Synopsis of the Celestial Prelude Part 2.

Birth of Jesus Christ
Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ

Synopsis of the Celestial Prelude Part 2.
Jesus Christ the Chief Cornerstone

As a brief review of the previous session, the Rev. 12:1 configuration of the sun and moon in the constellation Virgo was observed in Jerusalem between sunset and moonset, during evening twilight in the 20 days that the Sun was in Virgo, from Aug. 27th to Sept. 15th, 3BC. On Sept. 11, 3 BC, sunset occurred at 6:18 P.M. and moonset at 7:39 P.M. According to Rev. 12, it was during this 81-minute period that Jesus Christ was born and took his first breath of life to become a living soul. This new day, the first day of the new month of Tishri 1, 3BC, was marked by sighting of the New Moon, the sliver of the Crescent Moon marking the birth of the Son of God, and 2nd Adam, Jesus Christ. The description in Revelation 12:1 provides a precise astronomical record of this evening of September 11th, 3 B.C. We also reviewed the material on The Summary of the Celestial Prelude. It will benefit the reader to check the details of these teaching notes, as they have been expanded to fill in certain aspects and features of the original teaching from Rev. Nessle’s class on 12-12-23.

Tishri 1 was also the anniversary of Creation, but even more-so the renewal of Creation, foreshadowing the Return of the Lord when the waiting of the earnest expectation of creation will be fulfilled, as the manifestation of the sons of God is realized, and the whole of creation groans and travails in pain together, even as the Saints await the redemption of our bodies, [Rom. 8:18-23]. This also aligns with the truth that Tishri 1 was the first day of the New Year-the day of Trumpets and the inception of the Jewish civil Year, from the times of Moses back to Noah and prior. Gen. 8:13 tells us Noah turned 600 years old on this day, also when he first found the dry land to reappear. This shows us on the Patriarch Noah’s birthday, where God was able to restart the human race afresh in Noah’s family, even as our planet Earth was reborn after the cleansing flood removed the evil violence [hamas-H2555; Gen. 6:11], of that generation off the face of the earth.

Revelation 12:2 tells us the woman was in labor, near birth. Since there is only one of the 12 constellations on the ecliptic that is a woman, we know these signs took place in Virgo, the virgin. Rev. 12:3-4 reveal that the Enemy was cast out of heaven with his plan to kill the child as soon as he was born. In v. 4-5 the woman completes her labor, birthing the Christ-child, Jesus, providing clear acceptance  of this child as the promised seed Jesus-the Christ, and Messiah.

Jesus Christ was born on Wednesday, September 11, 3 B.C., between 6:18 and 7:39 P.M., Jerusalem time. On this day, the new moon first became visible in the western sky shortly after sunset, on the 1st day of a new month. This singular day in history, saw the star Spica in Virgo in the process of setting between the Sun and Moon. #1

Since Jesus was born on Tishri 1, 3 BC between sunset starting @ 6:15-6:18 P.M. and moonset @ 7:39 -7:45 P.M. These setting times are from Dr. Ernest Martin, in his book “The Star that Astonished the World” #2 and the book “Jesus Christ our Promised Seed,” #3 by V.P. Wierwille. Together they provide a range of times we are showing. We should also notice that Spica, would have set mere minutes after sunset on Sept. 11th. The star Spica in Virgo-teaches “Branchprophecies; in [Isa. 4:2, Jer. 23:5, Zech. 3:8, 6:12], embodied in Christ in the 4 Gospels as King in Matthew, Son of Man in Luke, Servant in Mark, and Son of God in John. We find the star Spica in Virgo’s hand, as the first a bunch of harvested wheat. The setting time of the star Spica was 17 min. after sunset, which I believe sets the time parameters for Christ’s birth-down to the minute, based on lunar sighting conditions of the first sliver of the Crescent Moon, marking the start of the new month of Tishri, at the equinox of this historic evening. This puts Jesus’ birth time range related to Spica’s setting time @ 6:32-6:35 PM, 17 minutes after sunset.

Fig. 1. “The “Great wonder” of Rev. 12:1 Sunset, 6:18 P.M., Sept. 11, 3 BC. #4

Virgo Clothed with the Sun on 9-11-3BC

The diagram shows the sun half-way set. The sun is on the ecliptic, the dotted line, and the solid line is the celestial equator, which is directly overhead at the earth’s equator. At this point, the first thin crescent of the moon appears, at Virgo’s feet, marking the first of the new month, Tishri. #4a

In this graphic we find the exact azimuth of Spica/Al Zemach @ 90 degrees East on the Celestial Equator, or due East/West @ the Fall Equinox position. This is key due to its alignment with the Cardinal points of the compass N,S,
E,W. As key aspects of the Planisphere, built upon the Ecliptic and celestial Equator, they encompass the 48 signs of the ancient Mazzaroth, including the 12 signs of the ecliptic with their 36 decans. Even as the star Spica/Al Zemach represents how Christ embodies the four Gospels @ the four quarters of the heavens, as the four chapters of the Celestial Gospel, so Christ embodies all Creation as the missing Chief Cornerstone that fits atop the Great Pyramid, uniting its 4 triangular sides as the most accurately oriented structure to these cardinal points of the ecliptic in history, built as an exact model of the northern hemisphere of our planet, on the dimensions of 1 to 43,200, from pole to the equator.

The diagram in the imbedded link for Figure 2 below provides a view and way to conceptualize how Christ as the missing capstone & “chief cornerstone” not only embodies how he encapsulates the entire Great Pyramid, but as a model of the whole, unifies & sits atop the body of the Pyramid bringing together its 4 triangular sides at its apex. [https://fb.watch/piRp51-qjN/]

This embodies how earth’s northern Hemisphere, encapsulates the Great Pyramid that is geometrically mirrored in the heavens, its capstone symbolic of the terrestrial North Pole, projected to the Celestial North Polar star, as a 3D map of both our planet and the heavens. Here the righteous Son/ Sun [Mal. 4:2] symbolizes an ancient knowledge of a Sun-centered Solar System, millennia prior to the “Copernican Revolution,” also witnessed in how the central candle enlightens the entire Hebrew Menorah, [Rev. 1:20].

Jupiter Crowning Regulus
Fig. 3 Jupiter Crowning Regulus in 3-2 BC. #5

The Rev. 12 sign was not the only astronomical event on September 11, 3 B.C. From sunset in the evening of Wednesday, September 11 to sunset of the next day-the 12th, the first of 3 Jupiter-Regulus conjunctions would have been visible to the Magi, as Jupiter could be seen approaching Regulus in the pre-dawn light of Sept. 12th. At this time the king planetJupiter was visible in approach of the king star-Regulus and brightest star on the ecliptic, in the sign Leo, the Lion of Judah, as it was from Judah’s seed that the promised seed and Messiah, appeared.

These four-fold truths related to the Star Spica/Al-Zemach are established in our realization that the King star Regulus is not just a single star but embodies 4 stars in the sky. Although appearing as a single star, Regulus is actually a quad-ruple star system [a.] composed of four stars that are organized into two pairs. The spectroscopic binary [b.] Regulus A is a blue-white main-sequence [c.] star and its companion, which has not yet been directly observed, but is probably a white dwarf. [d.] This is evident when viewed through a smaller telescope- with a minimal 50x magnification, Regulus is visible as two objects separated by 177 arcseconds; [177 arcseconds].#[e.] The Brighter of the two is called Regulus A, and the fainter-Regulus B. A cooler “orange” dwarf star [dwarf star]-[f.] Regulus B has a mass equal to 80% of our Sun’s, but only half as bright, and a surface temp. of 4,885 kelvin, [8,333 F or 4612 C], shining at [magnitude 8.1]. [g.] [B: a spectral classification of K2 VM4 V.] [h. h.a]

Regulus B, also has its own companion called Regulus C, but @ a mag. of 13.5, it’s only visible with powerful telescopes. With only 1/3 the mass of our Sun, the red dwarf star-Regulus C [red dwarf ] [i.] is bound by gravity to Regulus B as a gravitational partner called Regulus BC. The last measurements taken between 1867 and 1943 showed distances ranging from 4.0 to 2.5 arcseconds, but no new measurements are available. The fourth star in the Regulus system hasn’t been directly resolved by imaging, but its presence was revealed by spectroscopic analysis of Regulus A. [spectroscopic analysis]. [j.] Astronomers think this may be a close orbiting white dwarf [white dwarf] [k.] star and spectroscopic partner. There is a star known as Regulus D, but it is not linked to Regulus A. Instead, it points out a 12th mag. star located 212 arcseconds from the Regulus system. For decades people believed this star to be a companion of Regulus, but recent studies from the Gaia Satellite [Gaia satellite] [l.] show this to be a background star unrelated to the Regulus system. Thus, the 4fold Biblical symbolism of the star Spica/Al-Zemach carries through to the star Regulus in Leo, the Lion of Judah, visible to the Magi on the same night they saw the Star of Bethlehem. This also provides added linkage between the Bethlehem star in Virgo, and the 1st Jupiter-Regulus conjunction in Leo the Lion, as witnessed by the Celestial Sphinx signs. This also brings to mind the The Great Pyramid’s alignment with the King star Regulus on the feast of Trumpets-Sept. 20th, 2017 as seen in the graphic below, according the Christ angle of the ascending/descending passages. As this took place, the Great Pyramid’s apex alignment with the star Al Nitak, the 1st 3 of Orion’s belt stars, linking the Pyramid’s chief cornerstone to the belt of the “wounded one,” relating again to Gen. 3:15.

Figure 4.  Great Pyramid Regulus-Venus and Apex-Al Nitak alignments.

The Great Pyramid embodies the Christ-centered squared-circle geometry as seen in the Pyramid’s cap-stone. In Scripture, the words; “sun,” “headstone,” and “cornerstone” all share the same Hebrew gematria value of 53. In Greek the word “Son” shares this number value, of 530, tells us the Pyramid’s top-stone, embodied in the Lord Jesus Christ, is “the Saviour” [432] and “foundation” [432] of “all things” [432] as a “great sign” [432symbolizing the light of the Sun [Ps. 19:4], whose radius is [432,000 miles], or half the Sun’s diameter; [864,000 mi.] matches the “cornerstone” [864], “the word of the Lord from Jerusalem” [864] in [Mic. 4:2]. #m  In Figure 4 above we find the ascending and descending passages of the Great Pyramids two primary interior passageways-dotted red line. They appear linked to the Doctrine of the Two Ways, one going up to the King’s Chamber, and the other down to the pit. It also features the missing 5th, cornerstone-the central capstone, who is Christ as the Chief Cornerstone, the head-stone at the Pyramid’s apex unifying the cornerstones of it’s base, “the stone that the builder’s rejected,” (Ps. 118: 21-23).

Several ancient cultures designated four bright stars in the zodiac as the “four corners of the earth” or the “four royal stars.” At the time the constellations were drawn by Shem, these four stars were near the sun’s location in the sky on the first day of autumn, winter, spring and summer, considered as 4 of the most important locations in the sky. These four stars were well known at the four corners of the ecliptic, the first being the bright red star, Antares that anciently marked the autumnal equinox, where the sun appears on the first day of autumn. The next star Fomalhaut, was also a bright star, marking winter. This is followed by Aldebaran, another very bright red star located 180.0° opposite on the ecliptic from Antares, precisely marking the Spring Equinox when Antares marked the Autumn. Finally, the bright star Regulus, located almost exactly on the ecliptic, marked summer. Regulus, was “the Prince,” and traditional leader of these four royal stars.[n]

Each of these four royal stars was in one constellation of the 12 Mazzaroth signs on the ecliptic. Antares is found in the heart of the Scorpion (Scorpius). In Aquarius-Fomalhaut is located at the end of the waters being poured out by the Water Bearer. Aldebaran is located at the eye of the Bull (Taurus). Finally, Regulus is located in the heart of the Lion (Leo), the king of the royal stars. These are called the four cornerstone constellations not only as they form the square base of the Great Pyramid, when mirrored in the sky they form the corners of a great square in the ecliptic, as the basis of the idea of ‘squaring the circle,’ or ‘cubing the sphere’ as they also embody a foundation to under-stand the Gospel in the Stars.

Two of these ‘royal stars’ intersect in two of these constellations. Antares is not only the heart of the Scorpion, but also is found under heel of the Serpent-Bearer (Ophiuchus), [o] who is encircled by a great serpent (Serpens) and who is crushing the head and heart of the Scorpion-Antares. The second pair is the bright star of the Southern fishFomalhaut-not only in the stream of Aquarius, but also in the Head of the Southern Fish (Piscis Australis).[p] 

This great fish is pictured drinking in the “stream of living waters” from Aquarius, but these are not the only star names shared in different signs. Also we find the star namedSaiph,” meaning “bruised” [Gen 3:15] in the heel of Ophiuchus at one end of the Planisphere axis, matched at the other end with a star of the same name in Orion’s foot, as it crushes the serpent enemy at both ends of this axis.

In the case of the Scorpion/Serpent pair, there is a third constellation closely linked to them-the Eagle (Aquila), located near the serpent’s tail. The Eagle typifies the enemy of the serpent and is often shown in flight with the Serpent in its claws, even as the Serpent Bearer crushes Scorpius underfoot.

i. Four Faces of the Cherubim. Both Ezekiel and John the Revelator describe creatures which correspond to the four cornerstone constellations. Ezekiel describes creatures with four faces: the face of a lion, of an ox, of a man and  an eagle, later reveals them as a special class of angel-Cherubim (Ezek. 1:10, 10:14, 20-22). The first three of those forms correspond to the Lion, the Bull, and the Water Bearer constellations. The 4th corresponds to the Eagle, the decan often substituted for the serpent/scorpion when symbolizing the celestial aspect of the fourth cornerstone. This relates to the same substitution of the Tribe of Dan-called a serpent by the way, as they were the first tribe to introduce idolatry to the other tribes of Israel.

John the Revelator also describes four creatures, each of which is found on one side of the throne of God. One was like a lion, one like a calf, one like a man, and one like a flying eagle (Rev. 4:7). Here we see the same 4 lifeforms in correspondence to the 4 constellations, but in the reverse order as they are found on the ecliptic. This may not only put the leader first, but also have ramifications for the reverse order of ecliptic signs relative to precession.

ii. Four Principal Tribes of Israel. Jacob (Israel) had 12 sons, and each of them is linked in God’s Word with one of the 12 constellations of the zodiac[q] Hebrew scholars have expressed uncertainty of the correspondence of all twelve, but the four references to the royal constellations are clear from Scripture. They are the four principal tribes: Reuben, Judah, Dan, and Joseph.

Figure 5. Aquarius and the Southern Fish. [r.] 

The Message in the Stars - Aquarius - Berean Insights

The Water Bearer pours out a river into the Southern Fish.

Each of those four tribes is associated with one of the royal constellations in the blessing given them by Jacob or Moses. Reuben was told he is “unstable as water,” alluding to the Water Bearer. The name Reuben, means “Behold a son,” also ties him to the Water Bearer, among the zodiac signs, having the figure of a man. He is also mentioned as being over the “excellency of power” (Gen. 49:3-4)

Judah is a lion’s whelp” (Gen. 49:9) ties him to the Lion. Moreover, John refers to Christ as “the lion of the tribe of Judah” (Rev. 5:5), establishing the linkage of Judah to the lion. The Lion represents the King, and Judah began the royal lineage through which the Davidic line of kings came. The name Judah means “praised,” suggesting that this line of kings in the Christ-Line through him (especially Christ) would be praised.

Dan shall be a serpent…that bites the horse heels” (Gen. 49:17), which parallels the symbolism of the Scorpion/Serpent, depicted stinging the Serpent Bearer in the heel. The name Dan means “judge” and the serpent symbolizes the wisdom of a judge. The serpent in Eden was acknowledged as  being one of the wisest of his creatures. For example, the Lord has admonished his servants to be “wise as serpents and harmless as doves.” The kind of wisdom referred to especially refers to that of being a good judge. Antares, the bright star in the scorpion, found at the heart, acknowledged as the seat of wisdom. For example, the Lord put wisdom into the heart of King Solomon so that he could judge his people wisely (2 Chron. 1:11-12, 1 Kings 10:24; cp, Exo. 26:2, Ecc. 8:5, Job 38:36).

