecessor, Thutmose III, nor was his successor, Thutmose IV his firstborn son, as implied by the Dream Stele on the Great Sphinx.33 

Another piece of evidence for identifying Amenhotep II as the pharaoh of the Exodus is found by comparing the military campaigns of Amenhotep II and those of his father. While Thutmose III led 17 known military campaigns into the Levant, Amenhotep II led only two or three.34

 Thutmose III boasted of having taken 5903 captives on his first campaign, while Amenhotep II claims to have taken 2214 captives on his first. However, Amenhotep II’s final campaign in the ninth year of his reign (ca. 1446 BC) appears to have been a hasty and limited excursion into Palestine to take 101,128 captives. One plausible explanation for this campaign and its dramatic number of captives is that he was seeking to replace a large portion of his slave labor base that had just left Egypt. Moreover, Amenhotep II never took another campaign into Canaan, and the 18th dynasty began to decline in power. 37

In fact, there is strong evidence that the Bible shows the Judges period covered many centuries (not the 150 years allotted by the Ramesses Exodus Theory), that dictates the Exodus be pushed out 2 centuries before a 1207 BC dating of the Conquest. Additionally, The Bible has Moses being born around the time of the building of the city Rameses (Exodus chap. 1), which is the main basis of the Ramesses Exodus Theory. But the conquest happens 120 years later, after Moses’ death. For a 1207 BC Conquest that would mean the city of Ramesses was being built around 1327 BC, 27 years before Ramesses was born in Humphreys’ system. The Bible says in two places that the pharaoh who sought Moses’ life (40 years after Moses’ birth) died before the Exodus (when Moses was 80). Therefore the builder of the store city of Rameses could not possibly also be the pharaoh of the Exodus. 38

Now in Midian the Lord told Moses, “Return to Egypt, for all the men who wanted to kill you are dead.”

– Exodus 4:19 (ESV)

Then there is the archaeological evidence that shows no sign of massive numbers of Semites in Goshen during his reign, no sign of a collapse of Egypt as would be expected at the time of Exodus, and no pattern matching the Conquest of Canaan after his reign. That is why mainstream scholars are so skeptical of the Exodus account. These are just a few of the evidences that show that Ramesses was not the pharaoh of the Exodus and that Merneptah was not the pharaoh at the time of the conquest. When does the conquest account speak of a confrontation with Egypt anyway? For the Humphreys model to be factual, Egypt would have to have defeated Israel at a time when the Bible has the Israelites conquering city after city on their way to controlling most of Canaan. Nothing in this scenario adds up. 39

It is plausible that the Book of Joshua was describing a solar eclipse, but even if one agrees, there is no reason to confine this event to an annular eclipse strictly in 1207 BC. It has been shown that other total or partial eclipses over Canaan in the 1400s BC fit these data just as well, matching the Bible’s own context and timeline much better. Furthermore, evidence of an eclipse in Canaan in 1207 BC (whether or not it is related to the Israelites’ Conquest) gives no reason to connect that event to the reign of Merneptah, who in no other way (except by tradition) is connected to the Exodus or Conquest time period.

As Habakkuk memorably recounts the language of Joshua 10:12-13

Habakkuk 3:8-15

8 Were you angry with the rivers, LordWas your wrath against the streams?
Did you rage against the sea when you rode your horses and your chariots to victory?
You uncovered your bow, you called for many arrowsYou split the earth with rivers;
10  the mountains saw you and writhed. Torrents of water swept by; the deep roared and lifted its waves on high.
11 Sun and moon stood still in the heavens at the glint of your flying arrows,
    at the lightning of your flashing spear.
12 In wrath you strode through the earth and in anger you threshed the nations.
13 You came out to deliver your peopleto save your anointed one.
You crushed the leader of the land of wickednessyou stripped him from head to foot.
14 With his own spear you pierced his head when his warriors stormed out to scatter us,
gloating as though about to devour the wretched who were in hiding.
15 You trampled the sea with your horses, churning the great waters.


This month’s blog study favors an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:10-13, with the best candidate  being the Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405, for the extended celestial sign of Joshua’s Long Day. This shows the lengths the Heavenly Father went to, in answer to Joshua’s prayer when he spoke to the Lord, in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel. Joshua had the great example of Moses to follow, from the Believer’s Hall of Fame in Heb. 11:23-30. As Jon Nessle has encouraged us, we would do well to follow Moses example by working and believing his acts of faith. What will God do for you?!! 

If God be for you, who can be against you?

Agape’

Rene’


Footnotes

1. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 113-114, Donovan Courville.
2. IBID, p. 121.
3. IBID, p.
4. IBID, p. 98
5. Colin Humphreys, Graeme Waddington, Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 58, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages 5.39–5.42, https://doi.org/10.1093/astrogeo/atx178
6. (Notley & Rainey, 2014)
7. 
Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
8. Photo: Todd Bolen, BiblePlaces.com https://www.bibleplaces.com/2014/01/artifact-of-month-merneptah-stela/
Patterns of Evidence. [Picture credit]
9.
Digging for Truth.
10. Patterns of Evidence
11Kitchen 2013, Rohl 1995.
12Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
13. IBID
14. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
15. IBID
16Strong’s Concordance [H1820], James Strong.
17. Sawyer (1972), (Walton 1994).
18. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
19. IBID
20. IBID, Figure 2. picture credit.
21. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
22. IBID
23. IBID
24. IBID, Figure 3. picture credit.
25. IBID, Figure 4. picture credit.
26. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
27. IBID,
28. https://www.patternsofevidence.com/2017/11/10/is-this-solar-eclipse-really-joshuas-miracle/
29. IBID, Figure 5 Picture Credit, (courtesy of the NASA website)
30Strong’s Concordance [H1826], James Strong.
31.  Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
32. IBID, https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
33. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 12, Donovan Courville.
34. https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
35. Figure 6, picture credit. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.
36. Figure 7 picture credit, Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0
37. https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2021/09/24/top-ten-discoveries-related-to-moses-and-the-exodus/
38. IBID
39. IBID

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The Great Pyramid and Jacob’s Ladder

The focus of the November blog is the idea that the Great Pyramid’s location at the center of the earth’s geographical land mass, haspotential relation to the location of Jacob’s overnight stay, where he had a vision of the Angel’s ascending and descending from heaven to earth. At first glance, this may seem to be two unrelated topics, but as we proceed one may find more common ground here than initial observations suggest.

