Cuneiform Tablets, the Magi and the Star of Bethlehem

Cuneiform Tablets, the Magi, and the Star of Bethlehem

The August Blog of 2023 builds upon the last couple of articles we have posted, as it expands on Daniel’s use of the Babylonian Star Dairies as a tool to teach the Magi about the celestial signs in line with the Biblical Messianic Prophecies that would predict the birth of Christ. God did not leave Himself without witness of His only begotten Son-Jesus Christ, not only in Scripture but also in the Gospel of the Stars even as His promises to Abraham linked to the Celestial Gospels. God’s master-plan of redemption was known to mankind long before it was written in human script, even as the Messiah-the Lion of the tribe of JudahAbraham’s grandson, was prophesied in Leo, [Gen. 15:5, 49:8-10]. This month’s study reveals an ancient Babylonian Cuneiform tablet that appeared in the period of Daniel’s leadership in the royal courts over the Magi in Babylon and Persia. We will review some of the traits of what I have termed the Celestial Prelude, as the celestial signs that led up to the birth of Christ, which allowed the Magi to recognize and correctly identify the stars of the Messiah’s birth.

God’s plan to rescue humanity is embodied in Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and his birth was connected with and prophesied in the starsThe Star Gospel as found in the Old Testament, or for Judaism in the Tanakh, long foretold his birth, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension. Following the rise of ancient Babylon, the forces of king Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, the southern kingdom of Israel in 604 BC, and led most of its key people in captivity to BabylonAmong the exiles was a group of gifted and intelligent young men with their leader named Daniel. After distinguishing himself by first accurately revealing king Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and then interpreting it for him, he was rewarded with a high seat in Babylon’s royal court, that included key governmental authority, where he was made chief over all the magicianssoothsayersand wise men of Babylon. This put Daniel and his friends in key positions to influence many royal decrees that descended, not only from Nebuchadnezzar, but many of the subsequent Kings including Cyrus, during their lifetimes. As we have seen, the Babylonians were already renown in history for their study of the stars both from a perspective of science and symbolism. With the rise of Daniel and his team, their view of Scripture and Messianic prophecy influenced the royal court, regarding the coming Christ. Having the Babylonian Star Diaries, the cuneiform clay tablets at his disposal, provided valuable resources for his work in identifying and accurately teaching the Magi the celestial signs to look for, that led to the birth of Christ.

Figure 1. Old Persian cuneiform syllabary From the Tomb of Darius. 
(circa 500 BC)

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars not only enlightened his view of the OT Prophecies of Christ, but also provided the special insight needed to teach these key truths to the Zoroastrian Magi, whose monotheistic religion also influenced King Cyrus, as one of the most enlightened leaders in history. Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars was closer to the Bible Patriarchs like Noah, since it was a throwback to the initial revelation of what was first given, later corrupted in the practices of astrology and divinationrooted and further developed in Babylon. As in modern times, astrologers cast their horoscopes, while many believe that the stars fatalistically control one’s destiny. But Daniel, preserved the Tanakh, and developed his own order of scholar-disciples committed to his teaching, based on the truth of Scripturenot to include astrology or other kinds of divination, as they were strictly forbidden in the Hebrew Scriptures. Daniel spent all his adult life in Babylon and later in Persia as a high official of the kings he served, while never wavering from his true service for the One true God. When the Prophet Daniel was carried off in captivity to Babylon, it was the result of one of 27 sieges of Jerusalem in Israel, the first destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, who burnt the Temple in 587-586 BC, [2 Chron. 36:17-20], the 2nd in 69-70 AD, by Titus’ of Rome who also burnt the Temple.

In a recent study by John Wee, he provides examples of the “five major scholarly disciplines in the Assyrian Court” that provide insight into the scene that confronted Daniel in the Courts of Babylon and Persia, in his oversight of the professional court astronomers and Magi.

Scribal Learning, Commentaries, and the Lamentation Priest

The profession and its texts become more illuminated from the late Neo-Assyrian period, especially during the reigns of Esarhaddon (680–669 BC) and his son Assurbanipal (668–c. 627 BC), two monarchs who displayed particular interest in cuneiform scholarship and in celestial and other kinds of divinatory lore. Assurbanipal boasted that he “wrote on tablets the wisdom of the god Ea, the Lamentation arts,” and compiled a catalog (4R 53) listing individual liturgies ascribed to Lamentation priests. As one of the five major scholarly disciplines in the Assyrian court, the kalû (“lamentation priest”) stood along-side the āšipu (“magician / exorcist”), bārû (“haruspex /diviner”), ṭupšarru or ṭupšar Enūma Anu Enlil (“scribe /astronomer”), and asû (“physician”). Compound terms such as kalûtu or āšipūtu designated the “arts” or expertise of each profession, denoting not merely skills or proficiencies in the abstract, but also cuneiform text corpora associated with the profession. Different professions operated in ways that complemented each other. Chief kalûs like Urad-Ea and his son and successor Nabû-zēru-iddina belonged to the Assyrian king’s inner circle, and regularly wrote letters to the king concerning festival observances and kettle-drum performances before planets & gods. Other occasions, however, called for their participation in joint rites with the cooperation of court magicians. One Lamentation priest of some stature was Marduk-šāpik-zēriwho, even when (temporarily?) out of favor with the king, was influential enough to gather various professionals and apprentices under his auspices, including magicians, haruspices, physicians, astronomers, and other Lamentation priests (SAA 10, 160 obv. 47 – rev. 37). The details of his educational credentials are worth citing at length:” #1