Finally, Joseph is compared to a wild ox, with Joseph’s son’s Ephraim and Manasseh compared to its two horns (Deut. 33:17). The Hebrew word refers to an extinct species of wild ox which has two long forward pointing horns, as seen in the sign of Taurus the Bull. The bright star in the Bull represents its eye, which is the symbol of a seer (one who “sees”). Joseph was a great seer, so the Bull was appropriate for his sign. The name Joseph means “Jehovah has added,” probably referring to his multitude of descendants. Thus, each of the four principal tribes of Israel is explicitly correlated in the blessings of Jacob to one of the four cornerstone constellations.

iii. Balaam’s Prophecy. The same imagery was repeated in the prophecy of Balaam about the destiny of Israel. He mentions that Israel shall pour water out of his buckets” (Reuben/Water Bearer), “he lay down as a lion” (Judah/ Lion) and he hasthe strength of an unicorn” (Joseph/Bull), and shall “break their bones” as does either an eagle or constrictor serpent (Dan; Num. 24:7-9). The fact that again all four figures correspond to the cornerstone symbolism indicates that this prophecy refers to the constellations associated with these tribes.

iv. Banners and Directions. Each of 12 tribes of Israel had a flag or banner with its sign. The Hebrew word for “sign” is translated “ensign” in the KJV Bible (Num. 2:2), but Hebrew commentators make it clear that the signs also refer to zodiac constellations. According to tradition, the figure of a man was found on Reuben’s banner, a lion on Judah’s, a serpent on Dan’s, and a bull on Joseph’s (Son’ Ephraim, who took his place). Their camp, in the wilderness reflected the  four banners facing these four directions: Judah facing East, Reuben facing South, Ephraim facing West, and Dan facing North, (Num 2:3,10,18,25).

v. Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength. The four cornerstone constellations also reflect 4D mankind in the symbolic four aspects of living souls: the emotional, spiritual, mental and physical. An example where the Lord seems to notice  these categories is when he tells us to serve him with all our “heart, soul, mind and strength” (Mk. 12:13). Thus “heart, soul, mind and strength” refers to human emotional, spiritual, mental, and physical aspects. Note that again these four align with the same order as the four cornerstone constellations. We also find evidence of this pattern in the four types of human personalities.

vi. Elements. The Lord also uses the symbols of fire, wind, water, and earth to represent these four aspects of living creatures. For example, he stated that “ye were born into the world by water, and blood, and the spirit, and so became of dust a living soul…” [Earth, wind, fire, water]

vii. Four Hebrew Tabernacle Colors. The Lord commanded Moses to use four colors of cloth repeated throughout the tabernacle, especially for embroidering images of the cherubim. They were blue, purple, scarlet, and linen (white), nearly always stated in that order (Ex. 26:31, 36; 27:16; 28:5-15). Those are the same as the four colors of the cherubim. 

 viii. Colors. The four elements are also represented by four colors. Red seen in fire, blood, and emotions. White represents the spiritual, just as white clothing symbolizes purity used for baptisms and sacred ceremonyPurple represents royalty as seen in Leo the Lion of the tribe of Judah. The water is blue symbolizing Peace and the spirit. These colors are also found in the Hebrew Tabernacle repeated throughout, especially in representation of the cherubim. [Ex. 26:31, 36, 27:16, 28:5-15]

A strong indicator of these four aspects in the stars is the placement of each of the royal stars sign. Regulus is located at the heart of the Lion and the color associated with Judah/East/Lion is red. The heart is considered the center of the emotions and red is the color of blood/fire, the element linked  with the emotions. Thus the red lion of Judah is linked to the emotions. Red is linked to Adam the first man/servant of God in the gospel of Mark that embodies the emotional aspect of mankind.

The ancient Greeks described Taurus as a snow-white bull. Aldebaran, the first magnitude star is located at the eye of the Bull. The eye is symbolic of a seer, as was Joseph of Egypt, associated with the Bull. Thus, the Bull is symbolic of spiritual strength, and especially the gift ministry of being a Prophet/Seer.

Blue is symbolic of peaceful tranquility, that goes with the wisdom of a good judge. When applied with a gift ministry it is the wisdom that is from above, which is first pure, peaceable and gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits [Gal. 5:22] as part of the fruits of righteousness, sown in Peace of them that make peace. This is how we can emulate the Prince of Peace, to promote true and genuine peace and Justice.

Fomalhaut is located in the head of the Southern Fish. This aligns with the mental powers. The color that is associated with this direction may vary: it can be blue, representing water. As we utilize the colors of the Tabernacle,  their scriptural basis provides us the solid foundation of God’s Word to draw our conclusions from, and avoid speculation.

Antares is located at the heart of the Scorpion. The heart is the seat of wisdom, and the scorpion/serpent symbolizes wisdom. The heart/chest can also symbolize physical/emotional strength.

Thus, the placement of all four of the royal stars in the cornerstone signs is consistent with the symbolism of emotional, spiritual, mental and physical aspects of all living souls. Note also that spiritual and physical aspects are opposite each other in the circle (white opposite purple), as are the mental and emotional (blue opposite red), also found in the Yin/Yang symbol.

It is Christ as the Crown and Apex, firstborn of all Creation, the Second Adam, who embodies the fullness of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 28:16], who completes the superstructure of both the physical [in Jerusalem] and spiritual Temples– [spiritual body] of his churches in the Bride of Israel and the NT Church of the Believer’s in Christendom, [Eph. 2:18-22]. In this way, the light of heaven is shed on the earth in Christ, the Son/Sun of righteousness [Ps. 19, Mal. 4:2] who rules over all Creation as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. [Gen. 1:14-17]. We also find this pattern of the four points of the compass in star & planet signs marking the birth of Christ.

Plate 1. The Great Pyramid and the Squared Circle. [#s]

The pattern of eastern access to the Temple and Tabernacle is also found in the order of the celestial signs surrounding the birth of Christ. We find this in the pattern of the 3 Jupiter-Venus Conjunctions, marking Christ’s birth that occurred from 3 to 1 BC. The first Conjunction was in the final degree of Cancer, near its zero line border with Leo. The second was fully in Leo, while the third was in Virgo. These three signs represent the eastern quarter of the zodiac of Israel, the heavenly image of the eastern side of the wilderness camp of the Israelites, the entrance or Way to the Door of the holy place (the truth) in the Hebrew Tabernacle. In Genesis 3:24, after God rejected Adam and Eve from Paradise, He protected the Way of the Tree of Life on the east of Eden, with the Cherubim’s fiery sword, until the redeemer could come to reactivate the way of salvation and eternal life with God, for humanity. This door ultimately led to the altar of the holy of holies, (the Life) in the inner heart of God’s temple- Sanctuary, containing the Ark of the Covenant. A temporal progression of these conjunctions perfectly matches the divine pattern of Israel’s tribal arrangement on the eastern side of the TabernacleJudah/Leo was due east of the entrance to the holy of the holies, via the holy place, centrally located between the other two eastern tribes of Issachar/Cancer and Zebulon/Virgo. This eastern door to the Tabernacle represents the way, the truth, and the life, of John 14:6, which is embodied in Jesus Christ as the light of the world, and the door of the sheep, the Good Shepherd [Jn.10], the true way which leads unto life.

The truths of Jesus as the Shepherd are vividly seen in 3 Psalms 2223 and 24, showing the sufferings and glory of the Lord. As Prophet, the Good Shepherd gave his life not only for the sheep, but for the safe-keeping of all people who would come unto him [John 10:11]. As the High Priest and the Great Shepherd, he is the first, last and only door, the alpha and omega, providing the way of access via his resurrection [Heb. 13:20] unto life, into the genuine spiritual fellowship with our Heavenly Father. As the King and Chief Shepherd, his return exhibits his final glory, coming as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, [I Pet. 5:4, Rev. 19:16].

Thus, like the eastern shepherd, Jesus Christ embodies Jehovah-Nissi: the redemptive name for God protecting His people, [Ps. 23:1].

The Door, or gate giving access to the holiest of all was covered by a veil in both the Temple & Tabernacle. The veil of the Tabernacle, which hung on four pillars, separated the holy of the holies, the central point of God’s presence among His people, from the holy place. Woven into the fabric of this linen veil, Cherubim were depicted, as a special class of angels who are always prominent in God’s throne-room. They are uniquely pictured as having four faces that correspond to the “four royal signs” of the zodiac, ruling the four-corners or celestial pillars of heaven, previously seen in Numbers 24:7-9.

Plate 2.The Molten Sea of the OT Jerusalem Temple. # [t.]
Stonehenge 27

In I Kings, the design record of the ten brazen bases of the smaller Brass Lavers, provide a strong clue that links the Cherubim with these four Cardinal Directions.

I Kings 7:25-30
25It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east: and the sea was set above upon them, and all their hinder parts were inward. 26And it was an hand breadth thick, and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies: it contained two thousand baths. 27And he made ten bases of brass; four cubits was the length of one base, and four cubits the breadth thereof, and three cubits the height of it. 28And the work of the bases was on this manner: they had borders, and the borders were between the ledges: 29And on the borders that were between the ledges were lions, oxen, and cherubims: and upon the ledges there was a base above: and beneath the lions and oxen were certain additions made of thin work. 30And every base had four brazen wheels, and plates of brass: and the four corners thereof had undersetters: under the laver were under-setters molten, at the side of every addition. Verse 29 above clearly associates the Cherubim with the lions (Leo  and the oxen (Taurus), in the design of the ten brass bases. This link is fully developed in Ezekiel’s vision at the River Chebar, which we see below. Exodus 36 gives us details of the colors used in the veil of the Tabernacle depicting the Cherubim. Let’s consider some of this color symbolism in the services of the Tabernacle and Temple.

Exodus 36:35-36 And he made a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with Cherubims made he it of cunning work. And he made there-unto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.

The veil hung from four pillars, representing the terrestrial number, and the earth’s orientation to the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon. The symbol of the number four is prominent in the imagery above, not only in the four pillars holding the Tabernacle’s veil, but also in the four Tabernacle colors shown in the veil. The four colors are blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen. Blue represents peace showing us God’s presence, as seen in the Son of God as the Prince of Peace. Purple represents royalty, as seen in Christ the King of Kings. Scarlet or Red represents blood, and is seen in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, the high priest offering the perfect sin offering of his own life for our redemption. The linen was white, as symbols of the purity & righteousness of the Servant of God. Thus, the four colors of the Tabernacle all embody the four-fold ministry of Jesus Christ as the chief cornerstone in the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, showing his dominion over all Creation. As we’ve seen, these four pillars correspond to the four Cardinal Directions, named the equinox and Solstice seen on the ecliptic and Equator as the four-corners of the heavens. These four cardinal points correspond to the tribes, four royal signs and colors as follows:

Eagle/Aquila [replacing Scorpius below]
North/Scorpion/Scorpius/Dan/White (omitted in Num. 24, & Ps. 75:3ff)
East/Lion/Leo/Judah/Purple. (Numbers 24:9)
South/Man/Aquarius/Reuben/Blue. (Numbers 24:7)
West/Bull/Taurus/Ephraim & Manasseh/Red (Numbers 24:8)

The vision of Ezekiel at the river Chebar describes these living creatures, specifically their four faces, matching the signs of the four Cardinal Directions of the heavens. As we have noted regarding the North, it was omitted for a number of reasons. In the North we find the face of the sign Aquila the Eagle [Ezek.1:10], replacing that of his natural born enemy, the serpent-Dan/Scorpion, as is evident in the triple sign of the man Ophiuchus, as he wrestles Serpens the serpent, while stamping out the light of the Antares red-star, in the heart of Scorpius the scorpionEzekiel’s vision is recorded below.

Ezekiel 1:3-11
The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him. 4And I looked, and behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire in-folding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the color of amber, out of the midst of the fire5Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man6And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings7And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the color of burnished brass. 8And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings9Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 10As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.11 Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies.

The matching of the faces of these four living creatures with the four signs at the cardinal points in Numbers 24, is worth a closer look. First, this correlation between the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon seems an obvious celestial reference, supported by the celestial wheels within wheels connected with these Cherubim, [Ezek. 1:16, 20-22, 10:1-22]. These wheels relate to the celestial structure of the ecliptic and the Equator, as one wheel is pictured within the other, and the points where they cross are the equinoxes. One Hebrew word for “wheel” in Ezekiel, [10:2 & 10] is galgal [*H1534], a variation of Gilgal [*H1536], the “Hill of God,” [I Sam. 10:5] where Joshua set up an altar of twelve stones [Josh 4], one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word galgal is also the root origin of our wordGalaxy,” showing a galactic application of these wheels even into the modern day. Similar to the stellar reference of the 12 precious stones of the High Priest’s breastplate, as symbols of the twelve signs of the zodiac, Joshua’s altar marked their entry into the promised land, which was first deeded to Abraham [Gen. 13:14-15]. God marked the end of the Israel’s sufferings in the wilderness even as He had marked their exit from Egypt, with a miracle of parting of the waters, both of the Red Sea and of the Jordan River. He also marked the beginning of Israel’s reign of kings both in the anointing of Saul, along with the first Passover in the promised land at GilgalJoshua 5:9-10 has a figurative portrait of this initial Passover, as these “wheels of God’s justice” rolled over the heathen that stood in Israel’s way. Thus, when we view the two phases of the return of the promised seed, first in his sufferings second in his glory, we can see the following division along the lines of Jesus’ ministry as seen in the four gospels:

Sufferings

He came as a man/Son of Man/Luke/Aquarius
He sacrificed his life/Servant/MarkEagle for Scorpion

Glory

The Son coming in judgment/Son of God/John/Taurus
The Lion-king of Judah rending his prey/King/Matthew/Leo

As symbolic references to the four quarters of heaven, the 4 unified faces of these living creatures represent a composite of the celestial narrative, witnessing to the return of the promised redeemer, and his judgment on the assembly of the wicked. The 22nd Psalm reveals more details of this evident celestial pattern, in the context of the Lord’s sacrifice, in Golgotha’s foreboding shadows. This is the record of the assembly of the wicked passing their depraved judgment on the Lord, as they orchestrated the events that surrounded Jesus’ crucifixion. But as his immanent return speeds towards us, the mighty conquering judge will execute his righteous verdict with everlasting consequences for the evil ones.

Psalm 22:11-23
11 Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help.
12 Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.
13 They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion.
14 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels.
15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death.
16 For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
17 I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.
18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
19 But be not thou far from me, O LORD: O my strength, haste thee to help me.
20 Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog.
21 Save me from the lion’s mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns. [reem]
22 I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

In this Psalm, the wicked natures of those who brought about Jesus’ crucifixion are discernible in these obscene caricatures of the four winds of the host of heaven. These dark spectre’s of the Cherubim rejoiced in the Lord’s demise and death as they encircled him like dogs, ravening lions and gaping bulls, embodying the idol masks of Astrology. This was the peak of the power of this wicked assembly, but their time is past and their doom is sure. As verse 14 above tells us: Christ was “poured out like water,” which depicts him in this celestial context as the man of Aquarius, who pours the living waters of the gift of holy spirit into the saints. This also agrees with aspects of the common Hallel, as the last words of Psalm 118 rang throughout the Temple, during the Feast of Tabernacles in the last days of Christ’s ministry. We find this Biblical record in John 7.

John 7:37-44
37In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink38He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

39(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.40Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, of
a truth this is the Prophet. 41 Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee42 Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was43So there was a division among the people because of him. 44And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.

It is Christ as the Crown and Apex, firstborn of all Creation, the Second Adam, who embodies the fullness of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 28:16], who completes the superstructure of both the physical [in Jerusalem] and spiritual Temples-body [spiritual body] of his churches in the Bride of Israel and the NT Church of the Believer’s in Christendom, [1Cor. 3Eph. 2:18-22]. In this way, the light of heaven is shed on the earth in Christ, the Son/Sun of righteousness [Ps. 19] who rules over all Creation as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. [Gen. 1:14-17]

I trust this will help with further insight into the celestial signs that marked the birth of Christ and how, as Rev. Jon Nessle has taught, they are the best scientific evidence for the truth of God and His word in existence.

Happy New Year and a Joyous 2024,
In Christ
,
Agape’

Rene’

Footnotes

1. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, VP Wierwille, p.
2. “The Star that Astonished the World” Dr. Ernest Martin, p.
3. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, VP Wierwille, p. 70
4. IBID, Figure 1, Picture credit, p. 71.
4a. IBID.
5. IBID, Figure 2 picture credit, p. 61
a. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Star System
b. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Binary Star
c. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/main sequence
d. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/White dwarf
e. earthsky.org/…sky-measurements-degrees-arc-minutes-arc-seconds
f. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Dwarf star
g. earthsky.org/…s/what-is-stellar-magnitude
h. earthsky.org/…s/stellar Classification
h.1. earthsky.org/…stellar Classification
h.2. IBID
i. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Red Dwarf
j. atnf.ciro.au/…/astrophysics/binary types
k. earthsky.org/…/white-dwarfs-are-the-cores-of-dead-stars
l. sci.esa.int/web/gaia
m. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 96-101, Bonnie Gaunt.
n. johnpratt.com/…lds/meridian/2001/4corners
o. IBID
p. IBID
q. IBID [https://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2001/4corners.html]
r. Figure 5 Picture credit; Witness of the Stars, p. 84, E.W. Bullinger.
s. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 96-101, Bonnie Gaunt.
t. [pinterest.com]

 

Almond symbolism in the Menorah and Aaron’s Rod that budded.

Happy Spring and Passover Everyone!

The signs and aroma’s of Spring are in the air…Everywhere you turn, you can see evidence of nature awakening from it’s winter slumber. As the foliage is aroused in its cycle of life, and the blossoming flowers are enriching the landscape with their pallet of colors, we are reminded of the renewing spiritual power of the resurrection of Christ! As we honor the resurrection of Christ this weekend, the subject of this month’s blog pertains to this imagery of life everlasting, as seen in the Almond Branch and Tree

The description of the golden ratio as the Divine proportion [1.6180339…] is fitting as seen by many as a door to a deeper under-standing of beauty and spirituality in life, unveiling a hidden harmony or connectedness in so much of God’s creation. That’s an incredible role for a single number to play, but then again this number [phi] has played an incredible role in human history and in the foundations of life. The line between its mathematical and spiritual aspects is thus not easily drawn. Even the symbol for Phi, a circle with a line drawn through it, can be thought to represent a zero, or void, divided by one, or Unity, to create beauty, analogous to God creating the universe from nothing.

Phi does not appear explicitly in the Bible or other ancient scripts, yet we find that the dimensions given by God to Noah for the Ark, and to Moses for the Ark of the Covenant both reflect a 5 to 3 proportion, Fibonacci numbers with a ratio of 1.666, and a reasonably close approximation to Phi, [1.618…] which incrementally advances in mathematical accuracy to infinity with each numerical step. This Ark was housed in the holiest place of both the Tabernacle and Temple, containing the tablets of the Decalogue; [Ex. 25:16, 21] along with a pot of Manna and Aaron’s Rod that budded, [Heb. 9:4-5]. We also find the order of this divine ratio at the basis of the structure of the Tabernacle and Temple of Jerusalem.

Nature's patterns: Golden spirals and branching fractals - CNETFlowers - The Fibonacci SequenceWhat Is the Fibonacci Sequence? | HowStuffWorks

The spiraling shapes in cauliflower; [below] artichoke, and sunflower florets (above) share a remarkable feature: The numbers of clockwise and counterclockwise spirals are consecutive Fibonacci numbers—the sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144… so that each number is the sum of the last two. What’s more, those spirals pack florets as tight as can be, maximizing their ability to gather sunlight for the plant. But how do plants like sunflowers create such perfect floret arrangements, and what does it have to do with Fibonacci numbers? A plant hormone called auxin, which spurs the growth of leaves, flowers, and other plant organs, is the key: Florets grow where auxin flows. Using a mathematical model that describes how auxin and certain proteins interact to transport each other around inside plants, researchers could predict where the hormone would accumulateSimulations of that model reproduced patterns exactly matching real “Fibonacci spirals” in sunflowers, as reported in the monthly in Physical Review Letters. Based on their results, the researchers suggest that such patterns might be more universal in nature than previously thought. 