As both the figurative and literal axis-mundi on the face of the earth, the Great Pyramid’s location at the center of the earth’s landmass at the head of the Nile River delta, is a key among many other elements that express  the most impressive embodiment of the planet earth ever conceived. As the nexus of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy, it contains a sacred cosmology emerging out of God’s Word, perhaps the world’s greatest
architectural witness to the Coming Redeemer Jesus Christ.

The Great Pyramid is situated at the center point for all the landmass on the face of the Earth.

eart-mid

Piazzi-Smyth concluded that Giza was deliberately placed both on the 30th parallel and at the center of the world’s continents as a geodetic marker for the ancient world-meridian, making the Great Pyramid’s latitude the globe’s longest land parallel. In the words of Isaiah:

Plate 1. The Great Pyramid Bisects the Boundaries of the Nile Delta. 1 

Isa. 19:19-22
19 In that day
there will be an altar to the Lord in the midst of Egypt, and a pillar [H4676] at the border thereof to the Lord. 20 It will be a sign and witness to the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt, for when they cry out to the Lord because of their oppressors, He will send them a Savior and defender, and he will rescue them.

21 So the Lord will make himself known to the Egyptians, and in that day they will acknowledge the Lord. They will worship with sacrifices and grain offerings; they will make vows to the Lord and keep them.

Figure A. The Bethlehem Line from the Great Pyramid to Bethlehem and Jerusalem. 2

The Christ Angle : r/TrueChristian

A primary key to our understanding of the relationship between the significance of the Great Pyramid and the birth, life and ministry of Jesus Christ is the Pyramid’s so-called “Bethlehem Line.” This is a geographical application of the designed angle of descent and ascent of the Pyramid’s main sloping passages, which is 26 degrees 18’ 9.7”—an angle significant for having once been the exact elevation of Thuban-the Pole Star from the latitude of the Pyramid. In fact during the third millennium BC, when the Pole StarAlpha Draconis, actually shone directly down the Descending Passage at its lower culmination, and this was the millennium that apparently saw the construction of the Pyramid itself. This angle and thus, likely, the passage which forms it also—clearly has both an astronomical and chronological significance. If that same angle is laid off from the Pyramid’s east-west axis in a north-easterly directionthe rhumb-line so produced marks the bearing of the summer sunrise from the latitude of the Pyramid. [see Figure. A] Moreover it has long been known that the same line marks off several important geographical sites, and in particular, passes directly through the Jewish town of Bethlehem[3

Figure B. Bethlehem Line and Mt. Sinai Line from the Great Pyramid [4]

 

The Bethlehem line not only intersects Bethlehem at the site of Christ’s birth, but also the point where the River Jordan was parted when Israel was led into the Promised land by Joshua, and also Jerusalem/Mt. Zion, only 5 miles north of Bethlehem. Thus the “Bethlehem line” summarizes in geographical terms, Israel’s story of deliverance and redemption with Moses out of Egypt, to Joshua in the Promised Land followed by the birth of Christ in Bethlehem. When the same angle of 26 degrees 18 9.7“: the Bethlehem line, is laid off on a SE tangent from the Great Pyramid, this lower axis also intersects the site of the real Mt. Sinai after Moses crossed the Red Sea with the nation of Israel during the Exodus. As Jon Nessle taught us earlier this month in the OT History class, the actual site of Mt. Horeb is not in the Sinai peninsula, but in Saudi Arabia @ Jabal Al Lawz, as seen in [Fig. B] above, intersected by this Line as a product of the “Christ angle,” laid off from the Great Pyramid’s Apex.

The location of the real Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia is confirmed as God’s Word says in Galatians 4:25 –“For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia;” [see Figure B]. Thus the Great Pyramid was a mountain and sacred altar also linked to Mt. Zion and Mt. Sinai, as a boundary stone. The Pyramid as a sacred altar embodies the perfect sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the lamb of God, as he is found represented at the Pyramid’s apex in the messianic prophecy of Isa. 28.

Isa. 28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation [H3248-yecudah=from H3246, Ps. 87:1 founding a city] a stone,[H68] a tried [H976-bochan=trial, proof, testing, 1Pet. 2:4-6, Rom. 9:33, Jesus is the foundation Stone of God’s Kingdom, the Rock of proven footing upon which we can build our lives. ] stone,[H68] a precious corner-stone, a sure [H3245-yacad=appoint, assign, be settled, est. set, ordain, fix something firmly, Job 26:7, Ps. 24:2, 78:69, 89:11, 102:26, 104:5, Isa. 48:13, 51:13, 54:11. Paul links Isa. 28:16 to Isa. 8:14 in Rom. 9:32ff, Matt. 16:18 w/Isa. 28:14, Rev. 21:14, 19-20] foundation:[H4143muwcad=from H3245, laying foundation] he that believeth shall not make haste. 17 Judgment also will I lay [H7760-] to the line,[qav] and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place. 5

 for a foundation a stone” this stone is a title of the Messiah, from Gen. 49:24, the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel, who is Jesus Christ. [Ps. 118:22, Isa. 8:14, Matt. 16:18, 21:42, Mk. 12:10-11, Lk. 20:17, Acts 4:10-12, 1Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20Pet. 2:6-8]. This capstone and chief-corner stone of the Great Pyramid is missing, from the top of the Pyramid’s structure, until Jesus returns in glory.

 Figure C. The Great Pyramid structure with missing capstone. 6


 

As we consider these aspects of the Great Pyramid the Boundary Stone of the Ages, we find 3 immediate dimensions where this applies. The first is the Boundary Stone of the Egyptian Delta, [Fig. E]. Ancient Egypt consisted of two kingdoms with the Great Pyramid at the apex of the Nile delta, separating one kingdom from the other, upstream of the delta in Southern Egypt. Second, the Pyramid dimensions encompass all of Egypt in both its upper and lower kingdoms, with the Great Pyramid in the midst and center of each. Thirdly, The Great Pyramid is the Boundary Stone for the Promised Land of IsraelThe Giza Pyramid complex has also been shown to be linked to Mt. Zion, in Jerusalem, as seen in Isa. 28:16 above. This study depicts [see Figure B.] that the Christ angle also determines the real location of Mt. Sinai, as all 3 sites have ‘Altars’ linked with them in God’s Word; see Fig. D below.