A. Fibonacci Spirals in the structure of Cauliflower.
A.Romanesque BrocilliImage result for Intercalation months reflected in dimensions of the Hebrew Tabernacle

B. Lunar Phases mapped according to the Fibonacci Spiral pattern.

Spirals are built into a plant from its very beginning. The tender tip of a growing plant is capped by a thin outer shell. As the plant cells inside the shell grow and divide, they create stress that can deform the shell. The easiest way for the shell to relieve the stress is to buckle into ridges that form the arms of a spiral, centered at the stem, [Menorah pattern]. Sometimes, the stress pushes the plant to add a second or third spiral. Although spirals differ among plants, they show particular kinds of patterns.

To investigate why, mathematicians Patrick Shipman and Alan Newell of the University of Arizona in Tucson calculated the stresses on the growing tips of plants, assuming that the plant wrinkles to minimize the total stress on its skin. They found that the first two spirals strain and pull on each other, sometimes making a third spiral. Crucially, the number of arms in the third spiral always equals the sum of the arms of the first two in order to minimize stress, they found. This is the hallmark of the famous Fibonacci series, in which each number is the sum of the preceding two numbers. The series shows up with surprising regularity in nature, describing patterns of population growth, and in the proportions of seashells.

When Shipman and Newell graphed the solutions to their stress calculations, they saw spiral patterns with Fibonacci-like relationships that looked very similar to those in real cacti. Their analysis appears in the 23 April issue of Physical Review Letters.2

“The key nice part about what Patrick and Alan have done is they do some excellent mathematics and link it to what the physics might be,” says Neil Mendelson, a molecular biologist at University of Arizona. Shipman says, “For this sort of work to be useful to biologists, we have to know what can actually be predicted.”3

We have already seen that the number of double spirals of the sunflower head are also Fibonacci numbers. The spirals have perhaps moved from the vertical plane to the horizontal planePhyllotaxis is the study of the ordered leaf position on a stem; (Phyllos-leaf taxis order),  with particular reference to their repetition in the same alignment. The Fibonacci series has been observed in phyllotaxis and extensively studied in the following three different spiral arrangements.

Figure 1. Vertical Spiral of leaf orientation. 4

The Fibonacci Series | Golden Mean Gauge

1. VERTICALLY. Where leaves on a stem demonstrate the Fibonacci Series as they spiral up the stem.
2. HORIZONTALLY. Where the spirals are horizontal like on the flat head of the sunflower.
3. TAPERED or ROUNDED, like the tapered pine cones or the rounded Chrysanthemums, or pineapples that also show a double set of spirals as pictured below.

fibbon2When these double sets of spirals have been counted, the numbers of spirals were found to be Fibonacci numbers; with larger numbers in this series seen in different plants. Any textbook discussing mathematics in nature will include numerous examples.

Brian Goodwin in his book, ‘How the Leopard changed its spots’, discusses Phyllotaxis at length and describes a model of phyllotaxis produced by two French scientists Douady and Couder. They also managed to reproduce the double spirals similar to those of the sunflower by computer. Brian Goodwin further asks about Phyllotaxis; “What is the inherent nature of the simple rules that govern this diversity. What are we looking at when we see such a magnificent variety of plants and flowers?”

The study of Phyllotaxis is a branch of biology that seeks the answers to these questions. The connection between phyllotaxis and the Golden Proportion has engendered volumes of literature examining these questions. Surprisingly, as recent as 1998, a large magnificent tome on phyllotaxis called “Symmetry in Plants” was published as a multidisciplinary study by 44 scientists, all leaders in their fields, including chapters by botanists, mathematicians crystallographers and molecular geneticists.

Phyllotaxis-The positions of leaves.

fibbon4The leaves on a stem are positioned over the gaps between the lower leaves as they spiral up the stem. What is most remarkable about this spiral spacing, is that irrespective of species, the rotation angle tends to have only a few values. By far the most common of which is 137.5◦  (Goodwin). This is considered an efficient arrangement to allow maximum sunlight to reach each set of leaves. This angle is non other than the Golden Proportion related to the perimeter of a circle as in the adjacent figure. 5

It is the ratio between the perimeter of a circle where the larger part A, is to the smaller part B, as the larger part A is to the whole A+B, our old familiar Golden Proportion premise here seen in yet another guise.

The other example of the Golden Proportion is concerned with the number of leaves between one leaf and the next one directly overhead in the spiral, and the number of rotations before this position is reached.

Botanical units such as leaves and petals are generated as fast growing cells known as primordia develop. As part of the growth process the leaves and flowers are pushed farther from the apex, as they develop into the familiar plant features, whether leaves, flowers, or aspects of  fruit. In spiral phyllotaxis the angle between consecutive born primordia, called the divergence angle, is constant and close to the Fibonacci angle of 137.5◦.

In some trees like Elmwood and basswood, the leaves along a stem seem to occur alternately on two opposite sides where we speak of 1/2 phyllotaxis. In the beech and hazel the passage from one leaf to the next is 1/3 of a turn.

MA* Nature : Plants

oak and apricot 2/5 phyllotaxis
poplar and pear 3/8 phyllotaxis
willow and Almond 5/13
these are all recognizable as alternate Fibonacci numbers. 6 {Coxeter}

On the oak tree, the Fibonacci fraction is 2/5, which means that the spiral takes five branches to spiral two times around the trunk to complete one pattern. Other trees with the Fibonacci leaf arrangement are the elm tree (1/2); the beech (1/3); the willow and the almond tree (5/13) according to (Livio). 7  A notable Biblical example of the almond branch is Aaron’s rod that budded.

Korach: The Rod of Aaron - Ladder of Jacob

Aaron’s rod budded, sprouted, and offered fully formed fruit, all at the same time. “According to the law of nature, all living things have a beginning and an end. However, this was not the case with Aaron’s rod, for God gave it an accelerated lease of life. This miracle hinted at the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Even though death came to the world because of the actions of the first man, Adam, resurrection would come about on account of Jesus Christ (1 Cor 15:17–22). Hence, when Jesus was about to raise Lazarus from the dead, He told Martha, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live” (Jn 11:25). Aaron’s budding rod served to quell Korah’s rebellion and re-affirmed Aaron’s position as high priest, separating from the rebellion of false leaders, who paid with their lives along with those they deceived. Furthermore, this wondrous sign hinted at the future Messiah and His status as the first-fruits of the resurrection, (1 Cor 15:20).

kol dodi on Twitter: "The next day Moses entered the Tent of the Testimony and saw that Aaron's staff, representing the house of Levi, had sprouted, put forth buds, blossomed, and produced

Plant-life is based on optimum utilization and exposure to light, water and fertile soil enhancing the spiral growth form of the Phi ratio and the distribution of leaves and seeds on the plants above ground, and the pattern root structure of the plant below ground. The Sunflower florets for example, are set in two rotating spirals21 clockwise and 34 anti-clockwiseprogrammed into the DNA of plant auxin, ordered via the Fibonacci numbers arranging the seeds in the most compact array to optimize their ability to gather light from the Sun for maximum growth and replication. There is also a specific harmony in the geometric increase of growth via the Fibonacci Series and the summarizing and concluding statements of the Book of Acts, that start with addition and geometrically increase in scale to multiplication, at the higher levels of this number series. The Greek Word “Auxano,” is the root for “auxins” found in 3 key Acts summary statements; [Acts 6:7, 12:24, 19:20, Eph. 4:16]. We see this in how 1st Century Churches grew and were added in key areas, [Acts 9:31multiplied16:5, established in the faith, and increased in number daily…] But with the growth of these Churches in Acts, is was the Gift Ministries of the the Apostles, Prophets and Teachers that established the believers in the faith principles of the 1st Century Church, activating the multiplication of these fellowships in the spiritual power and edification in love and Grace that made the difference. Here we find a lesson of Aaron’s Rod that budded. It was mainly resulting from the essential energized power ministries of Church leaders, as the believers walked in the Apostles doctrine, [Acts 2:42-47] and fellowship that many signs and wonders were done, empowering the Faithful. This caused the growth of the Word of God in people’s lives that left an indelible spiritual impact on the 1st Century culture.

As Egypt’s counterfeit priests were allowed copy Moses‘ and Aaron’s sign of turning their rods to serpents, Egypt’s serpents were devoured by the rod’s of Moses and Aaron. This like the remaining plagues on Egypt, were specific statements against the Egyptian idol pantheon. Since Egypt’s enchanters were not able to counterfeit any further signs beyond the first 3 plagues, God exposed the weakness of their deceitful powers embodied in their false rod’s. [Ex. 7:9-12, 17-22]. Other than Aaron’s rod swallowing the serpent-rod’s of the Pharaoh’s Priests the majority of the use of almonds found in God’s Word are in reference to the Menorah. Ex. 25:33 says;

three cups made like almond blossoms, each with calyx and flower, on one branch, and three cups made like almond blossoms, each with calyx and flower, on the other branch—so for the six branches going out of the lampstand.”

Calyx is the collective name for sepals of a flower. Easton’s Bible Dictionary explains,

A native of Syria and Palestine, in form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink color, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, shaked, signifying “wakeful, hastening,” is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January.“

As with Aaron’s rod, Jeremiah 1:11 use of the almond is a symbol. Jeremiah 1:11-12:

And the word of the Lord came to me, saying, “Jeremiah, what do you see?” And I said, “I see an almond branch.” Then the Lord said to me, “You have seen well, for I am watching over my word to perform it.

Pulpit Commentary says of Verse 12. – I will hasten my word; literally, I am wakeful over my word; alluding to the meaning of the Hebrew word for almond. The LORD will hasten to perform His judgments of Jerusalem which He proclaimed in His word to Jeremiah.

The almond is a well-known symbol of resurrection because it is the first tree to flower. The white, five-parted flowers are up to two inches across and come in the late winter before the leaves of the tree develop. Because they may flower as early as late January or early February, it is sometimes possible to find almond flowers with snow.

Menorah painting by David G. Vogel. 8

Menorah painting by David G. Vogel with almond blossom and bulb
Vogel writes regarding the Menorah in Exodus 25: “I found it intriguing that the almond blossom is used to describe the bulbs and branches.

As Ex. 25 shows us, the structure of the Menorah is imprinted with the pattern of the Almond tree. The Almond tree sprouts its leaves according to the Fibonacci series with every 13 leaves, 5 spirals are producedEx. 25:31-40 says there were 13+1 and 21+1 almond flowers and buds engraved into the structure of the Menorah. So 14-represents the first number of a new series of almond leaves that spiral 5x every 13 leaves. This pattern of the almond branch was seen also on Aaron’s Rod that budded. Aaron’s rod represented the tribe of Levi that Moses put into the Tabernacle with the 12 rods of the 12 other tribes of Israel, totaling 13, out of which only Aaron’s rod, not only budded, but blossomed and bore ripe almond fruit in one night. Another plant found in the Temple was the Palm tree, depicted with the angels on the Temple Curtains, which are also known to grow according to larger numbers in the Fibonacci series.

God instructed the House of Israel to build a seven-branched lampstand of pure gold (Ex 25:31-40).

Sabbath Marketplace Service The Mystery of the Menorah - ppt download

The shape reminds us of a flowering tree of life. On each of the six side arms were 3 golden almond blossoms and together with the 4 on the center shaft, there were exactly 22 almond blossoms. Between the 22 flowers, there are 21 connections. From the lowest flower to the top flower on the shaft to the 6 lamps, there are 27 (3 x 8+3=27) connections, and together with the highest connection from the top flower on the shaft to the middle lamp, there are a total of 28 (4 x 7) connections. Together there are 50 parts + 7 lamps.

The almond tree is the first tree in Israel, which awakes from its winter sleep to life and blooms. Therefore, the white almond blossom is a symbol of life and purity. God paid attention to the details from the very beginning; for He commanded that every single almond blossom on the Menorah should consist of three parts, namely, the cups, buds and blossoms (petals). Together they are 322=66 single flower parts.

The Menorah stood in the Tabernacle and in Solomon’s Temple. The Menorah stood also in the Temple of Herod in Jerusalem when Jesus was crucified. In the year 66 AD began the Jewish-Roman War. In 70 AD the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans. After more than 10 years the Arch of Titus in Rome was built, showing the removal of the Menorah, whose shape was outlined, however inaccurate.

The Biblical Menorah is a Reference to the Bible, the Light to the World

The Menorah has a symbolism for eternity, for there is a clear correlation between the construction of the Menorah and the structure of the Bible. This is especially evident at 3 points:

1. THE 49 SCROLLS OF THE BIBLE: The Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters and the Greek has 27 letters (in total there are 22 27= 49 letters). The Menorah has 22 almond blossoms and the OT has been written on 22 scrolls. The 22 almond flowers on the Menorah are  symbolic of the 22 scrolls of the OT (the basis of the Bible). The Menorah has 3 x 8+3=27 connections from the lowest to the top flower of the shaft with the 6 lamps (6 =the number of man) and the NT was written on 27 scrolls. The 27 connections symbolize the 27 books of the NT. Together, there are 22+27=49 scrolls of the Bible.

structure construction divisions Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, 22, 27 Scrolls, 66, 70 books

Construction, Structure, Menorah, Bible, Divisions, scrolls, books, parts, sub parts, 7,21,49,66,70, Old Testament, New Testament, bible books, gold lampstand, Book of Life, almond flower blossom, Law, Prophets, Writings, Gospels, Acts, Apostles, Epistles

Menorah Archives · Mini Manna Moments

3. THE 66 AND 70 BOOKS OF the BIBLE: Each almond flower consists of 3 parts (cups, buds and blossoms/petals). Together they are 322=66 almond blossom items. On the center shaft are 4 almond blossoms with a total of 12 flower items. On the left side of the Menorah, there are 3 x 3 x 3=27 flower parts on the 3 armsThe 12 flower parts on the stem plus the 27 flower parts on the left side are a reference to the basis of the Bible, namely the 12+27=39 books of the OT. The other 3x3x3=27 flower parts on the right side of the shaft indicate the 27 books of the NT. In addition, there are exactly 3 x 7=21 connections between the 22 almond blossoms. The Old Testament was written on 22 scrolls, but it contains a total of 39 individual books.

The New Testament was written on 27 scrolls, and here each scroll corresponds to a single book. The entire Bible was written on 49 scrolls and contains 66 individual books.

 Bible, Menorah, seven armed lampstand, seven, lamps, 7, parts, sub parts, New Testament, Old Testament, golden lampstand

A lamp also has the wick and the olive oil. There are therefore 3 x 7=21 lamp items. The 22 almond blossoms with the 27 connecting parts together produce 49 items and with the 21 lamp items the total number is 70 (10×7=70). Since the Psalms originally consisted of 5 books, the total number of the Bible is 70 books. Interestingly, Josephus himself described that the Menorah consisted of 70 parts. However, we do not know exactly how they counted. (Ex 25:31-40).

Meaning of the Numbers

The Bible was written on 49 scrolls (22 + 27), but it contains 39 + 27 = 66 books.
Since the Psalms originally consisted of 5 books, there are altogether 70 books.

Both views are correct. The numbers 49 (7×7), 66 (3×22) and 70 (10×7) symbolize the complete conclusion and completeness of the Word of God. There are Christians who believe that the 66 is related to the number 666 (number of the Beast, Satan). However, this is a great error, for the 66 has nothing to do with it, but it means 3 times 22 (22 Hebrew letters), which is a very positive number of the Old Testament. The OT also contains 36 (3 x 12) and the NT 21 (3 x 7) book names. No scroll and no book may be removed or added.

The number 22:

  • 22  Almond blossoms of the Menorah
  • 22  Letters in the ancient Hebrew alphabet
  • 22  Scrolls of the Old Testament

The number 27:

  • 27  Connections in the flowering area of the Menorah
  • 27  Letters in the ancient Greek alphabet (with digamma, koppa, sampi)
  • 27  Scrolls of the New Testament

The Biblical Menorah has:

  • 7   Lamps (with wick and oil it is 3 x 7 = 21 items)
  • 21  Connecting parts between the 22 almond blossoms
  • 22  Cups buds and blossoms = 3 x 2266 Flower Items:
  • 66  Flower items: 12 on shaft + 27 on the left side39 + 27 on the right side
  • 27  Connections between the flowers and 6 lamps (3 x 8 + 3 = 27, or 9 x 3)
  • 28  Connections from beginning of flowering to all 7 lamps (3 x 8 + 4 = 28)
  • 49  Flowers and compounds in the flowering area (22 + 27 = 49 = 7 x 7)
  • 50  Flowers and connections to all 7 lamps (22 + 28 = 50 = 7 x 749 + 1)

The Book of Life

When the tree of life blossoms, it has exactly 49 parts from the lowest to the highest flower on the shaft to the 6 lamps (6 = number of man). This symbolizes the Bible (22+27=49 scrolls with the 39+27=66 or 70 books). However, the most important detail is still missing, namely the piece from the top flower to the middle lamp. It symbolizes the “Book of Life” (49+1=50) and the perfect communion with God. As in the counting of the days unto Pentecost (49+1) and in the counting of the years up to the year of Jubilee (49+1), also indicating the uppermost part of the Menorah (49+1) the complete conclusion and the new beginning. (More information about the Book of Life)

The Menorah is a reference to the Word of God. God speaks to us through the scrolls of the Bible; His Word is the light in this world. But the 50th (49+1) section to the Central Lamp is a symbol of the “Book of Life” and the eternal direct contact with Yahweh via Jesus.

The Menorah symbolizes Jesus

Jesus is the living Menorah. He was the light that the whole world had been waiting for. He not only paid the debt for our sins, but also showed us the way to the eternal light.

  • Let it be known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of JESUS CHRIST…  this man stands here before you whole… Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved  (Acts 4:10-12).
  • In the beginning was the WORD, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the LIGHT of all mankind. The LIGHT shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. There was a man sent from God whose name was John. He came as a witness to testify concerning that LIGHT, so that through him all might believe. He himself was not the LIGHT; he came only as a witness to the LIGHT. The true LIGHT that gives LIGHT to everyone was coming into the world. He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God – children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband’s will, but born of God. The WORD became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-14).
  • I am the LIGHT of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the LIGHT of life (John 8:12).
  • I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me  (John 14:6).
  • And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work (Rev 22:12).

JESUS is the Light. The Menorah symbolizes [1.] JESUS (Light, Love, Word and Savior), [2.] His Word, the BIBLE (49 scrolls with 66/70 books, they are the light in this dark world) and [3.] The “BOOK OF LIFE,” that is eternal life (Rev 3:5; 20:12-15) and our way of life, the light in the dark world (Mt 5:13-16). When we shine our light and are an example to the world, our name will stand forever in the Book of Life. This is our hope and joy. 

The Menorah is not a normal lampstand; it is a miracle, just as the Bible itself is also a miracle.

Oil is also important because it is a reference to the Holy Spirit, which enables us to be a light in this world. The parable of the 10 virgins (Mt. 25:1-13) emphasizes the importance of this oil, for the darkness will not enter into the kingdom of God. The Bridegroom will certainly not pick up the sinful darkness, but only the spiritual virgins who have enough oil (Holy Spirit). Christians who do not follow Jesus, who radiate little love and are therefore no light for the world, are not genuine Christians, but part of this dark world, (Mt 25:1-13).

 

Menorah periodic system of the elements, chemistry
The Menorah representation from the periodic system of the elements.

By the way, the periodic table of the elements also has the form of a menorah, because if the elements with similar chemical properties are placed as close to each other as possible, a form is automatically created that is reminiscent of the 7-branched lampstand of God. This indirectly reveals who is the Creator of all chemical elements and who created everything visible. The Bible describes in detail who is the one through whom the world was made, (John 3:1; 1Cor 8:6, 15:21-28; Rom. 1:19-25; Heb 1:2). 9

For more information: [The Menorah Periodic System of the Elements]

To summarize we find in the Book of Revelation, which is called “The Revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave unto him, and to show his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and He sent and signified it by His angel unto His servant John. who bore witness to the word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, to all things that he saw.” [Rev. 1:1-2]

10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet, 11 saying, [g]“I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last,” and, “What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches [h]which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.”

12 Then I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands13 and in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the feet and girded about the chest with a golden band. 14 His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and His eyes like a flame of fire; 15 His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace, and His voice as the sound of many waters; 16 He had in His right hand seven stars, out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength. 17 And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying [i]to me, “Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last. 18 am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of [j]Hades and of Death. 19 [k]Write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after this. 20 The [l]mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: The seven stars are the [m]angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands [n]which you saw are the seven churches. [Rev. 1:10-20]

This record in Revelation summarizes how Jesus embodies the Word of God made flesh as represented in the Menorah and its light. As the center candlestick and Servant Lamp bearing the other six candles, His was the voice speaking to the John and to the seven churches of Rev. 2. So Jesus is speaking to us in his churches today, to go and do the things he has commanded, to fulfill our part in the greatest calling from our Heavenly Father to be fellow-laborers with God in Christ, to stand together with them in eternal glory.

The Menorah and the letters of the Hebrew Alphabet are the basis of God’s Word.

 Pin on Biblical Diagrams

Charles Spurgeon preached on the lessons of the Almond Tree. He says here,

“While I have felt compelled to speak of these solemn Truths, I am glad to turn to the other part of the subject which is this—that God is quick in performing His promises. They are like the almond tree—they blossom and bear fruit very quickly. “What sort of promises,” you ask, “are thus speedily fulfilled?” Well, first, the promise to give salvation to all those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ.

On this most joyous of days, you who wonder at our joy, it is because we looked to Christ as our all in all, forgiver of sins, Lamb of God. You, also, look to Christ – and be saved. The almond tree blooms, quick with promises. The most wondrous promise of all is the resurrection of the Son of God. 10

As we stand together with God in Christ, victory is ours with all its eternal rewards, as we remain faithful in Him.

God’s Abundant Blessings to you all!

Agape

Rene’ 

 

Footnotes

1. [https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2013/06/scienceshot-sunflowers-do-math]

2. 23 April issue of Physical Review Letters; Shipman and Newell

3. IBID

4. Fig. 1 picture credit, Eddy Levin, 1998.

5. IBID

6. H S M Coxeter, in his Introduction to Geometry (1961, Wiley, page 172)- see the references with the following important quote:

it should be frankly admitted that in some plants the numbers do not belong to the sequence of f’s [Fibonacci numbers] but to the sequence of g’s [Lucas numbers] or even to the still more anomalous sequences

3,1,4,5,9,… or 5,2,7,9,16,…

Thus we must face the fact that phyllotaxis is really not a universal law but only a fascinatingly prevalent tendencyBut the tendency has behind it a universal number, the golden section.

7. Livio, Mario. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, The World’s Most Astonishing Number. New York: Broadway Books, 2002.

8. Menorah painting by David G. Vogel.

9. [https://menorah-bible.jimdofree.com/english/structure-of-the-menorah/]

10. Charles Haddon Spurgeon April 7, 1881Scripture: Jeremiah 1:11, 12 From: Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit Volume 46

 

Joshua’s Long Day and the birth of the King’s Son.

Our recent study of the Astronomical Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day, in the context of Jon Nessle’s OT History Class [Session 15] has opened some of the in-depth ramifications of the events related to this Bible record, as presented by Rev. Nessle, Ren Manetti and myself. This blog, picks up where my teaching on Chapter 3, Session 15b left off in OT History Class; The Eclipse and the Great Pyramid. We will start this initial blog of 2023 with a brief review of our Nov. 2022 blog on Joshua’s Long Day, focusing on how the key Hebrew words for the Sun and Moon standing still [dom and amad] are in this context held figuratively as synonymous. In this Jan. 2023 blog, we will see more on how this relates to the Great Pyramid, along with Jesus as the King’s Son. We will begin with some related comments and word studies below for further study, on Josh. 10 & Hab. 3 from our previous blog for context, to see where that leads us…

Habakkuk 3:11:
The sun and moon stood still in their habitationAt the light of Your arrows they went,
At the shining of Your glittering spear.

Sun and moonstand still’ on high (ʿāmad zəbūlâ) / as Your arrows fly in brightness, Your flashing spear in brilliance.” The connection between this poetic source in the book of Habakkuk and the story of the miracle in the book of Joshua is clear and has been accepted by many interpreters throughout the ages.21 However, the syntax of the first line of the verse and the meaning of the word zəbūlâ posed major problems for them.22 Zəbūl in this verse is usually interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god.23 The noun zəbūl appears four times in the Bible in addition to this passage in Habakkuk.24 In Isa 63:15, it clearly refers to a place high in the heavens where God usually dwells and from which He looks down on the earth. This is similar to one of the meanings of the Ugaritic term zbl; sometimes interpreted as the throne of a divine being in the heavens.25 The construction bêth zəbūl appears in Solomon’s speech at the temple’s dedication in 1 Kings 8:13 and its parallel in 2 Chr 6:2, 26 In this speech, scholars distinguish two parts: the first part, consisting of the opening two verses, 12–13, in which the construct bêth zəbūl appears; and the second, longer part, comprising the remainder of the speech from verse 14 to verse 53. 1

The authors continue with comments related to King Solomon’s building the first Temple to the true God, with the “additional words in the Greek text that constitute the first colon of a parallelism, with “The LORD has said that he would dwell in thick darkness” (v. 12) constituting the second cola. This extra line in the LXXSeptuagint includes added information that can contribute meaningfully to our topic, since it includes a reference to the sun: “Then Solomon said [concerning the house when he finished building it: He (the LORD) revealed the sun in the sky;] 28 the Lord has chosen to abide in thick clouds.” This shows that bêth zəbūl in the next verse corresponds to the place in the sky where the sun dwells. 2

Plate 1. Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405. 3

The solar eclipse of 1405 BC with the blue band showing the zone of totality. 

In our previous Nov. 2022 blog we presented evidence for the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day as a Total Solar eclipse, specifically the solar eclipse of July 14th, 1405 BC, visible over Canaan. We will expand on this idea in this study, especially the idea linked to the Hebrew words for the “Sun and Moonstand still’ on high (ʿāmad zəbūlâ) in Josh. 10:12 and Hab. 3:11. The comment above in  reference to “Zəbūl in this verse usually interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god,” is an idea we will expand on, in light of Scripture and Hebrew culture. In Jewish life, the Tabernacle and Temple embodied the center of their spiritual and social life activities. This sanctuary and Holy place where the people interacted with Priests and Prophets, that ministered to the Almighty in the Holy of Holies, responding to the oracles of God’s Covenant with Israel, also included the King, and whether or not his administration followed the godly ordinances, doing good or evil in God’s sight, fits with Zəbūl above being interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god. What is interesting is the link to the Sun and Moon here, since the state of light or darkness was dependent on how the king ruled to uphold God’s Covenant for Israel.

It is interesting that Christ as the King of kings embodies the light of God as the apex of the royal line, and consummation of the kings of Israel in the Davidic Dynasty as the Lion of Judah. As Mal. 4:2 statesBut unto you that fear My Name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his wingsrefers to Jesus Christ, who embodied more of God’s names than any other. In this light, we will investigate the references to the king’s coronation process, and their implications below, as found in the records in Kings & Chronicles.

This is consistent with a comparison of this verse to Josh 10:13: zəbūl in Hab 3:11 seems to parallel the “midheaven” (ḥaṣî haššāmayim) in Joshua.30 The second part of the speech expresses a clear underlying view that the earthly temple is not intended to be the dwelling place of God, but only the place where His name dwells.31 As explained in detail in the speech, people will pray to God facing the earthly temple in Jerusalem, and God will hear their prayer from His dwelling in heaven.32 The concept of zəbūl as a divine place in the heavens is found in a non-biblical scroll from Qumran in which “the holy zəbūl (of God)” is the place of the angels33 and the location from which the two great luminaries come. 4

Echoes of the view that the sun has a home are found in the Bible; See Ps 19:5–7. The root bwʾ, “come,” refers to the disappearance of the sun over the western horizon, and the root yṣʾ, “go out,” refers to its appearance in the east (Gen 19:23; Judg 5:31; Isa 13:10). That is also the “location” of the sun in Eccl 1:5, as rising and setting points on the Horizon. It may even be that gebūrātô, “its might,” in “the sun precisely, the entry of the sun god into his heavenly palace, means that the sun has gone dark. [under the earth at night] This can also represent the collective temple of the Sun/Son of God moving on the ecliptic through the 12 Houses/Tribes/ Apostles of Israel as the head/apex and capstone of the Great Pyramid. [See Figs 1 & 3 below]

The word zebul/zebula is interpreted as the name of a sanctuary, throne, or platform for a god,
it is fitting Biblically that bêth zəbūl appears in Solomon’s speech at the Temple’s dedication in Jerusalem in 1 Kings 8:13, 27, 42. As a reflection and earthly representation of God’s true temple in Heaven, it embodies the physical and spiritual light of God, the Father of Lights for all Creation, the main two being the Sun and Moon. The interrelation between these primary two sources of light on earth is witnessed in the eclipse cycle, which is the subject of Joshua’s Long Day, also in Hab. 3:11. The Word study below includes the main related roots alongside dom, of amad H59755976amad,
5977omed, and H5982-ammud. We will start with Scriptural references of amad H5975, as follows;

The word translated stand still in [Josh. 10:12-13Hab. 3:11 is amad H5975prime root to stand, lit./fig. trans & intrans. also abide, appoint, arise, cease, confirm, continue, dwell, endure, estab. leave, make ordain, be over, place, present one, raise up, remain, repair, set forth, settle over, settle up, stand; by, firm, fast, still, stay, tarry.]  31:17 ‘are these evils not on us because our God is not among us?’-as in our day… TODAY! Josh 3:16- the waters of Jordan parted [stood up] so Israel could walk into the Promised Land. Josh. 11:13. A. To stand before a king, ie. serve, minister; Gen. 41:46,-Joseph serving Pharaoh as Grand Vizier. Deut. 1:38, Joshua, who stood beforeserved Moses with Caleb as the only two who entered the Promised Land, from the wilderness; I Kgs. 1:28, 10:8, Dan. 1:4-5, minister to Jehovah, used of Prophets, I Kgs. 17:1, 18:15, Jer. 15:19, Judg. 20:28, Ps. 134:1, a Psalm of Degrees. Levi18:23a. Princes of the 12 tribes set over anyone-used of men; Gen. 24:303141:17, [in Pharoah’s dream interpreted by Joseph, He stood upon the riverbank…out of which came the 7 cattle] and inanimate things, Num. 7:2, b. confide in anyone, Stand by or defend one, as by Michael, the ArchangelDan. 12:1-4, Esth. 8:11, 9:16. The Jews stood unified vs. Haman’s genocide plot2. to Stand For, Stand Firm, remain, endureStehen bleiben, Ps. 33:11, Jehovah’s decrees stand forever, Ps. 102:25-27, the heavens shall perish, but God remains, Ex. 18:23, Amos 2:15, Hos. 10:9, Esth. 3:4-6, Stand firm in battle before anyone. Josh. 21:44, there stood not a man of all their enemies before them. 23:9, Ecc. 4:12, Dan. 11:8, 15, 25. Persist, persevere in anything. Ecc. 8:3,
To be constituted, set, appointed, Ezr. 10:14, let our rulers be appointed.

To desist from anything, leave off, Gen. 29:35, 30:9. 4. To Stand up, arise, Dan. 12:1, 13, a new prince; AC, Dan. 8:23, 25, 11:2, 3, 20, Ecc. 4:15, of war springing up, 1 Chron. 20:4, rise up against anyone, Dan. 11:14, 1Chron. 21:1, Satan stood up against Israel to provoke David to do a census of the population. Levi. 19:16 No Talebearing5.  Dan. 11:31. A/C in AntiochusactionsHiphil, a. Cause to stand, Ps. 31:9, Ezek. 33:26,-[take your stand leaning upon your swords, the posture taken by Necromancers waiting for the rites, of witchcraft. Isa. 47:12, marginal Bull-note]. Ezek. 13:5-7, False Prophets of Israel didn’t resist or stand firm. Ps. 76:8, 130:3; a Psalm of the degrees, 147:17, Nah. 1:68, [Nahum served c. 603 BC in Hezekiah’s 14th year of living the prophecy of the 15 years added to his life, prior to the eclipse over Nineveh preceding Jonah-possibly relating to Nah. v.8 darkness pursuing their enemies?

The sea becomes tranquil, Jon. 1:15, cp. 2 Kgs 4:6; miracle oil in the cruse endured for the widow. Levi 14:11-20. Priest presented [caused to stand] the leper to be cleansed before the Lord @ the door of Tabernacle of Congregation, w/proper offerings for his cleansing & atonement. Fig. to decree, 2 Chron. 30:5, 33:8; to destine/promise anyone, impose a law on anyone, Neh. 10:33, Seat in office or function: 1 Kgs. 12:32, made priests of the lowest of the people. I Chron. 15:16. David speaks to the Chief Levites to appoint musicians like Asaph in the Temple service. 2. To cause to stand firm, establish, endure, preserve, 1 Kgs. 15:4, 2 Chron. 9:8, Prov. 29:4, to confirm; 2 Chron. 35:2, Dan. 11:14, confirm the vision by the event. 3. Stand Still, 2 Chron. 18:34, 4. Raise, to set up as idols; 2 Chron. 33:19, a house, Ezr. 2:68, 9:9, to repair the wall and house of the Lord. to arouse, stir up, Neh. 6:7, Dan. 11:11, 13. Hophal; to be set, placed, Levi 16:10, the goat on which the lot fell… to remain, 1 Kgs. 22:35.