Starting on the Giza Plateau with the Great Pyramid, which itself is called an altar as in Isa. 19.

Isa. 19:18-20 In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt, speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the city of destruction[19] In that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. [20] And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the Lord of hosts in the land of Egyptfor they shall cry unto the Lord because of the oppressors, and He shall send thema savior and a great one, and he shall deliver them.

altar to the Lord”- [H4196-mizbeachan altar as a place of sacrifice.] The same word is used for both the brazen altar in the outer court of the Tabernacle; {Ex. 39:38-39}, and the golden altar of incense in the holy place; {Ex. 30: 1-6, 27} which togetherfiguratively represent the bi-polar floor-plan of the Tabernacle-Temple corresponding to the system of Patriarchal Astronomy, as the polar centers of the double square layout of the Tabernacle. This shows a direct geometrical relationship between the ground-plan of the Tabernacle, the Temple, and the Great Pyramid, with the Great Pyramid’s Descending Passage alignment on ancient pole star Thuban. First, the double square blueprint of the Tabernacle consists of two equal squares; [1 x 2 rectangle] combining static and dynamic features as the capstone does, based on the phi ratio, even as the rectangular floor in the King’s chamber of the Great Pyramid.

celestial design of the heavens

The Pyramid’s Descending Passage alignment on Thuban the archaic pole star in Draco, [Figure C.] depicts the precession of the poles, in the center of the diagram above, with the transition of the morning stars from lucifer to Jesus Christ, encapsulating a spiritual history, from the rise and fall of lucifer to the ascendancy of the Promised Seed. As the perfect sacrifice, Jesus took the sins of the world on himself for the redemption of humanity. This depicts how the Pyramid symbolizes a sacrificial altar, with the missing Chief Corner-stone
representing, not only the sacrifice of the lamb of God laying down his life for all Mankind, but also as the High Priest offering this singular sacrifice after the order of Melchizedek[Isa. 28:16-172Pet. 2:4-9]

midst of the land of Egypt”-[H8432tavek7. It’s root means to sever or bisect. By implication it refers to the center, so called from its being dividedGen. 1:6 uses this word with the firmament in the midst of the waters, in the same sense that the Pyramid bisects the Delta of Egyptian Nile river.

 “pillar at the border” the word for “pillar” here in Isa 19:19 in reference to the Great Pyramid, is the same word seen in the story of  Jacob’s ladder [H4676matstsebah-a station stone, a column or monument, pillar, or memorial stone or, to the LordGen. 35:20 is Rachel’s grave marker, while 2 Sam. 18:18, is a memorial of Absalom, usually with a religious import. Gen. 31:45, 35:14, Ex. 24:4, Isa. 19:19.] 8

border”- [H1366-gebula twisted cord, boundary, enclosed territorylandmark, limit, quarter, space. In Ex. 10:14,19 the word refers specifically to the “coasts of Egypt.” Ezekiel 29:10 uses this word referring to the tower of Syene” which was a very important landmark for the boundaries of Egypt. 9 Ps. 74:17 uses it referring to the “borders of the earth,” which the Pyramid also figuratively and geographically represents. [Gen. 8:22, Jer. 49:36]

The graphic below depicts the Great Pyramid at the center of the Earth, as a 3D model of the planet on a 1:43,200 scale, reflecting both the geographical lines of Latitude and Longitude, and when projected to the Heavens, marking the lines of Celestial Latitude and Longitude also. Thus we can see how the Great Pyramid, embodies at least 5 dimensions as a boundary stone; a. of Egypt’s Delta. b. North and Southern Egypt. c. The Promised Land of God’s Covenant. d. Geographical lines of Latitude/longitude on Earth. e. Mapping the Stars of the Poles and Equator/Ecliptic of the Celestial Sphere and Celestial Gospel.

The perimeter of the base is equal to the length of the circle whose radius is equal to the height of the pyramid (2 * 3.14159 * 146.6 = 921). 10  

 circle

The Great Pyramid in Isaiah 19 describes an ‘altar where the Pyramid sits at both the center and border of Egypt. The possible correlation with other altars in Israel’s history broaches some interesting links to the  borders of the Promised land. On Mt. Sinai and Mt. Zion, the Bible describes where Abraham and Moses also built altars unto the LORD, honoring their Covenants with God. The links of the Pyramid’s Bethlehem line to the NE, and Mt. Zion, SE to Mt. Sinai through the Pyramid’s Apex chief cornerstone, linking the triangle of these 3 altars together in a unique way, reflecting a triangular face of the Great Pyramid.

Figure D. The Triangle linking the altars of The Great Pyramid with Mt. Zion and Mt Sinai.

It is important to see what the Bible tells us about boundary stones. We find Biblical evidence of these land boundaries in God’s Covenant with Abraham in Genesis.

Genesis 15:18-21 18 On the same day the Lord made a Covenant with Abram, saying: To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the River Euphrates— 19 the Kenites, the Kenezzites, the Kadmonites, 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.”

Genesis 17:4-8 “As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you, and you shall be a father of many nationsNo longer shall your name be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for I have made you a father of many nationsI will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come from youAnd I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you. Also I give to you and your descendants after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.”

Here we see the boundaries of the Promised Land extending from the River of Egypt-the Nile, to the rivers  the Fertile Crescent-the Euphrates, as an Everlasting Covenant. If we follow the extension of the Bethlehem line into the fertile crescent, it crosses the Euphrates river also.

Deut. 19:14 14 “You shall not remove your neighbor’s landmark, which the men of old have set, in your inheritance which you will inherit in the land that the Lord your God is giving you to possess. [Prov. 22:28, 23:10]

These sacred property lines of God’s everlasting Covenant with Abraham, were marked by a heap of stones called stones of the boundary, and certainly there is no more impressiveheap or mountain of stones” on the face of the earth than The Great Pyramid! How appropriate that God would use the Greatest and only surviving Wonder of the ancient world, as a marker for His Covenant with Israel pertaining to the Promised Land.

Hosea 5:9-10 Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke; Among the tribes of Israel I make known what is sure. 10 The princes of Judah are like those who remove a landmarkI will pour out My wrath on them like water.

The Hebrew word for ‘Landmark here is [H1366-gebul] meaning boundary, the same as Deut 19:14 above. God had commanded the Israelite’s to keep themselves from the idols of the heathens that inhabited the Promised Land, but they did not. Thus these boundaries not only refer to physical, but also spiritual separations. God’s boundaries not only framed the real estate but also the lifestyles of Israel. Boundary Stones on Earth were known to have been sighted and marked from celestial coordinates for accuracy. This was the case in the building of the Great Pyramid in a ceremony known as “stretching the cord,” [Job 38:4-6] yielding the most accurately oriented physical structure on earth aligned to the four points of the compass, [Fig. C]. Thus the Pyramid provides not only the anchor point to delineate the borders of the “Promised Land,” marked in accordance with God’s Promises to Abraham in Genesis, but also in the mapping of the heavens which began in a section of the sky called the Pegasus Square. What follows relates to Jupiter’s location, near the Pegasus Square from Earthsky for this month in 2022.

Star chart with Great Square, Circlet, green line of ecliptic, and Jupiter near ecliptic.

The bright “star” ascending in the east at nightfall is really a planet, the largest of the planets in our solar system, Jupiter. This planet’s opposition – when Earth flew between Jupiter and the sun – was on September 26. A dark sky reveals the bright planet directly south of the Great Square of the constellation Pegasus. Between the Great Square and bright planet is a pretty, but faint group of 6 stars known as the Circlet in the constellation Pisces. Chart via John Jardine Goss/ EarthSky. 11

God’s promise to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob pertained not only to the Seed of Abraham but also to the Promised Land. The holy place that Jacob was drawn to was the place that God chose to place his Name, that Jacob was to honor with the tithes of his increase, [Deut. 14:23]. The Square of Pegasus can be viewed as  a special depiction of this truth, established also from secular sources. In Hamlet’s Mill, Santillana and von Dechend have presented illustrations of the Pegasus Square in agreement with the Egyptian hieroglyph for the Square, seen on the Dendera Zodiac, as a rectangle, either empty or filled with fish/ water, positioned between the fish of Pisces. According to Peter Thomkins;

The Square of Pegasus was considered the starting point in mapping of the sky. The ancients from the Sumerians to the Romans, in surveying land, began by marking a square of a standard dimension, then proceeded to measure out of it, in a checkerboard pattern. In cuneiform texts the name l-iku is given to the basic surveying square, to a unit of land surface, and to the Pegasus Square. In ancient Egyptian this hieroglyph referred to a district extending for 15 degrees from Memphis–Sokar, to the Apex of the Delta,
showing that this district was viewed as the basic reference unit, from which they began the mapping of Northern and Southern Egypt.”12

This basic reference unit of land becameboundary between North & Southern Egypt, marked by three Parallels [1st 30.06’, @ the apex of the Delta2nd perfect latitude of the Great Pyramid; 30.00’,3rd 29.51’] The area between these 3 latitudes was organized as a special district belonging neither to N. or S. Egypt. {as the idea of a gnomon} 13, even as the Great Pyramid is the basic reference unit of the earth onto 43,200 scale model @ the Apex of the delta, mapping the latitude and longitudinal lines of the globe from pole to pole both on earth and in the celestial sphere! This reveals God’s plan of Creation explaining a key scientific and spiritual purpose behind the Pyramid, not only as a map and master-plan of all Creation both above and below,  but depicting it with the greatest and only surviving wonder of the ancient world, with implements that modern man can still not duplicate. This also shows the place of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 19] in the Creator’s Covenant, in context of God’s promises to Abraham relating to the Promised Seed and the Promised Land.

Figure E. Axis “E” on the Dendera Zodiac crossing the Pegasus Square. 14

This E-axis begins in the decan of Coma, proceeding unto Virgo, crossing over the star Spica, between Virgo and Leo the Lion. It then intersects the crocodile/Jackal pole in the center of the Zodiac, before it proceeds to the first of the two Fishes of Pisces. Before this axis hits the 2nd fish however, it crosses over the Pegasus Square, the so-called “tablet of destiny” is distinctly marked prior to completing its course through Pisces. Finally, this 5th axis bisects the Ram-headed altar at the edge of Dendera’s Zodiac, to end its course. Thus, Dendera’s axis “E” is understood as an answer to the great Pegasus Square enclosed by Pisces embodying not only the Paradise Field and also the ark of (Noah-Hebrew/Babylon or Utnapishtim/Sumerian), but also Heaven’s Gate, where God chose to place His name on earth, in Jerusalem at the site of Jacob’s ladder.

Together with this Great Square, the two fish of Pisces form an important motif in art from around the world. The square is often depicted as a game-board, with two fish, one on either side. What is also interesting is how the stars of the Pegasus Square in between the stars of the two fish of Pisces are interpreted in a similar theme by cultures separated in time and distance in history, as we have seen before with the World-Monomyth. As we find these roots in the Bible record of the Tower of Babel, [Gen. 10-11] when all humanity shared a common speech based on the Celestial Gospel astronomy depicted at the apex of this tower, we find a shared history and roots, at the basis of the ancient. This is what Joseph Campbell has referred to as the World Mono-myth shared by all at their inception. The roots of Babylon lie in ancient Sumeria, and it is here that we find earliest references to “Iku” as the [Alpha, Beta, gamma Pegasi, w/ Alpha Andromedasquare in land surveying, formed the Square of Pegasus.

An iku was a square measure of 100 musaror about 3,600 square meters, which is approximately one modern acreIku was also the name of the constellation now called Pegasus, or more particularly the Square of PegasusAmong the Babyloniansthe Square of Pegasus was represented by four stars which do indeed make nearly a square shape in the heavens. In ancient Sumeria-Iku was meant to be the home of their God Enki his other home was Eridu, identified with the star Canopus in ArgoThe Field Iku represents is a barley field divided by a series of irrigation ditchesThe constellation rises as the barley is regularly irrigated and starts to ripen. Iancient Sumerian astrology its omens foretell the nature of the coming harvest.”15

One could easily liken this grid of irrigation ditches to the lines of latitude and longitude used for mapping the celestial and terrestrial globes, not to mention how this system was utilized in ancient Sumeria for agricultural purposes as seen in Egypt with Sirius-the Nile star.

The Pegasus Square’s alpha star of Al Pharetz, carries a message of the persecution of Israel as a primary theme, along with the deliverance of the returning Savior, seen in [Rev. 19:11-14]. With Al Pharetz as Pegasusbrightest star in the Andromeda sign, leads also to the nearby Andromeda Galaxy-the closest galaxy to our Milky Way. 16

Figure F. Pegasus the winged horse between the two fish of Pisces.