 2Kgs. 23:3, the king stood by a pillar in the 10 steps of his coronation at the entrance of the TempleEzek. 17:14, Keep, stand by the Covenant, Ex. 9:28-remain in same place, or state both people or things, Levi. 13:5, 37, Jer. 32:14, 48:11, Dan. 10:17, 11:6. Stay amongst the living, Ex. 21:21. 3. Stillstehn, stand Still, stop, 1 Sam. 20:38, used of the sun standing still in its course; Josh. 10:13, Deut. 31:15, God in the cloudy Pillar, appeared over the Tabernacle door. 31:17 ‘are these evils not on us as our God is not among us?’6     

[5976amad=shake, be at a stand.] Ezek. 29:7 thou have made all their loins to shake, cp. Ps. 69:23. The context of Ezek. 29:2-ff is Pharaoh of Egypt, the great dragon/crocodile of the Nile who invaded and captured Gaza, [Jer 47:1] Bullinger says Pharaoh Hophra called Apries by the Greeks, who also hit Zidon in assault and battled the Prince of Tyre on the Sea [Herodotus ii, 161, 169] cp. 2 Kgs. 24:7, Jer. 46:2, battle of Carchamesh 37:5-8. Egypt thus caused Jerusalem’s destruction. [Jer. 44:30, 46:25-26.] Ezek. 29:4 uses the same language here describing Leviathan in Job as Cetus the decan of the sea monster, and Rahab=Egypt in Isa. 51:9-16, 30:7, the strength of Egypt is to sit still. Ps. 74: 13-14. As Israel under Zedekiah relied on Egyptian support which faltered [Ezek. 29:6-7] making their loins to come to a standstill, shake or “be a stand“=this usage of [H5976amad]. God divided the sea by His strength, breaking the heads of dragons in the waters, the heads of Leviathan in pieces… see Job 40-41, Hislop p. 293 talks of this Pharaoh as the embanker of the Nile.  7

In light of the astronomical meanings of the root ʿāmad (see below, section 4.2), if we read zəbūlâ in Hab. 3:11as it is vocalized in the Masoretic Text,43 the verse can be understood in its plain sense, without any need for emendations: the moon in its orbit went—unexpectedly—into the orbit of the sun and made it go dark. With the little light that remained on the earth, the flying arrows and the heads of the spears appeared to the soldiers to shine like the glow of stars. As explained below (section 4.4), observers can distinguish both the sun and the moon covering it only during an annular solar eclipse.8 [or a total solar eclipse seen through the overcast skies that spawned the hailstorm of Josh. 10:11

Thus, the aspect of darkness of dôm is directed primarily to the sun, which stopped shining in the middle of the day, while the aspect of cessation refers primarily to the moon, which appears as if it were “standing in front of the sun, as explained in verse 13, “And the sun went dark/halted, And the moon stood (still).” Other scholars, beginning in the 1940s, arrived at the conclusion that the two verbs used in this descriptiondôm and ʿāmād, express an unexpected cessation of the sun’s illumination and not the sun’s halting in its heavenly orbit,55 a result arrived at by various Jewish  commentators in the Middle Ages. The interpretation of the root dwm/dmm as a cessation of the sun’s illumination accords with one of the meanings of the root, which sometimes refers to the (usually sudden and unexpected) cessation of something from its natural, designated activity, as, for example, in Jer 47:6, in which the sword is asked to stop slaying, and in 1 Sam 14:9—in a parallel to ʿāmād, as in our verse—where it refers to non-participation in a battle.56 The same is true of ʿāmad, primarily with the preposition m-, as in Gen 30:9, where it refers to Leah’s ceasing
to bear children.57] 9

Later, J.F.A. Sawyer58 also interpreted the biblical description as a solar eclipse and suggested identifying it with the eclipse that occurred on September 30, 1131 BCE. He interpreted dôm as “stillness,” meaning that the sun ceased to shine. He explained the word ʿāmād and the clausedid not press, [or proceed] to set a whole day…10

[5977omed=a spot as being fixed, stood upright, from [H5975]. 2 Chron. 34:31, a place, where one stands, as King Josiah stood on his platform, Dan. 8:17-18. 11 H5982-Ammud also occurs in I Kgs. 7:2, cloudy pillar, Ex. 33:9-10, God’s presence [v.14] in the cloudy pillar at the Tabernacle door  to talk with Moses face-to-face, like the pillar of fire at night in [Ex. 13:22, 40:34-38]. Also used of pillars of heaven in Job 26:11 and pillars of the earth, Job 9:6. [2.] a Platform or scaffold; 2 Kgs. 11:14, 23:3. There is conjecture in the meaning of this pillar or column [H5982-ammud= Judg. 16:25-26, The pillars upon which the temple of Dagon of the Philistines standeth [H3559-kuwn= w/o God no human line is perpetuated, Isa. 9:6, Ps. 89:37, Judg. 16:26, 29]; that Samson was set between that he leaned on before destroying this temple w/ worshippers] God guarantees a kingship by establishing His Sanctuary among His people; Ex. 15:17, Isa. 2:2]. 12

2 Chron. 34:31-33
31 Then the king stood in his place and made a covenant before the Lord, to follow the Lord, and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words of the covenant that were written in this book32 And he made all who were present in Jerusalem and Benjamin take a stand. So the inhabitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of God, the God of their fathers. 33 Thus Josiah removed all the abominations from all the country that belonged to the children of Israel, and made all who were present in Israel diligently serve the Lord their GodAll his days they did not depart from following the Lord God  of their fathers.

The teaching of this “place” where the King stood is at least two-fold, first being a physical place or platform, where he stood. Secondly, the spiritual foundation of his standing. King Josiah was a reformer who returned the kingdom of Israel to the precepts of righteousness, within God’s Covenant. We will look into this in greater detail below, in our study of 2Kgs. 23:3 and the king’s coronation record. The King’s coronation was always held in the temple, served by the prophets and priests who ministered in the ordination and installment of the King according to godly standards, as we find in the installment of King Josiah. It will help to understand better the celestial/astronomical implications of these temple pillars, for context.

A key aspect of the Temple layout regards the two large Brass Pillars at the entrance of the Temple at Jerusalem, and their relation to the Pi ratio. They are described in I Kings 7:13-15 below.

1 Ki 7:13 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. [14] He was a widow’s son of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass: and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work. [15] For he cast two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits high apiece: and a line of twelve cubits did compass either of them about.

The word for “line” in verse 15 above indicates a line for measuring, thus a closer look at these brass pillars is called for. The Pi ratio has long been considered transcendental number, or constant of  mathematics (3.14159…), linking a straight diameter to a curved circumference. The archaeologist and mathematician Charles Funk-Hellet points out that:

“Solomon had Hiram contribute to building a temple whose brass columns were 18 cubits high, and 12 cubits around. In other words, one cubit equaled the twelfth part of the circumference of the arc of 30 degrees, or pi/6. By subtracting the circumference from the height, they obtained 6 cubits in a straight line, which was equal to 1/2 the circumference, or the exact value of pi; so that 1000 years before Christ the Hebrews knew that a cubit was a mathematical entity dependent on the circumference, and were able to resolve pi to four points of decimal.” 13 

Figure 1. Pi ratio applied to the circle of 12 signs or Constellations of the ecliptic.

Funk-Hellet’s observation that: “By subtracting the circumference from the height, they obtained 6 cubits in a straight line, which was equal to 1/2 circumference, or the exact value of pi/6.…“ is worth noting when we come to the subject of the celestial symbolism of the Menorah, and its application of pi, building on what we have found here. Funk-Hellet goes on to say that: “the Biblical cubit is equal to the Egyptian Royal cubit, that was incorporated into the Jerusalem Temple as pi/6, or 523.6 mm. Using one unit of measure as the radius of a circle, the ancients found the trigonometric value of 30 degrees to be pi/6, (that divided the full circumference of the circle into 12 equal parts, as the 12 signs of the zodiac are divided into 12/30 degree segments) and was the value of the royal cubit, or .5236 of the unit used: 3.1416/6= .5236“ 14 (parenthesis & emphasis mine)

Figure 2. Solomon’s Temple with Brass Pillars at the Entrance. 15

Brass Pillars at the Entrance of Solomon’s Temple

In effect, we have an architectural representation of the twelve-fold division of the heavens preserved in the dimensions of the Temple’s Brass columns, all based on the mathematical standard Pi, long before most modern scientists imagined the ancients knew anything about Pi at this level of accuracy. This provides more evidence showing the Creator’s perfect wisdom and Nature’s Great Geometer, at work in the dimensions of His Temple, as an illustration of heavenly realities [Heb. 8:5], which He gave to King  David by revelation. Also symbolically contained in the dimensions of the Temple’s brass columns, is a figure of 12 calendar months of 30 days, totaling the 360 days of their year, a calendar also used going all the way back to Noah’s time, in the context of the 360-degrees of the ecliptic. This reveals a true origin of the 12 – 30° segments of the ecliptic, as a standard celestial measure, and also reveals the Pi ratio at the root of the Hebrew Calendar matching the 360 degrees of the circle with the 360 days of the year on the Calendar of the Biblical Patriarchs. And since Noah was already 600 years old when the Bible records the details of his luni-solar calendar in Genesis 7, it also implies that it was used by the earlier Biblical Patriarchs prior to the flood, and centuries before history and human science thought this level of sophisticated astronomical timekeeping was in use. For more information on Noah’s Calendar, please check our website link @try-god.com. As we find other Biblical uses of the Hebrew word “qav,” God’s application of the Pi concept far exceeds any previous application in human history. Views based on scientific Materialism will never account fully for the realities of God’s Creation. Only from the Creator’s viewpoint in His Word, and the Works of His Hands, do these applications of pi make sense. Only He could apply pi to the ecliptic and the dimensions of planet Earth, an idea borne out in greater detail, in how pi is symbolically and architecturally appliednot only in the Hebrew Tabernacle and Temple, but moreso in the Great Pyramid, [Fig. 3, below]. Since the pattern shown to Moses for the Tabernacle was by divine revelation, just as the Temple’s pattern was shown to King David, these men of God did not calculate the blueprints for these sacred edifices, or their related measurements, by scientific trial and error. Thus, they didn’t need to wait centuries on the Greeks-like Archimedes, generally considered the greatest of ancient scientists, to rediscover or apply them in divine architecture. Although Archimedes is to be commended for his application of the pi ratio, at his later time in history, respectfully it pales compared to what we find in the Biblical uses of “qav” relating to pi.

Figure 3. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images 16.

Image result for Golden Ratio Great Pyramid of Giza

In Isa. 9:6, one of the great prophecies of the promised seed, it is used of the Messiah as Sar-Shalom, the Prince of Peace, the one who brings peace to all Creation, [Eph. 2:11-18]. The word Sar as the root of saros doubtless linked to the Hebrew word [H8269] of the same spelling, meaning; “ruler, prince captain, chief, leader, head.”17 The word retained this meaning even in modern usage, as in the Tsar of all the Russias. As a witness linking to the roots of very early human language, Aesar is a word for “God” in both, Icelandic and Irish, Osar in Egyptian like Osiris was the prince. Even the English word “sir” and the RomanCeasar” are traceable to this root. It is used in Daniel 10:13 & 20, referring the arch-angel Michael who routed the fallen angel (Daimon), opposing the messenger angel that God sent to answer Daniel’s prayer. The meaning of “sar” is Jesus Christ as the Prince of Peace embodies “the sum of creation, as the prince of Creation.” The most important date on the calendar of Israel then becomes the birthday of Jesus Christ on New Years Day, Tishri 1, 3 BC. Because the Hebrew calendar was lunar based [saros] as to the start of its months, the coordination of the lunar and solar cycles set the basis for the signs marking the birth of Christ. “With every 19 solar years plus 2 hours, the Sun and Moon return to meet each other at the same appointed time and place in the sky. The saros, however being an eclipse lunar cycle, consists of 19 eclipse years, which is only 18 solar years plus eleven days. An eclipse year consists of 346.62 solar days, which is equal to 11.738 full moons. When we divide the saros by 11.738, we get 1.618, (or phi), accurate to 4 digits!”18 This shows us a comparison between 2 lunar cycles (eclipse years & full moons) that harmonize according to the phi ratio. Since the Sun intersects a lunar Node two times every 346.62-day eclipse year, we see how the solar and lunar cycles might also be linked by the phi proportion. As we consider the Calendar of Israel, which unified the luni-solar cycles according to phi, in concert with Israel’s sacred fifty-year cycle of Jubilees, the impact of this pattern in the Natural Order is evident, since there are 618 full Moons in any given 50-year Jubilee cycle.

According to Hislop, The Chaldean version of this word: Zer, meaning “to encompass” gives us not only the English basis for; “Zero signified by a circle among the Chaldeans,” but also Zero; “the seed.”19 It further relates to the Hebrew word “zera” [H2233], used referring to the promised seed in Genesis 3:15. To this end the Chaldean word for the “woman’s promised seed” was Zero-ashta, that also formed the basis of the name Zoroaster. We should note here that the Zoroastrian writings in the Zend-Avesta predicted the return of Zoroaster as a Messianic savior who would renew all existence in preparation for the Last Judgment. These references to the woman’s promised seed point directly to the general sign of the Celestial Prelude. Hislop also notes:

 “In many nations, not only was a great god known under the name of Zero or Zer; the seed, and a great goddess under the name of Ashta or Ishta; the woman, but the great god Zero is frequently characterized by some epithet which implies that he is The only One.”20

This evidence provides a strong basis for a direct correlation to Coma, the seed as the desired of the nations, [Hab. 2:7] especially when we view the supernova in this child’s head, as the promised seed, pictured in the woman’s lap in the decan of Coma, as the general sign of the Celestial Prelude. Hislop goes on to say: “As he who by the Chaldeans was regarded as the great Seed was looked upon as the Sun incarnate, and as the emblem of the Sun was a circle, the hieroglyphic relation between zero; “the circle,” and zero; ‘the seed‘ was easily established.”21

The Maya were also familiar with the concept of zero long before it reached Europe through India and the Arab traders. They used a shell shape to symbolize zero, but to them “it was not a symbol for nothing; but it represented completion and the seed from which all could be derived.”22

From the information above we can see related cultural connotations for Sar-zero in the sun, embodied as the promised “great seed” [Mal. 4:2], the ecliptic upon which the sun travels [Psalm 19:4-6], in its course, moon (saros), and the “encompassing” circle, in spite of being separated by culture and time. The history of “zero” from a mathematical viewpoint is interesting in this light, because the Arabs, from whom we have taken it, got it from the Chaldeans. In our modern usage, zero is the absence of quantity, the point where a continuous function changes its sign from positive to negative [or from the physical to spiritual] as in, for example, zeropoint energy Physics. From a Biblical viewpoint, this transition between the physical and spiritual realms is embodied in Jesus Christ who is the crown of Creation. As the Word made flesh, seated at the right hand of God at the utmost peak of the cosmos, Jesus gives mankind our only access to the true spiritual side of life that arches over our physical “reality,” [II Cor. 4:18]. As the ideal man and mediator, he embodies the relationship between all humanity on Earth and our Heavenly Father. This becomes more interesting when we consider that, according to ancient Sumerian myth, Sar also symbolized the totality of the cosmos. The Sumerian conception of this was dual, meaning there was an upper totality called An-Sar, and a lower totality known as Ki-Sar. “An” meant heaven, and “Ki” meant Earth to the Sumerians, who believed that originally these two were unified in one place, until circumstances demanded that Earth be set aside for humanity in its fallen state. The Sar was the prince who would once again unify these disparate aspects of Creation resulting from the temptation and fall of man. As we consider the Sumerian cosmos, we find the ancient concept of a layered Celestial Sphere within the great circle of An-Sar that encompasses the lesser ellipses or pillars of the eclipticEquator, the planetaryearthly and lunar orbits.

As the high priest after the order of Melchisedek, Jesus inherits his double square breastplate of 12 precious stones, symbolizing the authority of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah as Priest-King over Israel’s 12 [4 x 3] tribes [Ex. 28:15-30]. Keeping with the celestial symbolism theme, the breastplate, was designed with a niche holding the Urim and Thummim, or lights and perfections; representing the two great lights of the Sun and Moon. As oracles of the High Priest, these two stones revealed the wisdom and glory of the Creator, even as the movements of the Sun and Moon in the sky declare God’s glory [Ps. 19:1]. We find more references to these 12 stones and their variants in the living stones of I Pet. 2:4-7

Another element in understanding the celestial/astronomical implications of these temple pillars, includes the astronomy of the birth of Christ. This is a natural progression from the Kings of Israel, starting with King David and the Davidic Dynasty leading to the promised seed and King of Kings, the apex of this royal spiritual line in Jesus Christ.

Other notable researchers have acknowledged the correlation of Rosh Hashanah not only at the Birth of Christ on Sept. 11th, 3 BC, but also as his birth relates to his victorious return as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, with the Rev. 12 heavenly birth signs replaying in 2017 and beyond, in light of the Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy of the Great Pyramid. The principal on the Signs of the End web- site isDaniel Matson, @[http://watchfortheday.org/signsoftheend/giza2024.html]. 23

He broached this topic with the question; “Could Rosh Hashanah be the real factor? His basic idea is  that the pyramid complex is a map of the heavens of a point in time when Christ returns. The pyramids show what is to be at meridian (Al Nitak in Orion), taking into account the causeways heading east from the pyramids, showing the importance of the rising sun or other items rising in the east. That the Sphinx also looks to the east is a factor as well. The point though was to see when a candidate for an alignment of Rosh Hashanah and the meridian alignment of Orion at dawn.”24

An earlier version of this was realized in the Great Pyramid’s Rosh Hashanah alignment of 2017,

As we have posted in numerous blog studies, the heavenly signs marking the birth of Christ seen in Rev12 will also mark his victorious return, and we have documented how the heavenly signs in the 2014-2015 Blood Moon Tetrad and the signs leading up to the 2017 fall equinox, established this truth. However, the 2017 alignment was not alone as a possible marker for Christ’s Return. The next alignment of this type is coming in 2028, when dates for Rosh Hashanah may match the sky picture of signs as described in Rev. 12. In 2017 Matson showed a key relationship between the Christ Angle of the Great Pyramid and the Rosh Hashanah date starting-sundown on Sept. 20th-21st, 2017, two days before the Feast of Trumpets on 9-23-2017. As Matson said, “this was the first year from when he marked Rosh Hashanah coming immediately after Sept20th—the time Al Nitak hits the meridian precisely at dawnand also when Regulus hits the Christ angle.”25 Thus, the Christ angle not only bisects Bethlehem as a prophecy of Christ’s birth, but it also bisects Regulus as in 2017, at this point in time again in 2028, as a potential time of his Return.

The Sept. 20th alignment of Venus-Regulus related to the Great Pyramid, is seen in Fig. 4 below.

Figure 4. Great Pyramid Passage Alignments on Rosh Hashanah 2017. 26

Signs of the End – The Oracle in Stone

Here the passages of the Great Pyramid according to the Christ Angle, map out the signs of the
Celestial Sphinx, as Regulus and Venus are aligned in Leo the Lion, while Jupiter is in Virgo.