The stellar composition of the Pegasus Square, included in the flying horse decan of Pegasus and Andromeda, is comprised of the four stars of the Square: Alpharetz-the brightest star in the Square, is a spectroscopic binary, whose two stars revolve around their common center in nearly 97 daysAlGenib [below it], has the meaning of one “who carries” [Luke 19:12-15] in reference to the judgment and gifts the Lord carries with him when he returns in gloryAl Genib-gamma Pegasi, is one of three “guide” stars, on the SE corner including Al Pharetz, situated on the NE corner and the Prime Meridian, is used as the base-line in mapping the celestial latitude and longitude lines. 4 This is a key in understanding the function of the Pegasus Square as a “basic reference unit” in mapping both the celestial and terrestrial global grids.

The third star Scheat, is the 2nd brightest star in the NW corner of the Square with the meaning of “one who goes and returns.” Scheat is a Red Giant and variable star with a period ranging from 30-40 days. This star testifies to the surety of the Lord’s return in victorious glory, following the sufferings of his 1st appearance. The word for this star occurs in Num. 11:8 in reference to manna from heaven, that is personified in Christ, [John 6:48-58]. During his first advent on the earth, Jesus was sent from heaven as a sacrifice for his saints,” so that man could eat the bread of life and not die. In his 2nd coming, the Lord will return in victory “with his saints”-the believers, manifesting this eternal life, conquering death forever. Finally, Markab the
brightest star of Pegasus, refers to the Messiah: “returning from afar.”17 The Arabic word here means a ship, saddle or anything ridden upon. 18 We find this imagery of the Lord’s victorious return in [Rev. 19:11-14] “with his saints,” who join him on white horses in his ultimate victory over evil. Markab is a star of first magnitude, a spectro-scopic binary, on the SW corner of the Square, with Al-Genib, the wing-tip of Pegasus
also on the south side pictured above.

The Hebrew word for Markab is found in Micah 4:2-3.

4:2 And many nations shall come and say, Come let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and go to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for the law shall go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem3And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nationneither shall they learn war anymore.

These references first to the Mountain of the Lord, refer to the Mountain of Jehovah, indicating God [Jehovah] in relation to His Creation. The “house of the God of Jacob”-God here is Elohim or God as the Creator. Jacob usually refers to his natural seed, and Israel to his spiritual seedIsa. 44 below, reveals a key occurrence of these terms. The House [H1004-bayith] 19 of God tells us of the Temple, of Israel, where God appeared to His people yearly on the Day of Atonement. This shows the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, not only as the line of believer’s, but as the nation wherein all the nations of the earth are to be blessed. God’s will is that everyone is saved and comes unto the knowledge of the truth, and Christ’s commission is to the entire world.

Isa. 44:2-3, 5 Thus saith the Lord that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee; Fear not O Jacob, my servant, and thou Jeshurun whom I have chosen. 3. For I will pour water upon him who is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: and My blessing upon thy offspring. 5. One shall say I am the Lord’s and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel.

These verses in Isaiah 44 relate some key celestial truths that we need to understand. Here we can witness the true nature and quality of Jacob the righteous, relative to the meaning of Jeshurun.

My blessing upon thy offspring”-God’s blessing upon Jacob’s offspring coincides with the promises God gave Abraham [Gen. 13:14-17, 15:4-7] which pertained not only unto the Seed of Abraham and the nations of the world, but also to the Promised Land. We find the fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham in Jacob in Genesis 28.

(Gen 28:11-15) And he lighted6293 upon a certain place,4725 and tarried there all night,3885, 8033 because3588 the sun8121 was set;935 and he took3947 of the stones4480, 68 of that place,4725 and put7760 them for his pillows,4763 and lay down7901 in that1931 place4725 to sleep. (12)  And he dreamed,2492 and behold2009 a ladder5551 set up5324 on the earth,776 and the top7218 of it reached5060 to heaven:8064 and behold2009 the angels4397 [malak] of God430 ascending5927 [alah-] and descending3381 [yarad-] on it. (13)  And, behold,2009 the LORD3068 [Jehovah-] stood5324 [natsabstand erect like a pillar] above 5921 it, and said,559 I589 am the LORD3068 [Jehovah] God430 [elohim-] of Abraham85 thy father,1 and the God430 [elohim-plural of the Supreme God] of Isaac:3327 the land776 [erets-] whereon834, 5921 thou859 liest,7901 to thee will I give5414 it, and to thy seed; 2233 [zera-] (14And thy seed2233 [zera-] shall be1961 as the dust6083 of the earth,776 and thou shalt spread abroad6555 to the west,3220 and to the east,6924 and to the north,6828 and to the south:5045 and in thee and in thy seed2233 [zera-] shall all3605 the families4940 [mishpachah-] of the earth127 [adamah-] be blessed.1288 (15)  And, behold,2009 I595 am with5973 thee, and will keep8104 thee in all3605 places whither834 thou goest,1980 and will bring thee again7725 into413 this2063  land;127 for3588 I will not3808 leave5800 thee, until5704, 834, 518 I have done6213 (853) that which834  I have spoken1696 to thee of.

What was this place that Jacob came upon where his father Isaac, and his grandfather Abraham had built an altar? It was the exact location where Isaac was bound to the altarMount Moriah, the site that eventually became the holy city of Jerusalem, where Jacob was unwittingly lead in his trek through the desert that night, to this holy place. This confirms the witness of Micah 4:2 above regarding the star Markab, where the law shall
go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem… I have also included selected excerpts from Keil & Delitsch’ Commentary to enlighten our view and understanding of this record of “Jacob’s Ladder,” marked [K&D] below.

(K&D) Jacob’s Dream at Bethel.-“As he was traveling from Beersheba, where Isaac was then staying (Gen. 26:25), to Haran, Jacob came to a place where he was obliged to stop all night, because the sun had set. The words “he hit (lighted) upon the place,” indicate the apparently accidental, yet really divinely appointed choice of this place for his night-quarters; and the definite article points it out as having become well known through the revelation of God that ensued. After making a pillow with the stones (מְאֲשֹׁת, head-place, pillow), he fell asleep and had a dream,
in which he saw a ladder resting upon the earth, with the top [rosh] reaching to heaven; [as a stone ziggurat] and upon it angels of God going up and down, and Jehovah Himself standing above it. The ladder was a visible symbol of the real and uninterrupted fellowship between God in heaven and His people upon earth. The angels upon it carry up the wants of men to God, and bring down the assistance and protection of God to men. The ladder stood upon the earth, just where Jacob was lying in solitude, forsaken by men. Above in heaven stood Jehovah, explaining in words the symbol that he saw. Proclaiming Himself to Jacob as the God of his
fathers, He not only confirmed to him all the promises of the fathers in their fullest extent, but promised him protection on his journey and a safe return to his home (Gen. 28: 13-15). But the fulfillment of this promise to Jacob was still far off, so God added the firm assurance, “I will not leave thee till I have done
(carried out) what I have told thee.” 20

(Gen 28:16-17)  And Jacob3290 awaked3364 out of his sleep,4480, 8142 and he said,559 Surely403 the LORD3068 is3426 in this2088 place;4725 and I595 knew3045 it not.3808 (17)  And he was afraid,3372 and said,559 How4100  dreadful3372 is this2088 place!4725 this2088 is none369 other but3588, 518 the house1004 of God,430 [elohim-plural of the Supreme God] and this2088 is the gate8179 of heaven.8064

(K&D) Jacob spoke the impression made by this vision as soon as he awoke from sleep, in the words, “Surely Jehovah is in this place, and I knew it not.” The revelation was intended not only to stamp the blessing, with which Isaac had dismissed him from his home, with the seal of divine approval, but also to impress upon Jacob’s mind the fact, that although Jehovah would be near to protect and guide him in a foreign land, the land of promise was the holy ground on which the God of his fathers would set up the Covenant of His grace. The place was none other thanthe house of God and the gate of heaven,” i.e., a place where God dwelt, and a way that opened to Him in heaven. 21

Ever since Abraham heard the promise of God to bless his family, and seed took them with him, he had become a focus of the enemy, and the spirit realm, which intensified even more, when Moses lead the children of Israel out of Egypt.

The house of God; Beth-El and the gate of heaven refer to the future site of the Jerusalem Temple Mount. He explains that the foot of the ladder in Jacob’s dream was in Beersheba, and the top was in Luz. Therefore the ladder’s midsection was over Mount Moriah as the pivotal point of their encounter. When he awakened, Jacob realized he had visited the dwelling place of Godthe most intimate spot where Abraham’s prayers were answered in heaven. The Temple as God’s abode is fitting, since it was in the holiest of all that God revealed the Shekina glory (שכינה) of His Presence among His people. This makes the location, the so-called “axis-mundi” or center of the earth not only for Israel, but all mankind, as is fulfilled in the Christ millennium when all the world’s population will make a regular pilgrimage to Jerusalem to worship Christ as the King of Kings. We also find this truth in Gen. 28:14 above, where Jacob’s seed as the “dust of the earth” spreads to the cardinal directions of the compass; to the west, east, north, and south to bless all the families of the earth.

(Gen 28:18-19) And Jacob3290 rose up early7925 in the morning,1242and took3947 (853) the stone68 that 834 he had put7760 for his pillows,4763 [headrest] and set it up7760, (853) for a pillar,4676 [matstsebah-a station stone, a column, as a memorial stone or monument, Rachel’s grave marker, Gen. 35:14, 20, 2 Sam. 18:18, usually with religious import. Gen. 31:45, 35:14, Ex. 24:4, Isa. 19:19.]and poured3332 oil8081 upon5921 the top [H7218rosh] of it. (19) And he called7121 (853) the name8034 of that 1931 place4725 Bethel:1008 but199 the  name8034 of that city5892 was called Luz3870 at the first.7223

(K&D) In the morning Jacob set up the stone at his head, as a monument (מַצֵּבָה) to honor the revelation he had received from God; and poured oil upon the top, to consecrate it as a memorial of mercy shown him there, not an idol or object of divine worship, (Ex. 30:26). He then gave the place the name of Bethel, i.e., House of God, whereas (וְאוּלָם) the town had been called Luz before. He renewed it on his return from Mesopotamia (Gen. 35:15). This is confirmed by Gen. 48:3, where Jacob, like the historian in Gen. 35:6-7, speaks of Luz as the place of this revelation. (see K&D notes on Josh. 16:2). 22

(Gen 28:20-22)  And Jacob3290 vowed5087 a vow,5088 saying,559 If518 God430 will be1961 with5973 me, and will keep8104 me in this2088 way1870 that834 I595 go,1980 and will give5414 me bread3899 to eat,398 and raiment899 to put on,384(21) So that I come again7725 to413 my father’s1 house1004 in peace;7965 then shall the LORD3068 be1961 my God:430 (22) And this2063 stone,68 which834 I have set7760 for a pillar,4676 shall be1961 God’s430 house:1004 and of all3605 that834 thou shalt give5414 me
I will surely give the tenth6237, 6237 unto thee
.

(K&D)  Lastly, Jacob made a vow: that if God would give him the promised protection on his journey, and bring him back in safety to his father’s house, Jehovah should be his God (וְהָיָה in Gen. 28:21 commences the apodosis), the stone which he had set up should be a house of God, and Jehovah should receive a tenth of all that He gave to him. It is noted here, that Elohim is used in the protasis instead of Jehovah, as constituting the essence of the vow: if Jehovah, who had appeared to him, proved Himself to be God by fulfilling His promise, then he would acknowledge and worship Him as his God, by making the stone thus set up into a house of God, i.e., place of sacrifice, and by tithing all his possessions. With regard to the fulfillment of this vow, we learn from Gen. 35:7 that Jacob built an altar, and in dedicating the tenth to God, i.e., offered it to Jehovah; according to the analogy of Deut. 14:28-29 (cp. Gen. 31:5446:1). 23