The first clincher here is that on Rosh Hashanah-2017Venus the bright and Morning Star is in
conjunction with Regulus at dawn, aligned with the Christ Angle, visible above the horizon. Second, below the horizon is Jupiter–called the “scepter” in [Num. 24:17], as King planet of the Jews, is positioned equi-distant via the Christ angle to Regulus & Venus above the horizon. The dawn VenusRegulus union reminds us of the testimony of the Apostle Peter;

2 Peter 1:19-21
And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark placeuntil the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts; knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

In Fig. 5 below the Christ angle in the Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid is aligned with the Venus-Regulus union in Leo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah. The key note here is the star Regulus, the brightest star on the ecliptic, is located at the heart of Leo, and when this glorious dawn of the sixth administration breaks, the Morning Star Jesus Christ arises in our hearts, enlightening us for eternal glory, as we are raptured with Christ to God’s own right hand, forever. The 2nd part of this Pyramid alignment on Rosh Hashanah, when Al Nitak hits the meridian precisely at dawn,  extending through the Pyramid’s apex, to the star Al Nitak on Orion’s Belt. The apex and chief cornerstone of the Great Pyramid itself is also the subject of numerous messianic prophecies [Ps. 118: 22] where the stone rejected by the builders has become head of the corner, or the chief cornerstone. This 5th cornerstone of the Great Pyramid sits atop the superstructure of the Great Pyramid, unifying the four cornerstones at the Pyramid’s base, into the spiritual body of Christ’s Church, [Eph. 2:20]. This would activate the celestial image of the Great Pyramid, to unify the capstone with the body of the Great Pyramid, as a prophecy of Christ’s return FOR his saints.

The Almighty has provided many examples from History and Nature, not to mention countless Biblical miracles confirming His Prophetic Word, in the dual witness of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy, of the Great Pyramid providing excellent depictions of this verse with Venus the Morning Star aligned in the King Star Regulus at dawn on Rosh Hashanah, Sept. 21st, 2017, according to the measures of the Great Pyramid’s Ascending/ Descending passages, [Fig. 5 below]. If indeed these heavenly signs are pointing to The Dawn of The Day of the Lord’s Return FOR his Saints in 2028, then it will truly be the dawn of a New Day and Age of Everlasting Righteousness in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Figure 5. The Great Pyramid’s Ascending Passage alignment with the Venus-Regulus union in Leo, 9-20-2017.  27

This view of the prophecy of the Great Pyramid in its Ascending and Descending Passage angles agrees with what Scriptures say about the witness of the Great Pyramid in Isaiah 19:19-20. What is evident from this graphic [Fig. 4] is the key role of the planets Jupiter and Venus in marking the Birth and 2nd Coming of the Lord. Historically, ancient Pyramid researchers have made key observations concerning the dimensions and symbolism of the only ancient world wonder still intact. Scholars from Herodotus to Agatharchides oCnidus in the 2nd Cent. BC, emphasized mathematical and geometric principles governing the building and conception of the Pyramid complex on the Giza Plateau, as opposed to their specific measures. A modern scholar, Livio Stechini in analyzing the past work of Pyramid researchers, has focused on the meridian triangle of the Great Pyramid, which provided precise values of both the Pi and Phi ratios, in the four triangular faces of the Great Pyramid. Agatharchides found dimensions for two of the meridian sections of the Pyramid based on Pi, with the other 2 triangle sections based on Phi.28 As we may recall from our High School Geometry class, Pi resolved the circle’s relationship between its diameter and circumference. In Sacred Geometry, a spiritual view of geometric principles is held, where the Circle symbolizes the Eternal Creator [Elohim], while the Diameter embodies God as Jehovah in relationship with His Creation. Jehovah is seen reaching out to humanity in His only begotten Son, where Jesus as the diameter line, links the centerpoint; [Mancreation] to the Creator seen as the eternal Circle, outside of Creation. So Christ is the perfect mediator between God and Man, [I Tim. 2:5].

Rosh ha-Shanah on Tishri 1, was the “head” of the Judean calendar as New Year’s day and Jesus’ birth-day, the first day of the 50year Hebrew cycle of Jubilees. This set a foundational temporal pattern of the seasons, holidays and feasts of Israel’s sacred calendar.

During the “Great Wonder” of Rev. 12:1, the feet of the woman, Virgo fall at the intersection of the ecliptic and the Celestial Equator, which is also known as the autumnal equinox, one of the so-called four pillars of heaven,” the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon. This celestial point was generally marked on the Hebrew calendar by the Feast of Tabernacles, which occurred later during this Sabbath of Months. V.P. Wierwille refers to the significance of Tishri 1 the seventh month, with the following:

 “Just as age was reckoned from Tishri 1 to Tishri 1, so were the regnal years of Judean Kings. The blowing of trumpets of Rams Horns was also part of the coronation ceremony of these Judean Kings.” 29

We find added evidence for this in the star cycle of Sirius, as a symbol embodying a dual-nature of the Morning Star. Its fallen archaic nature is seen in Lucifer, the first Morning Star [Isa. 14:12], while the risen nature is seen in Christ [Rev. 22:16]. This becomes more intriguing when we look at aspects of the stellar mythos of the star cycles of Sirius A & B, of the African tribe called the Dogon.

The Dogon celestial mythology says the cycle of SiriusB,” a White Dwarf companion star in joint orbit with SiriusA“, is a 50-year cycle, a fact verified by modern astronomers. Thus, it is instructive to see how half the fifty-year cycle of Sirius B exhibits the luni-solar kinship inherent in the 50-year cycle of Hebrew Jubilees, according to the golden section, or phi ratio. This key to the celestial coordination of the luni-solar cycle, along with the star cycle of Sirius as the three main calendars referred to in Gen. 1:14-16. Since the sidereal Sirius year, or Sothic Calendar as the Greeks called it, requires a highly advanced knowledge of the heavens, capable of selecting the lone star in the sky that dictates a year-365¼ days long, we find more support for these advanced astronomical practices about 1000+ years prior to Abraham, in ancient Egypt.

Although the historical correlation of the 50-year Jubilee and the 50-year Sothic cycle is unsettled, we have seen the Jubilee cycle is central to the timing of Christ’s birth, and stands out in the celestial events making up the great wonder of Rev. 12. According to Schwaller de Lubicz, who broke down the 50-year Sothic cycle into two 25 year cycles: says a twenty-five year cycle corresponds to 309 lunations. The calculations are:

25 x 365 = 9125 days, and
9125 = 29.5307 days per lunation in 309 lunations

This in itself reveals extremely accurate observations. Modern Astronomy reckons the lunation as 29.53059 days, a difference of about a second. But Schwaller de Lubicz notes the intriguing equivalence of twenty-five years to 309 lunar months. 309 = (Ø -1 x 1000 and its choice as the number determining the cycle cannot have been accidental.                                   2

Ø – 1 x 1000.)=618.  A double cycle comprising 50 years; expresses the Golden Section. 30 
            2

Thus the inception of Jesus’ reign as King of Kings is marked on his birthday of Tishri 1, the “Day of Trumpets.” The significance of the king’s coronation tied to Rosh Hashannah, New Year’s Day and the head of Israel’s calendar, is that Christ is the King of Kings presiding over all temporal, civil and sacred matters as the King-High Priest of Israel. Thus, his birth on this key day of the calendar was foreordained by God, from before the foundations of the world. An example of this coronation tradition in the kingdom of Israel can be seen in II Kings 11:

2 Kings 11:12-14
And he brought forth the king’s son, and put the crown upon him, and gave him the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king. [13] And when Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she came to the people into the temple of the Lord. [14] And when she looked, behold, the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets: and Athaliah rent her clothes, and cried, Treason, Treason.

The figure Polysyndetyn is evident in 2 Kings above as seen with the use of manyands” separating the steps of the king’s coronation, starting with bringing forth the king’s son in v. 12, and concluding with the blowing of trumpets, and Athalia tearing her clothes and crying Treason as the 13th step of rebellion in v.14, resulting in her death.

The chronological alignment that we are recognizing with regards to the regnal years of Judean kings,  calculated from New Years Day, Rosh ha-Shanah on the Hebrew Calendar, from Tishri 1 to Tishri 1, that coincides with the birthday of Jesus Christ is established in a celestial coronation ceremony of the promised seed, with the triple planetary union of Jupiter-Regulus following Christ’s birth in  BC. In the Book of Kings, Jesus is the King’s son, in the Red Thread title, that unveils each book in God’s Word according to the ministry of Christ. These steps recorded in the king’s coronation here in II Kings 11:12-14, start with the king being brought forth, the ninth of which is “the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was.” Verse 13 above notes that the coronation ceremony took place in the Temple of the Lord, which is logical since the king was ordained and anointed of God. Below we find the celestial rendition of Christ’s Coronation, with the first of 3 unions of Jupiter, the King planet and Regulus the king star, in 3-2 BC. In Fig. 6 below, the path of Jupiter from Sept. 3 BC to Nov. 2 BC is depicted as Jupiter crowns Regulus. This involves the coordination of the luni-solar, planetary and star cycles all synched in honor of the prophesied appearance of the promised seed, God’s only begotten Son, Jesus Christ, the King of kings.

Fig. 6. The Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Regulus on Sept. 14th 3 BC. 31

In the Astronomy of the Birth of Christ, we also found a series of at least 7 lunar occultations of Regulus, signifying the serpent’s efforts to obstruct the purposes of God in the time of Christ’s birth. There is evidence that these lunar activities marked the workings of the serpent’s seed in bringing about death and destruction. This dark lunar symbolism relates to the Moon’s eclipse cycle resulting in the recurrent lapse of the Sun’s life-giving light. In the final analysis however, persecution by the adversary does not directly hinder the movement of God’s Word, it only will ultimately assist in its abundant dispersion.

II Chronicles 23:3-11 shows us this record in greater detail.
3 Then all the assembly made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said to them,“Behold, the king’s son shall reign, as the Lord has said of the sons of DavidThis is what you shall do: One-third of you entering on the Sabbath, of the priests and the Levites, shall be keeping watch over the doors one-third shall be at the king’s house; and one-third at the Gate of the Foundation. All the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LordBut let no one come into the house of the Lord except the priests and those of the Levites who serve. They may go in, for they are holy; but all the people shall keep the watch of the LordAnd the Levites shall surround the king on all sides, every man with his weapons in his hand; and whoever comes into the house, let him be put to death. You are to be with the king when he comes in and when he goes out.”

So the Levites and all Judah did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded. And each man took his men who were to be on duty on the Sabbath, with those who were going off duty on the Sabbath; for Jehoiada the priest had not dismissed the divisions. And Jehoiada the priest gave to the captains of hundreds the spears and the large and small shields which had belonged to King David, that were in the temple of God. 10 Then he set all the people, every man with his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, along by the altar and by the temple, all around the king11 And they brought out the king’s son, put the crown on himgave him the [a]Testimony, and made him king. Then Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, “Long live the king!”

Death of Athaliah

12 Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people in the temple of the Lord13 When she looked, there was the king standing by his pillar at the entrance; and the leaders and the trumpeters were by the king. All the people of the land were rejoicing and blowing trumpets, also the singers with musical instruments, and those who led in praise. So Athaliah tore her clothes and said, “Treason! Treason!

2Kgs. 23:3, the king stood by a pillar at the Temple’s entrance in the 13 steps of his coronation. As Ezek17:14, tells us, if the king kept God’s Covenant, the kingdom would stand, explaining why the coronation ceremony was held in the Temple where God’s name dwelt.

2 Chronicles 23:13-15
[13] And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason. 14 And Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds who were set over the army, and said to them, “Take her outside under guard, and slay with the sword whoever follows her.” For the priest had said, “Do not kill her in the house of the Lord.”
15 So they seized her; and she went by way of the entrance of the Horse Gate into the king’s house, and they killed her there.

The Trumpets that accompanied the King’s coronation ceremony on Rosh Hashanah in v.13 above, are very appropriate to the pomp and circumstance of the occasion. There has been conjecture as to the meaning of this pillar or column [H5982-ammud=Judg. 16:25-26, I Kgs. 7:2, pillar of cloud, Ex. 33:9-10, and the pillar of fire in Ex. 13:22. Also used of pillars of heaven in Job 26:11 and pillars of the earth, Job 9:6-7. Job here mentions the earthly pillars in the same breath as the sun not giving its light, along with the stars being sealed up. The earth’s seasons of winter, spring, summer and fall, located at the equinoxes and solstices, are called the earthly pillars. [2.] a Platform or scaffold; where the King stood by his pillar2 Kgs. 11:14, 23:3.

The record in 2 Chron. 23 puts this “pillar at the entering in,” and if the entrance of the temple is meant, it refers to the Temple’s large pillars of brass called Jachin and Boaz. This agrees with the New Bible Dictionary which states: “The entrance to Solomon’s Temple was flanked by 2 huge bronze pillars of key significance, [I Kgs 7:15-22]. They were thought to indicate the divine presence as the pillars of fire and cloud in Ex. 33:9, Deut. 31:15. It was apparently by one of these that the king stood on ceremonial occasions, [2 Kings 23:3, 2 Chron. 23:13].”32

 In II Chron. 34:31, King Josiah stood in his place (H5977omed) and made a covenant before the Lord to keep His commandments. The word translated “place” has the same Hebrew root [H5975amad] as the wordpillar” above.

1 Kings 7:21 And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.

Thus, as the kings of Israel stood in their place, by their pillar in the temple during the king’s
coronation ceremony, so the coronation of the King of kings, seen in the stellar heralding of his birth, was also marked by one of the four celestial pillars of heaven. At this center point in history, near the autumnal equinox, with the Moon at the feet of Virgo, with the setting of the star Spica-Al Zemach, the moments of the birth of Jesus Christ were framed in the heavens. This was followed 3 days later by the first union of a triple planetary coronation with first
Jupiter-Regulus Conjunction in Leo.

Fig. 7. The Scene at Sunset on 9-11-3BC with the Sun in Virgo with the Moon at her Feet.33

jupiter-regulus

This graphic marks the scene described in Rev. 12 with “the woman [Virgo] clothed with the sun, and the Moon at her feet. The Moon also happens to mark the autumnal equinox, with the crossing of the Celestial Equator and the Ecliptic or path of the Sun. This picture represents the view from Jerusalem on Sept. 11th, 3, BC, at sunset at 6:18pm, and moonset at 7:39pm, as the Sun and Moon frame the setting of the Star Spica which marked the birth time of the Messiah Jesus Christ. 34

This reference to the Feasts of Tabernacles and Passover in the pillar’s chapiters dividing the year in half according to the sacred calendar, remind us of the relation of the luni-solar year that is evident in the cycle of Jubilees. The Feast of Tabernacles was the third of the great annual feasts of the Hebrew sacred calendar, beginning on the fifteenth of the month, which was the height of the full Moon. It determined the start, and closed the annual sacred cycle of the Sabbatical year and the agricultural year, while also marking the change of seasons. Coming during the seventh or most sacred month with its Moon at full strength, shows us another stamp of seven in the temporal order of this feast. Edersheim comments on the significance of the number seven in his book The Temple, where he states:

“What the seventh day, or sabbath was to the week, the seventh month seems to have been to the year.” 35

Thus it would follow that, as Pentecost was to Passover in that it followed it by fifty days (7×7+1), so the Jubilee followed in yearsLeviticus 25:8 relates the “seven Sabbaths of years” to the 50th year of the Jubilee, which fell on the Day of Atonement, or the tenth day of the holiest 7th month of Tishri. In the same way that liberty was proclaimed in the Jubilee, throughout all the land and to all its inhabitants [Levi. 25:10], so Jesus set at liberty them that were bruised, while proclaiming the acceptable year of the Lord at the opening of his ministry. This is interesting when we observe that there are thirty Jubilees that bring us from the Exodus to the opening of Christ’s ministry, when opening the scroll to Isa. 61:2, he certified the “acceptable year of the Lord” in a 7-fold prophecy, (Lk. 4:18-21).36 This fits neatly with the truth that in fulfilling the O.T. Law as the embodiment of the Passover male lamb of the first year [Exod. 12:5), Jesus was in the first year of his manhood according to Hebrew reckoning, beginning at 30 years old. During this specific period of 70 weeks; [Dan. 9:24] decreed by God as the period to fulfill this Messianic redemption wherein he ministered to Israel, he was crucified, resurrected, & ascended, exploding the myth that his ministry lasted till he was thirty-three.

In summary, the January Blog of 2023 has illustrated how the potential eclipse of Joshua’s Long Day relates to the luni-solar cycle through the eclipse cycle and even the lunar occultations of Regulus,
to highlight Biblical Astronomy keys of the coronation of the King of kings. Behind it all, we find
God’s mighty Hand guiding us in our search for Biblical truth, continuing to inspire us as we uncover invaluable nuggets along our ultimate path to being seated in Christ at God’s right hand, according to His eternal purposes.

God Bless!

Rene’

 

Footnotes

1. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
2. IBID.
3. Plate 1. Picture Credit, (courtesy of the NASA website)
4. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
5. IBID.
6. Gesenius HebrewChaldee Lexicon- H5975:amad.
7. IBID, 5976amad.
8. January 2017 Hebrew Journal Beyt Mikra by physicist Ḥezi YitzḥakBible scholar
Daniel Weinstaub
, and archeologist Uzi Avner.
9. IBID.
10. IBID.
11. Gesenius HebrewChaldee Lexicon- 5977-omed.

12. IBID, H5982-ammud.
13. A History of Pi, p. 16, Petr Beckmann.
14. Secrets of the Great Pyramid,  Peter Thompkins, p. 263
15. Fig. 2, picture credit. Solomon’s Temple with Brass Pillars at the Entrance.
 [alaymanlooksattheword.blogspot.com]
16. Figure 3. picture credit from Bing images; Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza.
17. Strong’s Concordance; H8269-saros, James Strong.
18. Sun, Moon and Earth. Robin Heath, p.28
19. The Two Babylons Hislop, p. 59
20. IBID Hislop, p. 18
21. IBID.
22. Serpent in the Sky J..A. West, p. 94.
23. http://watchfortheday.org/signsoftheend/giza2024.html
24. IBID.
25. IBID.
26. IBID, Signs of the End – The Oracle in Stone.
27. Fig. 5 Picture credit. [endtimesforecaster.blogspot.com]
28. Secrets of the Great Pyramid,  Peter Thompkins, p. 374-375.
29. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, American Christian Press, VP Weirwille
30 Serpent in the Sky J..A. West, ppg. 94-95.
31. Fig. 6 picture credit, Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, p. 61, American Christian Press.
32. New Bible Dictionary, ppg. 544-545, Tyndale House Publishers.
33. Fig. 7 picture credit, Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, p. 70-71, American Christian Press.
34. IBID, p. 70.
35. The Temple.  Alfred Edersheim
36. IBID

 

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The Biblical Astronomy of the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day

The Biblical Astronomy of the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day

In Jon Nessle’s current OT History class, we have learned of key errors linked to the dating of the conventional chronologies, of history, and the assumptions that accompany their popularized time placement, that have caused no end of confusion for archaeology, Bible historians, and students. We will see how Courville’s redating of Bible History has provided much-needed answers to the numerous problems linked to the conventional chronology. We will also note some modern historians and Bible Archaeologists that not only agree with Courville’s redating, but provided key evidences in support of it. The following quotes from Courville provide the context of this position along with the benefits that come with their acceptance. This provides an important backdrop for the subject of this month’s blog, an astronomical event known as Joshua’s Long Day. The focus of this study is an alternative timeline to the conventional chronology, along with some existing and newer research connected to Joshua’s Long Day. The first reference from Courville addresses certain cultural innovations that the Hebrews brought in their invasion and conquest of Palestine, led by Joshua.