According to H.G. Wood: “the ziggurat of Jupiter Belus at Babylon had an ideal basis in the number 360. He describes a 7-staged pyramid in which each of the six upper stages is 360 inches shorter than the one next below it: the base side was 3,600 inches, and the total height of the structure was 3,600 inches. Wood therefore concludes that: the entire system of ancient Babylonian metrology appears to have been derived from 360 x 360 x 100 or, 12,960,000.”24

noahs calendar

This number total (12,960,000) happens to be half the length of solar years in the precession of the equinoxes showing the precessional basis of timekeeping as an ancient temporal standard related to Noah’s calendar. This perfect template of the cosmic order is based on the beauty of the precessional pattern, as seen in the sun’s trajectory through it’s annual course, where it “dwells” in each of the 12 houses of the mazzaroth for a month. The Sun moves in its circuit at a rate of 12 miles per second or 43,200 miles per hour (1/3 of 1,296,000) as it carries its train of planets in our solar system, and shedding its light upon the earth within the boundaries of the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn. As the Sun illuminates the earth for twelve hours each day; (43,200 seconds), and since there are 86,400 seconds in each 24-hour day, we find the earth moving through 1,296,000 arc-seconds every 24 hours. It is also interesting to note that the diameter of the sun is 86,400 miles, thus the time it takes for the sun’s light to cover the space of the earth’s surface relates to it’s own diameter. A key difference between the Great Pyramid and other Temple-ziggurats of the world, is the steps built into the heathen temple-towers like as in Mexico above or other nations, did not violate God’s standard not to build steps in His altars; [Ex. 20:22-26], which the smooth external surfaces of the Great Pyramid, complied with.

Gen. 28:22b And this2063 stone,68 which834 I have set7760 for a pillar,4676 shall be1961 God’s430 house1004

The Stone [Eben-H68] that Jacob set up for a pillar [H4676] is the same word used in Isa. 19:19 for the Great Pyramid, the prototypical “stone ladder.” [Gen. 11:4, Ex. 14:2 Ezek. 29:10, 30:6, Jer. 44:1, 46:14ziggurat-tower [migdol-H4026] of Babel. In Gen. 28: 18, 22, 31:13, 35, 51, 52 etc.  This same word for pillar” [H4676] is used for Jacob’s Ladder and the stone Jacob used as a pillow” and later made into an altar respecting his Covenant with God. 25

pillar”- H4676 {matstsebah}from H5324, in Isaiah 19:19. Something stationed, a column, memorial stone, a monument usually with religious significance. The root means to stand erectestablish boundaries, be firm and healthy. {Ex. 7:15; 34:2, Ps. 82:1, Gen. 28:18, 22; Micah 5:12, II Kgs. 3:2, 10:26, 18:4}. 18 John 2: 19 also uniquely depicts Christ-the signal-beacon embodied in the Jerusalem stone-temple, reflecting his image as the chief cornerstone in the Great Pyramid. The boundaries marked by the Great Pyramid not only mark the borders of Egypt, but also the borders of the promised land boundaries in God’s Word.

Figure G. The Great Pyramid Squaring the Circle. 26
Great Pyramid and Squaring the Circle

The Pyramid is designed that for all practical purposes it accomplishes the squaring of the circle. The Pyramid’s base is a square whose perimeter is equal to the circumference of a circle whose radius is the Pyramid’s height. The square holds the Earth ‘s dimensions seen in the base of the Pyramid, while the circle is a reflection of the heavens seen not only in its unique location at the center of landmass for our planet, but also as a scale model of our planet’s dimensions on a 1 to 43.200 basis.

As Jacob’s Ladder embodied future site of the Beth-el Tabernacle and Hebrew Temple, it reveals deeper truths as Israel’s High Priest had access to God’s personal presence in the holy of the holies with the Ark of the Covenant, only once a year on the Day of Atonement. Hebrews tells us Christ is this High Priest after the order of Melchisedek, with an everlasting Priesthood and final perfect sacrifice for all mankind. In certain ancient sacred Geometry traditions, the relation of the Diameter to the Circumference, embodied in the pi ratio, symbolized the Names of GodElohim and Jehovah. With Elohim, the Creator as the Circumference, of the curved line formingcircle as the totality of His Creation, and in Jehovah, the straight line Diameter, as God relates to His handiworks. Thus the pi ratio embodies the geometrical expressions of diameter and circumference, embody these Names of God. We find the basic elements of the concept of “squaring the circle” in 2D: the Circle’s diameter inscribed in the circumference of a Circle surrounding Sphere inside a Cube, in 3D. In I Kings 7:30, the circular Brasen Sea is contained withinsquare base. This principle survived through the centuries via domed sacred architecture of many temples and churches, where the circular dome is surrounded by a square building. It is notable that the Holiest of all, with the Ark of the Covenant, was a perfect cube, within a double-square ground-plan of the Hebrew Tabernacle.

These names of God embody some of the powers of His traits or attributes which make our God Who He is. A key to grasping the 40+ Attributes of God as Rev. Jon Nessle and I have cataloged them, as they relate to the special traits of God referred to as Essences, is summarized in the Chart below. When God’s Word refers to a certain Trait by saying God IS ___. These traits are His very essence- or essential character. These four traits, all mentioned in the Gospel of JohnLightSpirit and Love, are found in their 3 main categories of God’s Attributes, with the fourth, the Spoken and written Word of God, explaining them in detail. 27

Elohim El/Elah Jehovah
Infinitude Holiness Monarchy
Light Spirit Love
                           The Word of God

As Jehovah rules the Monarchy of His Kingdom by the laws of God’s Love, so His geometric order is seen in how the Circle and Square represent Elohim and Jehovah in the Figure H graphic below, the Square with its axes represents the Great Pyramid, and how Christ embodies this version of the sacred architecture as seen in the many references to him as the Chief Cornerstone, and the missing Capstone of the Pyramid, [Job 38:16, Ps.118:22, Isa. 28:16, Zech. 4:7, Matt. 21:42, Mk.12:10, Lk. 20:17, Acts 4:11, Eph. 2:20, I Pet. 2:6-7]. The Gift ministries of the spiritual body of the Church in Christ are the foundation of this body, as the ministers manifest Christ in them., to the members of the Spiritual body of Christ.

Ephesians 2:20 (KJV)

20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophetsJesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone;

We should note how both sets of hands and feet of the Vitruvian Man are touching the boundaries, one of the Circle and the other of the square, representing how Christ embodies the Godly Attributes of both Elohim
and Jehovah. One of the best examples of how Jesus embodies some of the Jehovah titles is found in reference to 7 redemptive Names of God, in unity with the 7 aspects of the Shepherd in the 23rd Psalm, in the Chart below as more evidence of this Godly septenary order.