“The pottery of the period is exceptionally fine… At Megiddo there is a complicated succession of building periods …. Early in the sequence comes a very fine town wall… and is a most impressive example of the town walls of this period. This phase can be taken as representative of the fully developed culture of Canaanite [sic] Palestine, a culture of prosperous city-states. Against the background of the revised chronology, the ancient Hebrews were far from being a cipher culturally. It was the Hebrews who introduced the use of bronze into Palestine; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of the fast wheel in making pottery; it was the Hebrews who introduced the high level of culture to be observed in Palestine at the beginning of Middle Bronze and which was never exceeded; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of drainage systems and the use of cisterns as a means of preserving water from the rainy season; it was the Hebrews who introduced improvements in the architecture of dwellings and defense walls; it was very probably the Hebrews who introduced the technique for obtaining iron from its ores in quantity. These and other contributions to the culture of Middle Bronze Age in Palestine should be credited to the Hebrews and not to their pagan
contemporaries, the Canaanites or the Amorites. However, all this is true only if it is possible to erect a satisfactory chronological structure of the ancient world on the foundations laid by a redating of the end of Early Bronze to c. 1400 B.C., some 600 years later than dates currently attributed to this change of culture. This is an exceedingly large IF. While it has already been shown that a number of large problems in archaeology are provided solutions by this alteration, this is only a start. It must also be shown that every significant synchronism which has been used to support the conventional structure is either ill-founded or else, that it continues to hold for
the revised structure; it must be shown that the almost infinite bits of information gleaned archaeologically can be rationally interpreted against this revised background; it must be shown that all of the chronologies of other ancient nations can be revised as necessary to fit into this revised scheme; it must be shown that the various methods of dating that have been used in arriving at the presently accepted structure are not valid, including the so-called astronomical dating methods.”

“And finally, it must be explained why most scholars in the field for the last half-century and more have fallen into the same errors of fallacious reasoning without being able to recognize the nature of their mistakes which have led them to the currently accepted views. Not only is this possible, it can be done with the continued elimination of numerous added difficulties characterizing the conventional structure and with the appearance of a number of noteworthy synchronisms that have not been previously recognized. The writer does not ask the reader to accept these claims per se. He only asks that the reader follow carefully and critically the developments outlined in the subsequent chapters of this work, evaluating for them the evidence which are presented in support of a revised chronology of Egypt which agrees with Bible chronology and with Bible history without an appreciable flaw.” [HEBREW CULTURE p. 113-114 THE EXODUS PROBLEM] 1

At this point, we are content to note that the same shift in dating at the end of Early Bronze which provides solutions to anomalies at Jericho, and at Ai, as well as providing a ready solution to the enigmas of Hittite chronology, also provides the proper setting for the events of the Exodus, the Conquest of Joshua, and the era of the Judges. A major issue with the Conventional Chronology where the history of ancient Egypt is concerned, is the lack of precise evidence to delineate epochal divisions between Stone, Bronze & Iron ages, to mark the transitions between these epochs. Courville is one of the very few who has aligned the layers of the archaeological digs starting in Jericho, as documented by Kenyon, from the end of the Jews 40-year wilderness wandering after the Exodus, with Joshua’s conquest and displacement of the Canaanites, Amorites, et al. in Palestine.

On the basis of the multiplicity of synchronisms indicating that the Conquest should properly be set at the end of Earlv Bronze IV, it was concluded that the Exodus occurred at the point of the fall of the Old Kingdom, approximately marked by the end of Dynasty VI. This point is marked by a similar eclipse of power in Egypt which lasted for a pluralitv of centuries. [3] On the basis of the demands of the redating of the end of Early Bronze, it was necessary to recognize both these periods as one and the same2

The identification of the line of Pharaoh’s just before the Hyksos kings, puts us in the proper position to reveal the pharaoh of the Oppression, which provides confirmation of this general structure. Thus, it will be possible also to show clearly the identity of the Pharaoh of the Oppression who carried out an extensive building program in brick in the eastern Delta region where the Israelites lived. A famine inscription appears, dated almost exactly at the point required by Old Testament Chronology relative to the Exodus, dated c. 1445 B.C., with a multiple of confirming evidences for the proposed setting of the Exodus. This scenario put forward by Courville in THE EXODUS PROBLEM, is the setting of my Nov. 2022 blog, that handles details of Joshua’s Conquest, to agree with the Scriptural and historical account of events as seen in Joshua 10. 3

Joshua 10:1-6
1 Now it came to pass when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among themthat they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mightyTherefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.” Therefore the five kings of the Amoritesthe king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachishand the king of Eglon, gathered together and went up, they and all their armies, and camped before Gibeon and made war against it. And the men of Gibeon sent to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, saying, “Do not forsake your servants; come up to us quickly, save us and help us, for all the kings of the Amorites who dwell in the mountains have gathered together against us.”

This Biblical record begins in verse 1 by recounting how “Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and
how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them.” This is in general agreement with Courville’s redating of the conventional chronology, to a time when Joshua was conquering the cities of Jericho, and Ai, as we find in the following reference from Courville.

XII. “Other Peoples Migrated out of Palestine at the End of Early Bronze age, in line with Scripture, as it was not alone the Hittites who were to be displaced by the incoming Israelites. If the proposed redating of the Conquest is correct, then there should be evidence of the settlement of other peoples in areas outside Palestine that previously had resided within this territory. The Phoenicians who settled along the northern coast of the Mediterranean refer to themselves as the Canaanites, [60] people also displaced from Palestine by the Israelites. The Mitannians appear to be a remnant of one branch of the Hurrians who similarly dwelt in Palestine previously. [61] The Amorites were in the Palestine area from the time of Abraham. They were displaced at the time of the Conquest, and appear in the area north of Palestine as the Amurru, a name associated with the Amorites. [62]
A consistent picture results from the recognition that Early Bronze represents the era just prior to the conquest of Joshua and the following transition period is that of the Conquest itself.”  [p. 98 THE EXODUS PROBLEM.] 4

As this Biblical record agrees with Courville’s redating of Joshua’s Conquest at the End of Early Bronze age, confirmed by the displacement of the men of JerichoAi, and the Amorites, many other thorny historical problems associated with the Conventional Chronology find solutions also.

Joshua 10:7-11 
So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valorAnd the Lord said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have delivered them into your handnot a man of them shall stand before you.” 9 Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly, having marched all night from Gilgal. 10 So the Lord routed them before Israel, killed them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, chased them along the road that goes to Beth Horon,
and struck them down as far as Azekeh and Makkedah.
 11 And it happened, as they fled before Israel and were on the descent of Beth Horon, that the Lord cast down large hail-stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they diedThere were more who died from the hailstones than the children of Israel killed with the sword.  

This was a singular battle in world military history because as verse 11 above recounts; it was  the Lord who cast down large hailstones from heaven on the fleeing Amorites. The Lord of Hosts was fighting from Heaven for Israel against their enemies in Palestine, and the large hail-stones God sent raining down in a meteor shower on them, killed more of the enemy than the Israelites themselves. This harmonizes with Josh. 10:8 above, which says “I [God] have delivered them into your hand,” but this miracle, that recalls the signs from heaven akin to the destruction of Sodom and Gommorah, [Gen. 18:17-32] to a lesser degree, was only an astronomical foretaste of what was in store for these enemies of God’s people.

Joshua 10:12-15 12 Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of IsraelSun, stand still over GibeonAnd Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” 13 So the sun stood stillAnd the moon stoppedTill the people had revenge upon their enemiesIs this not written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day14 And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that the Lord heeded the voice of a man; for the Lord fought for Israel15 Then Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

The locations of Gibeon, Beth Horon and the Valley of AijalonAzekah and Makkedah as Joshua pursued the Amorites, are shown in figure 1. 5

Map of ancient Canaan showing the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, according to Joshua 10:9–10.

This Map of ancient Canaan shows the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, then to the great slaughter @ Gibeon, to pursue them unto Beth Horon, where the large hail-stones started falling, then Aijalon over which the Moon stood, [Josh. 10:12], then unto Azekah and Makkedah according to Joshua 10:9–11. The book of Joshua continues in the Old Testament, after an all-night march from Gilgal, the Israelites attacked the Amorites at Gibeon, and then pursued them to Azekah and then to Makkedah (fig. 1). As evidence from historical geography shows the locations of these sites: Gibeon was about 10 km northwest of Jerusalem, Azekah about 30 km southwest of Gibeon, and Makkedah about 20 km south of Azekah. 6

Prior research into this topic by Humphreys and Waddington aids the conventional chronology of astronomy, with related data in the fields of Egyptology and Hebrew studiesSo how did these two physicists proceed in their research regarding an event that’s only obliquely referred to in an ancient Bible text? Their multidisciplinary task according to them, required a foray into ancient Hebrew, a rethinking of Egypt’s royal history, and some complex calculations about the Earth’s rotation. Their inquiry began with the translation of the Hebrew word dôm,” from Joshua 10. In English versions of the Bible, it’s usually translated as “stopped,” as in the sunstopped moving.” When discussing the word with Alan Millard, a professor of Hebrew and ancient Semitic languages, Humphreys pondered whether it could actually mean the sun stopped shining”—that may suggest an eclipse. In order to date the eclipse, the Cambridge researchers included a new eclipse code” which examined variations in the Earth’s rotation over time. 7

Earlier researchers also only looked at total eclipses, failing to consider that the text may refer to an annular eclipse, in which the moon passes directly in front of the sun, but is too far away to cover the disc completely, they said. From their calculations, the Cambridge researchers found that the only annular eclipse visible from Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC was on Oct. 30, 1207 BC, in the afternoon.

Historical evidence from the Merneptah Stele, a text from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, shows that the Israelites were in Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC. This large granite block held in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo says that it was carved in the 5th year of Merneptah’s reign and mentions a campaign in Canaan in which he defeated the people of Israel. If correct, it enables academics to date the reigns of Ramesses the Great and his son Merneptah, to within a year.

Figure 2. The Merneptah Stele. 

The Merneptah Stele (ca. 1208 BC) is a 10-foot tall, granite victory monument, which names Israel as a nation in Canaan.

The most famous, and arguably the most important discovery related to Moses and the Exodus is the Merneptah Stele. In ca. 1208 B.C. Pharaoh Merneptah erected a 10-foot tall victory monument (called a stele) in a temple at Thebes to boast of his claims of victory in both Libya and Canaan. It was discovered in 1896 by Sir Flinders Petrie. On it, Merneptah boasts, “Israel is wasted, its seed is not; And Hurru (Canaan) is become a widow because of Egypt.”9

Most scholars agree that this is the oldest definitive reference to Israel as a nation outside of the Bible, and certainly the clearest Egyptian reference to Israel. It is also important because it points towards an early date for the Exodus (ca. 1446 B.C. agreeing with Courville) and not the late date that some scholars hold to (ca. 1270 B.C.). It is doubtful that there would be enough time from 1270 B.C. to 1208 B.C. to account for the Exodus, the 40 years of wandering in the desert, the seven-year conquest of Canaan, the settlement of the tribes in their territories, and the establishment of a national presence in the land, all before Merneptah claims to have conquered them. Merneptah’s Canaanite campaign instead likely dates to the time of the Judges, when the nation of Israel was already settled in Canaan. The Merneptah Stele is evidence that the Exodus from Egypt, led by Moses, took place in the 15th century BC, as the biblical data indicates. 10

The later dates from mainstream Egyptologists for the reign of Ramesses II are c. 1279–1213 BC, with his son Merneptah reigning from c. 1213–1203 BC (Shaw 2003Horning et al. 2006Kitchen 2013). These dates are subject to some uncertainty, with the latest possible dates for Ramesses II being 1270–1204 BC, and for Merneptah 1204–1194 BC (Kitchen 2013). Some other researchers, most notably Rohl (1995), have proposed an alternative chronology for ancient Egypt in which these dates are advanced by several hundred years. Their “New Chronology” has achieved widespread publicity alongside widespread criticism from mainstream Egyptologists. In this “New Chronology,” the 5th year of Merneptah is 867 BC. 11

Changes to Egyptian history that Humphreys suggests pertain to the ruling period of each pharaoh, including Merneptah, during whose reign the Merneptah Stele was carved. Merneptah was the son of Rameses the Great, one of Egypt’s most famous pharaohs, and there’s been considerable debate over the years about when Rameses was in power. With the combination of a date from the solar eclipse, and the carving of the Stele, Humphreys and Waddington have proposed years for the pharaohs’ reigns that narrow their reigns down to plus or minus one year. They argue Rameses the Great ruled from 1276 to 1210 BC, while Merneptah was in power from 1210 to 1200 BC.

Prof. Humphreys added: “Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient worldEclipses have also shaped human events, says Duncan Steel, author of Eclipse: The Celestial Phenomenon That Changed the Course of History. “Historically, they have been pivotal in deciding battles,” including the 585 BC eclipse that stopped a battle between the Medes and the Lydians. The Greek philosopher Thales had predicted the eclipse, and when darkness did fall, the warring sides viewed it as an omen and hurried to come to a peaceful agreement. 12

The Bible puts the Israelites in Canaan from the beginning of the Conquest through the destruction of the Temple in about 586-5 BC, so this gives a span of many centuries for a potential conflict between Egypt and Israel. Why choose the first year of that span as the date, when Merneptah’s reference on the stele must have occurred? A primary reason to link Merneptah’s stele with Israel’s conquest of Canaan seems to be first based on tradition, that the Exodus occurred during the reign of Ramesses II. Second, that the Merneptah Stele is the consensus among Egyptologists and historians as the oldest reference to Israel in the history of ancient Egypt, providing an anchor point for their thesis, with this eclipse linked to it. Thus the conclusions of their research are grounded, assuming the conquest happened congruently with Merneptah, as proof that Merneptah reigned during the time of the conquest in 1207 BC, near the possible Joshua eclipse date of the same year. Also if the idea of an exclusive annular eclipse is correct, as the only eclipse candidate to suffice in the situation, eliminating the possibility of other partial eclipses, it would seemingly strengthen their position.

Previous claims of the earliest recorded eclipse include images carved into stone cairns at Loughcrew in Co Meath, Ireland, over 5,000 years ago, while Greek astronomer Ptolemy claimed that the first recorded eclipse was observed by the Babylonians in March 721 BC. The results are published in the Royal Astronomical Society Journal of Astronomy & Geophysics. 13

Were Humphrey’s & Waddington the first to propose an eclipse interpretation for Joshua’s Long Day? In fact, another linguist named Robert Wilson came to the same conclusion of an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10, nearly 100 years earlier. And while previous scientists had attempted to find solar eclipses for that period and failed, they’d never thought to look for an annular eclipse, which occurs when the moon only partially covers the sun, leaving a ring of light visible at the edges. “That convinced me that ‘eclipse’ was the right translation,” Humphreys says.

Humphreys looked to the giant stone inscription on the Merneptah Stele, as corroboration that the Israelites really were in Canaan during the time of a supposed eclipse. He referenced the Egyptian text believed to be the earliest textual reference to Israel, specifically its final few lines of hieroglyphics that refer to a battle with the Israelites in Canaan, correlated to the Old Testament.

If these words are describing a real observation, then a major astronomical event was being reported (“There has been no day like it, before or since”, Joshua 10:14), but what does the text mean? The Hebrew word dôm means to be silent, dumb or still. The term amad is a broader word meaning to stop or stand. Modern English translations of this passage, such as the NRSV quoted above, have all followed the King James Authorized Version (of 1611), and assumed that the Hebrew text means the Sun and Moon stopped moving. However, a plausible alternative meaning is that the Sun and Moon stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining. In other words, the text is referring to a solar eclipsewhen the Sun stops shining. As a solar eclipse can only occur with the Moon directly between the Earth and the Sun, the Moon itself is not visible and so it is not reflecting sunlight to the Earthlike the Sun, it has “stopped shining” as well. 14

As the first person to suggest that Joshua 10:12–14 was referring to a solar eclipse, the linguist Robert Wilson (1918), who over 100 years ago gave the following translation:

Be eclipsed, O sun, in Gibeon, And the moon in the valley of Aijalon! And the sun was eclipsed and the moon turned back, while the nation was avenged on its enemies.

Wilson claimed that in Babylonian cuneiform texts there are words with the same root as the Hebrew dôm that are used in Babylonian astronomical tablets in connection with eclipses, meaning “to be dark”. However, at that time, 100 years ago, it was not deemed possible to investigate this further because of the laborious nature of the calculations required15 (Russell 1918).