Seven Redemptive Names of God in the Shepherd of Ps. 23

Jehovah
Names
OT Feasts Moses Christ Church Ps. 23
Jireh
Gen. 22:13
Unleavened Bread Ex. 12; 19, Levi. 23:6-8. Manna
Jn. 6:31
Bread
Jn. 6:35
Communion
Body 
I Cor. 11: 23-34
Pastures
v.2
Rapha
Ex. 15:26
Passover
Ex. 12,  Levi 23:4-5,
Num. 28:16
Passover Lamb/Light
Jn. 8:12
Communion
Blood 
I Cor. 11: 23-34
Restores Soul v. 3
Nissi
Ex. 17:15
Atonement
Levi 16, 23:26-33,
Rod
Ex. 7:10
Door
Jn. 10:7
Christ in You
Rom. 8:35-9
Rod & Staff
v. 4
Shalom
Jdg. 6:21-24
Tabernacles
Ex. 23:16, 33-44.
Cloud
Ex.14:14-19
Way, Truth, Life
Jn. 14:6
Prince of Peace
Eph. 2:14-18
Still Waters
v. 1
Tsidkenu
Jer. 23:6
Trumpets
Ex. 19-20
Levi. 23:23-25,
Law
Gal. 3:24
Faith
Rom. 10:9-10
JC Faith
Jn. 11:25
Right paths
v. 2
Shammah
Ezek. 48:35
Pentecost
Ex. 23:16
Levi. 23:9-22
Tabernacle-Ark Vine
Jn. 15:1
Holy Spirit
Jn. 4:23-24
With me
v. 4
Raah
Shepherd-
Ps. 23
Octave
Levi. 23:36, 39, Ezek. 37:1-14
Shepherd of Israel
Ex. 3
Good Shepherd
Jn. 10:11-15
Love
Rom.5:5
Loves Sheep
v. 6

The importance of relating pi to septenary units is obvious in a Biblical light as we consider Elohim’s abundant use of the number 7 in His ordering of Creation, for example in the temporal order of the 7 days in the weekly Sabbath, a week of years, the Jubilee, and the 7 Biblical DispensationsOnly from God’s viewpoint in His Word, do these applications of the pi ratio seen in Job make sense. As we find in Job 38:5 with the Biblical usage of the Hebrew word “qav,” as Ps. 19 refers to the Creator’s exercise of the of Pi, in reference to the ecliptic, that far exceeds any previous application of it by mankind. Only He could apply the pi ratio to the ecliptic.

This is also true with the spherical dimensions of our planet, a concept which is borne out in much greater detail, in the role of pi in the symbolic and architectural design of the Great PyramidLivio Stechini, a modern scholar analyzing the work of these ancient and modern Pyramid researchers, focused on the meridian triangle of the Great Pyramid, which give excellent values for both the Pi and Phi ratios, of the four triangles on the four faces of the Great Pyramid. Agatharchides presented dimensions for two meridian sections of the Great Pyramid based on Pi, with the other two triangular sections based on Phi. 28 Vitruvian Man shows Jehovah reaching out to humanity through Jesus His only begotten Son, as the diameter line that connects the centerpoint [Man-creation] to the Creator- the eternal Circle, outside Creation. Thus, Christ is witnessed as the mediator between God and Man [I Tim. 2:5].

Figure. H. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images. 29

Image result for Golden Ratio Great Pyramid of Giza

We also find in the 4 triangular sides of the Pyramidtwo sides each measured by the pi/phi ratios, with Christ as the chief cornerstone. This shows us how the Great Pyramid mirrors heaven and earth, by squaring the 2D circle, and cubing the expanded 3D sphere in a cosmology that has been reflected with various imagery through the myths of many world cultures, all finding their ultimate meaning in the key touchstone of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy to help us discern the times wherein we reside. As Jesus said in Matthew;

Matthew 16:2-3 
He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is redAnd in the morning, It will be foul weather today: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

 Figure I. The Great Pyramid Squaring the Circle. 30

Luke 12:39-40
39 
And this know, that if the good-man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through. 
40 Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not41 Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all? 42 And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?
43 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.

As the time of the Lord’s return draws nearer, we must not only discern the times, but also know what action to take to be ready and faithful. A faithful servant will know how to prevent his house from being robbed, to insure that his spiritual inheritance and reward is not stolen or lost, aiding others in ministry doing the same.

God in Christ in us, is with us to a greater extent than at any time up to now, and we are equipped with all His enablements to accomplish what he has called us to do! our collective answer should be “Here I Am Father, Send me!

God Bless!

Rene’


Footnotes

1 Plate 1. The Great Pyramid Bisects the Boundaries of the Nile Delta. picture credit, Decoding the Great Pyramid Peter Lemesurier, pg. 12.
2. IBID, p. 18-19
3. IBID. p. 19
4. Pillar of Enoch Ministries, Lehman- Picture credit; Figure B.
5. Strong’s Concordance for H3245, H3248, H4143, & H4976. James Strong.
6. The Great Pyramid Decoded, Peter Lemesurier, p.193 [picture credit-Figure D.]
7. Strong’s Concordance for [H8432tavek], James Strong.
8. IBID, [H4676matstsebah]
9. Strong’s Concordance for [H1366-gebul], James Strong.
10. http://ancients-bg.com/the-sacral-geometry-of-the-great-pyramid/
11. Picture credit on Jupiter’s location, near the Pegasus Square from EarthSkyOct. 2022.
12. Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins p. 297
13. IBID
14. Figure E. Axis “E” on the Dendera Zodiac crossing the Pegasus Square, picture credit.
15. https://www.academia.edu/22401454/On_Chinese_Astrology_s_Imperviousness_to_External_Influences
16. Star Names-Their Lore and Meaning, p. 35. R. Hinckley Allen
17. Witness of the Stars, p. 90,  E.W. Bullinger
18. IBID
19. Strong’s Concordance [H1004-bayith], James Strong
20. Keil & Delitsch’ Commentary on Gen. 28:11-15
21. IBID Gen. 28:16-17
22.  IBID Gen. 28:18-19
23. IBID Gen. 28:20-22
24. Ancient Metrology, H.G. Wood
25. Strong’s Concordance; [Eben-H68], [H4676], James Strong
26. www.cropcirclesandmore.com [Bert Janssen] picture credit
27. One God of Original Christianity Session 15 Supplemental file, Jon Nessle
28. Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins, Livio Stechini ppg. 373-375
29. Figure. H. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images, picture credit.
30. www.cropcirclesandmore.com [Bert Janssen] picture credit

 

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