As we check the Hebrew words used in Joshua 10:1213, from the same Hebrew root as dôm, they  generally agree with the Babylonian meaningto be dark.” The related Hebrew words included from Strong’s Concordance [H1820, H1826 and H1724]. H1820– “damah= to cease, rest, silenced, be quiet, make an end, destroyed, laid waste, desolate, cut off, to perish.” The Hebrew verb refers to violent ends, seen in Isa. 15:1, Jer. 14:17, Hos. 4:56. All 3 of these references include the word “night [H3915] with the darkness linked to it, as in Gen. 1:5 where God divided the day from the night, and Gen. 1:14, where the heavenly lights of the firmament divide the day from the night, for signs, seasons, days and years. See also [Ps. 19:2, Ex. 13:21-22]. Solar and Lunar eclipses surely qualify as key heavenly signs, in the Creator’s celestial order, so this favors a Scriptural view of an eclipse interpretation for Josh. 10:12-1416

Sawyer (1972) followed up the suggestion of Wilson (1918) that Joshua 10:12–14 refers to a solar eclipse and considered the dates of all total solar eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (giving generous limits to the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan). He found that there were only two such eclipses, on 19 Aug. 1157 BC and on 30 Sept. 1131 BC. However, both these dates are significantly later than the latest date that Humphreys and Waddington calculations allow for Joshua to have entered Canaan, as the latest possible date for the fifth year of Merneptah, 1200/ 1199 BC, using the Merneptah Stele as their anchor for this claimHistorians and Bible scholars in agreement with their calculations have therefore, to date ruled out a solar eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:12–14. 17 

However, as we will see below, there are other eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC, within these “generous limits” for the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan, but much earlier, c1400 BC than 1207 BC, which we will discuss presently.

People in the ancient world did not distinguish between total and annular solar eclipses. It is not until as late as 1292AD, that we find a separate expression in the Chinese eclipse records to describe an annular eclipse; both of the annular eclipses of 7 August 198 BC and 27 July AD 306, were recorded by the Chinese as being total. Thus they revisited the solar eclipse interpretation of Josh. 10:1214 to see if there was an annular eclipse visible in the same time frame as was used by Sawyer. [18]

The calculations of the Cambridge researchers found the only annular eclipse visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (using the same limits to the possible dates of entry of Joshua into Canaan as did Sawyer [1972]) was on 30 October 1207 BC, in the afternoon. The calculated track of the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC is shown below in figure 2, which passed directly over the land of Canaan. 19

Figure 2. The path of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC. 20

The path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, over-shadowed the land of Canaan in the afternoon. The shadow left the Earth’s surface at sunset over modern-day Iraq. The map is centered on Azekah, which is marked by a circle. 21

Solar eclipse of 1207 BC

 Because the eclipse occurred in the afternoon, it was probably seen from near Azekah, from where the annular eclipse would have started at 15:27 (local apparent time as given by a sundial), with annularity occurring between 16:48 and 16:53. The Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. During annularity, 86% of the solar disc’s area was covered by the Moon. 22

An interesting feature of the Joshua text is the observation that not only did the Sun stop (shining) but the Moon also stopped (shining). As the Moon is in conjunction at the time of a solar eclipse it is effectively absent from the sky for a couple of days (it has “stopped shining”). As the Israelites used an observationally based lunar calendar they would have been well aware of this monthly period of lunar invisibility and so could have timed their surprise night-time attack at Gibeon to take advantage of the lack of natural night-time illumination at this time.

After reporting that the Sun stopped (shining), the book of Joshua states further that “The Sun did not hurry to set for about a whole day” (Joshua 10:13, NRSV), which has given rise to the term “Joshua’s Long Day.” What did the writer mean? Figure 3 shows the level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse and Figure 4 shows the appearance of the Sun as viewed from Azekah at three-minute intervals. 23

Figure 3. The level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, as a function of the local apparent time as given by a sundial. The thin line shows the normal illumination in the absence of an eclipse. The red line gives the illumination during the eclipse, showing the double-dusk effect. 24

Figure 4. The appearance of the Sun viewed from Azekah on 30 October 1207 BC, at three-minute intervals. The Sun was still partially eclipsed at sunset. 25

All ancient civilizations would have been accustomed to the Sun going down in the afternoon, leading to daylight turning into dusk, and then turning into night. However, on this occasion, in the afternoon the light from the Sun on Canaan started decreasing from its normal level at about 15:30 until at about 16:50, it was approximately ten times less intense than normal, and dusk set in (notice that figure 3 is plotted on a logarithmic scale to match the approximate response of the human visual system). However, by around 17:10 the level of illumination would have been somewhat restored before dusk fell againand then the Sun finally set at about 17:38. What the Israelites would have witnessed was a double dusk. 26

In attempting to describe this double dusk it is only natural that the Israelites would have done so in terms of their normal experience of the diurnal cycle. Although aware that on this occasion the time interval between the two dusks was less than the normal day, the book of Joshua records “about a whole day” (NRSV) for this period of time. In fact, the Hebrew text here is “like a whole day”, the preposition like also means as, and so the phrase can mean “as on a whole day” (Millard, private communication). 27

The appearance of the annular eclipse of 30 Oct. 1207 BC we are considering is shown in figure 4. Both before and after annularity, the eclipse takes on the appearance of a crescent, mimicking the form [crescent] of the Moon around both the end and beginning of a lunar month.

What Humphrey’s and Waddington have failed to mention in their proposed annular eclipse of Oct. 1207 BC, as seen in Figure 4 above, is that their thesis rests upon the exclusivity of an annular eclipse, separate from a solar eclipse. However, with annularity occurring only between 16:48 and 16:53 pm, briefly for 5 min, the rest of this event falls into the category of a Partial Lunar eclipse, as the Crescent Moon covers increasing parts of the Sun for 81 min. leading up to annularity from the eastafter which the Moon uncovers the Sun for 45 added minutes till dusk, as the Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. So for the entire eclipse period of 131 minutes duration of this annular solar eclipse, it was a Partial Lunar eclipse for 126 minutes.

The article by Humphreys and Waddington prompted rabbinic scholar Eli Gurevich to contact David Rohl with this idea of a partial eclipse fitting the requirements just as much as an annular eclipse. He referenced the NASA eclipse tables, which show partial eclipses typically crossing Canaan several times in every decade. Remarkably, a total eclipse passed just north of Canaan on July 141405 BC
(one year needs to be added to the NASA numbers to arrive at the correct BC date). This lines up perfectly with a common early date proposed for the Exodus of 1446 BC, with the Conquest starting in 1405 BC. 28

Figure 5. Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405. 29

The solar eclipse of 1405 BC with the blue band showing the zone of totality. 

A Total Solar Eclipse most likely is better suited to fit the Biblical context of Joshua 10, more than an annular eclipse because the darkness experienced in a total solar eclipse is greater than the annular eclipse, especially if both the Sun and Moon stood still during totality. This would have increased the shock and awe on the Amorites, not only making them easier prey for the attacking Israelites, but also agreeing with details of the Biblical text. In the comparison of the Hebrew text with the Babylonian cuneiform above, we looked at the Hebrew word H1820damah, a prime root for the related Hebrew word H1826damam, meaning to be dumb, astonished, put to silence, or to stop, stand still. If the eclipse stood still, stopping in its tracks during totality, the Israelites were allotted the extra time needed to complete the destruction of the Amorites, that Joshua had prayed for [Josh. 10:12] during this Long Day. 30

According to some critics, Humphrey’s and Waddington paper is a watered-down analysis of the Biblical account that is a consistent pattern for Colin Humphreys. He wrote a book on the Exodus that attempts to explain its occurrences as having been fulfilled by natural events rather than outright miracles, that he seems to discount here. Critics also call into question, how and why the paper Humphrey’s published in October 2017 with W. Graeme Waddington, is practically identical to, but did not credit a January 2017 published work by three Israelis: physicist Ḥezi Yitzḥak, Bible scholar Daniel Weinstaub, and archeologist Uzi Avner, in  Hebrew journal Beyt Mikra requires further clarification. Despite the fact that this Israeli journal is in Hebrew, does Humphreys claim independent inspiration for his thesis? 31

Critics also point out an even bigger problem, that Joshua’s long day couldn’t possibly have taken place in 1207 BC, according to the biblical account, since 1 Kings 6:1 states that building the First Temple began 480 years after the Exodus. It is evident that Joshua’s battle occurred soon after the 40 years of the Exodus. Advancing the date of 1207 BC, an additional 440 years into the future puts the building of the First Temple at 767 BC, which is 200 yrs after the traditionally accepted date of 970 BC. Historians have encountered difficulties in accounting for the detailed Biblical history of Israel in Canaan, listing each Judge and King, with the lack of time to compress every event in the books of Joshua, JudgesRuth, and Samuel to fit between the 237 odd years from 1207 BC to 970 BC.

Added reasons to question the designation of the eclipse of 1207 BC as the only candidate to date the conquest, are the 20 factors from archaeology and the Bible that demonstrate that Ramesses II just does not fit with as the pharaoh of the Exodus. Some of these are highlighted in the documentary film and more are found in the book, both with the title Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. The Biblical example from I Kings 6:1 above, also includes the fact that 1 Kings 6:1 has the Exodus occurring in the 480th year before Solomon began building the Temple, which puts it in the 1400s BC not the 1200s. Many attempt to dismiss this verse as merely being figurative of an abbreviated period, but a reference from Jephthah, of Israel’s judgessupports a more literal interpretation of the 1 Kings 6:1 chronology. It puts Israel already in the land for 300 years, long before the time that the House of David ascended to the throne and began to reign. 32

“While Israel lived 300 years in Heshbon and its villages, in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, why didn’t you take them back at that time?”

– Judges 11:26 (ESV)

Speaking of this history, Courville says “the critical area of the structure is that from Jephthah to Saul. Jephthah stated that 300 years had elapsed from the conquest of Heshbon under Joshua to his own day. 25 Since the figure is a round number, it is evident that the figure was intended to be only approximate. It is here assumed that the actual period was closer to 290 years and this figure is here used in setting up the tentative chronology of [Figure 1]. On the late end of the 480-year period, we must allow 3 years in the reign of Solomon, 40 years for David, and 40 years for Saul. With the 40 years between the Exodus and the Conquest, 413 of the 480 years are accounted for. This leaves 67 years for the period from the victory over the Ammonites by Jephthah to the reign of Saul.” 33

In a new publication by Egyptologists and Biblical scholars Manfred Görg, Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis suggest that there may be an even earlier reference to Israel in Egyptian records. Manfred Görg discovered a broken statue pedestal containing hieroglyphic name-rings in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and, after studying it with colleagues Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis, they suggest that one of the name-rings should be read as “Israel.” Not all scholars agree with their reading because of slight differences in spelling, but Görg, van der Veen and Theis offer strong arguments, including supportive parallels in the Merneptah Stele itself. This newly rediscovered inscription is dated to around 1400 B.C.—about 200 years earlier than the Merneptah Stele. If Görg, van der Veen and Theis are right, their discovery will shed important light on the beginnings of ancient Israel. 34

Figure 6. The Berlin Pedestal. 35

Berlin Pedestal

The Berlin Pedestal from the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. It has three name rings; the one on the far right has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.” Photo: Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain. Reconstructed Drawing: Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg, “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687.” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.

The Berlin Pedestal is an Egyptian inscription housed in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin that almost certainly refers to Israel as a nation in Canaan. The inscription has three name rings, two of which clearly read “Ashkelon” and “Canaan,” and a third that has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.”43  In a recent re-examination of the inscription, Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg noted that names Ashkelon and Canaan largely were written consonantally and better reflecting examples from the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II (15th cent. BC), than those from the times of Rameses II and Merenptah (13th cent. BC).44 While the inscription reads “Ishrael” instead of “Israel,” there is no other candidate near Canaan and Ashkelon, other than biblical Israel. It may be that the “sh” spelling is an older way Egyptians spelled Israel, or perhaps borrowed from the cuneiform version.45 If this interpretation is correct, it would indicate that the Israelites had migrated to Canaan sometime in the middle of the second millennium BC,46 exactly at the time the Bible says they did.

Figure 7. Granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep. 36

Evidence for Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus

This granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep, was once part of a sphinx. It is currently housed in the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, Germany. Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0

Numerous scholars have identified Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus31; he was reigning in 1446 BC when the Israelites left Egypt. Amenhotep II is known to have spent considerable time in the delta region, likely in the 18th-Dynasty palace at Avaris where he would have met with Moses. According to Egyptologist, Charles Aling, Amenhotep II was born and raised in this area [the Nile delta region], built there, had estates there, and in all probability resided there at times, at least in his early regonal years.”32 Interestingly, (and in keeping with the 10th plague – the death of the first-born), Amenhotep II was not the firstborn son of his predecessor, Thutmose III, nor was his successor, Thutmose IV his firstborn son, as implied by the Dream Stele on the Great Sphinx.33 

Another piece of evidence for identifying Amenhotep II as the pharaoh of the Exodus is found by comparing the military campaigns of Amenhotep II and those of his father. While Thutmose III led 17 known military campaigns into the Levant, Amenhotep II led only two or three.34

 Thutmose III boasted of having taken 5903 captives on his first campaign, while Amenhotep II claims to have taken 2214 captives on his first. However, Amenhotep II’s final campaign in the ninth year of his reign (ca. 1446 BC) appears to have been a hasty and limited excursion into Palestine to take 101,128 captives. One plausible explanation for this campaign and its dramatic number of captives is that he was seeking to replace a large portion of his slave labor base that had just left Egypt. Moreover, Amenhotep II never took another campaign into Canaan, and the 18th dynasty began to decline in power. 37

In fact, there is strong evidence that the Bible shows the Judges period covered many centuries (not the 150 years allotted by the Ramesses Exodus Theory), that dictates the Exodus be pushed out 2 centuries before a 1207 BC dating of the Conquest. Additionally, The Bible has Moses being born around the time of the building of the city Rameses (Exodus chap. 1), which is the main basis of the Ramesses Exodus Theory. But the conquest happens 120 years later, after Moses’ death. For a 1207 BC Conquest that would mean the city of Ramesses was being built around 1327 BC, 27 years before Ramesses was born in Humphreys’ system. The Bible says in two places that the pharaoh who sought Moses’ life (40 years after Moses’ birth) died before the Exodus (when Moses was 80). Therefore the builder of the store city of Rameses could not possibly also be the pharaoh of the Exodus. 38

Now in Midian the Lord told Moses, “Return to Egypt, for all the men who wanted to kill you are dead.”

– Exodus 4:19 (ESV)

Then there is the archaeological evidence that shows no sign of massive numbers of Semites in Goshen during his reign, no sign of a collapse of Egypt as would be expected at the time of Exodus, and no pattern matching the Conquest of Canaan after his reign. That is why mainstream scholars are so skeptical of the Exodus account. These are just a few of the evidences that show that Ramesses was not the pharaoh of the Exodus and that Merneptah was not the pharaoh at the time of the conquest. When does the conquest account speak of a confrontation with Egypt anyway? For the Humphreys model to be factual, Egypt would have to have defeated Israel at a time when the Bible has the Israelites conquering city after city on their way to controlling most of Canaan. Nothing in this scenario adds up. 39

It is plausible that the Book of Joshua was describing a solar eclipse, but even if one agrees, there is no reason to confine this event to an annular eclipse strictly in 1207 BC. It has been shown that other total or partial eclipses over Canaan in the 1400s BC fit these data just as well, matching the Bible’s own context and timeline much better. Furthermore, evidence of an eclipse in Canaan in 1207 BC (whether or not it is related to the Israelites’ Conquest) gives no reason to connect that event to the reign of Merneptah, who in no other way (except by tradition) is connected to the Exodus or Conquest time period.

As Habakkuk memorably recounts the language of Joshua 10:12-13

Habakkuk 3:8-15

8 Were you angry with the rivers, LordWas your wrath against the streams?
Did you rage against the sea when you rode your horses and your chariots to victory?
You uncovered your bow, you called for many arrowsYou split the earth with rivers;
10  the mountains saw you and writhed. Torrents of water swept by; the deep roared and lifted its waves on high.
11 Sun and moon stood still in the heavens at the glint of your flying arrows,
    at the lightning of your flashing spear.
12 In wrath you strode through the earth and in anger you threshed the nations.
13 You came out to deliver your peopleto save your anointed one.
You crushed the leader of the land of wickednessyou stripped him from head to foot.
14 With his own spear you pierced his head when his warriors stormed out to scatter us,
gloating as though about to devour the wretched who were in hiding.
15 You trampled the sea with your horses, churning the great waters.


This month’s blog study favors an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:10-13, with the best candidate  being the Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405, for the extended celestial sign of Joshua’s Long Day. This shows the lengths the Heavenly Father went to, in answer to Joshua’s prayer when he spoke to the Lord, in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel. Joshua had the great example of Moses to follow, from the Believer’s Hall of Fame in Heb. 11:23-30. As Jon Nessle has encouraged us, we would do well to follow Moses example by working and believing his acts of faith. What will God do for you?!! 

If God be for you, who can be against you?

Agape’

Rene’


Footnotes

1. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 113-114, Donovan Courville.
2. IBID, p. 121.
3. IBID, p.
4. IBID, p. 98
5. Colin Humphreys, Graeme Waddington, Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 58, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages 5.39–5.42, https://doi.org/10.1093/astrogeo/atx178
6. (Notley & Rainey, 2014)
7. 
Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
8. Photo: Todd Bolen, BiblePlaces.com https://www.bibleplaces.com/2014/01/artifact-of-month-merneptah-stela/
Patterns of Evidence. [Picture credit]
9.
Digging for Truth.
10. Patterns of Evidence
11Kitchen 2013, Rohl 1995.
12Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
13. IBID
14. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
15. IBID
16Strong’s Concordance [H1820], James Strong.
17. Sawyer (1972), (Walton 1994).
18. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
19. IBID
20. IBID, Figure 2. picture credit.
21. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
22. IBID
23. IBID
24. IBID, Figure 3. picture credit.
25. IBID, Figure 4. picture credit.
26. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
27. IBID,
28. https://www.patternsofevidence.com/2017/11/10/is-this-solar-eclipse-really-joshuas-miracle/
29. IBID, Figure 5 Picture Credit, (courtesy of the NASA website)
30Strong’s Concordance [H1826], James Strong.
31.  Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
32. IBID, https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
33. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 12, Donovan Courville.
34. https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
35. Figure 6, picture credit. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.
36. Figure 7 picture credit, Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0
37. https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2021/09/24/top-ten-discoveries-related-to-moses-and-the-exodus/
38. IBID
39. IBID

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