In the reference from John Wee below we find these priests were groomed in families as they learned the “arts” of their profession from their fathers in service to the King, that included being well “read” (šitassû) in “the arts of the magician and of the astronomer” or the astronomical omen series Enūma Anu Enlil. Enlil, … I have observed the stars of the sky. I have read Šummaizbu, [Kataduqqû], Alamdimmû, Nigdimdimmû, […], Šummaālu. I learned … Under the protection of the king my lord, I have fulfilledand … I am competent in my father’s duty”. The list of achievements is impressive, including ritual performance and recitation, observances of “healthy (and) sick flesh” that may be medical in nature, and various text series on astronomical omens (Enūma Anu Enlil), omens from birth anomalies (Šumma izbu, or abbr. Izbu), omens from human physiognomy (Alamdimmû, etc.) and speech (Kataduqqû), and omens from various terrestrial experiences and encounters (Šumma ālu, or abbr. Ālu). The juxtaposition of professional arts and text series, which we see in Marduk-šāpik-zēri’s résumé, occurs also in a catalog (K 2248) from Assurbanipal’s famous library at Nineveh: “[The arts of the magician], the arts of the lamentation priest, Enūma Anu Enlil, Alamdimmû, Šumma izbu (written Sa-gig, Katadugga, Lugal-e (the myth of Ninurta’s Exploits) and An-gim dím-ma (the myth of Ninurta’s Return to Nippur). These are from the mouth of the god Ea.” #2

These Astronomer-Priests needed also to be experts in the arts of celestial calculation related to planetary movements mapped and recorded in celestial time and space resulting from their direct observation. It is reasonable that Daniel and his friends were trained in some of these skills prior to the Babylonian Captivity, and brought some of this training to the courts of Babylon from Israel. For Lamentation priests, in particular, their responsibility for rituals before planets imply existing concerns for maps of celestial time and space, and suggested motivations for developing or at least keeping up to date with astronomical ideas and methods.

Illustrating the value put on celestial prediction, Lamentation priests of the Ebabbar temple in the Neo-Babylonian city of Larsa performed a kettledrum ritual in anticipation of a lunar eclipse, which was likely based on knowledge of the Saros cycle, but which ended up actually not happening due to cumulative errors in calculation. Beaulieu (2000,12f.) has noted that, among cuneiform tablets owned or copied by descendants of Sîn-lēqi-unninni, “the largest group consists of astronomical texts,” “the second group consists of copies of rituals which were performed by the kalû priests,” …” Indeed, Lamentation priests (kalûs) of the Sîn-lēqi-unninni family and magicians (āšipus) of the Ekur-zākir family appear to account for all astronomical tablets from Seleucid Uruk, and individuals from both groups were sometimes designated ṭupšar Enūma Anu Enlil (“astronomer”). In contrast to the distinct office of “astronomer” in the late Neo-Assyrian court, the titleastronomer” became employed in much more restricted contexts in the Achaemenid and Seleucid periods, with magicians and especially Lamentation priests engaged in astronomical scholarship and occasionally adopting the title itself. The expanded roles of lamentation priest and magician could be attributed to professional ties to Babylonian temples and temple institutions, which grew in importance as patrons of traditional cuneiform scholarship under Persian and Hellenistic rule.” #3 Daniel’s influence however, would have included an emphasis in the astronomical arts and studies in reading and interpreting the actual stars and their movements for the genuine Magi, as opposed to the astrological rituals linked to observances of “cultic magic.” 

The importance of the acquisition of Cuneiform texts by these scribes was one of their duties to expand the holdings of the king’s libraries, which kept the scribes busy amongst all their other scribal obligations. “In yet another letter sent to the city of Borsippa, the king listed in detail specific titles of cuneiform works to be acquired, demanding that his scholars seek out “rare tablets that are known to you, but are not in Assyria.” As these letters suggest, the king’s agents were expected to be broadly versed in cuneiform scholarship, so as to be competent enough to recognize new or innovative compositions, to accurately copy tablets of different genres, and to categorize them according to the needs of the library. Assyrian library records, for example, show that “two (exemplars) of kalûtu” were in fact donated not by a Lamentation priest, but by one “Arrabu the magician.” This and other frequent dissonances between texts and professions led Parpola (1983, 8f.) to conclude that “the texts listed for them [i.e., the different tablet contributors] do not represent their entire private libraries but rather only that part of it which they did not need in their professional work.” In fact, the ownership (and donation) of kalûtu tablets by Arrabu the magician seems merely reflective of the way professional boundaries mapped uneasily onto the boundaries of text ownership and expertise.”#4

In this light it is logical that Daniel would have had his priest-team looking out for any cuneiform texts that would fit the traits of the Messianic prophecies of the coming Hebrew Savior-King, and that these scribes were expert enough to read these texts and identify the Messianic traits that fit the caseDaniel’s responsibilities would have included the oversight and pairing of Kings with Scholar-scribes, where he could not only steer his research in a direction that would advance the cause of the genuine Magi, but also maximize relations between his team and the ruling monarch.

A sense of the kinds of tablets owned and copied by Lamentation priests may be obtained from the excavated library in the south-east gate-building (area Le XVI3) of the Bīt rēš, the temple of the god Anu in Seleucid Uruk. The 170 or so cuneiform tablets of this library date to 192–162 BC and belonged to Anu-bēlšunu and his family of kalûs who claimed descent from Sîn-lēqi-unninni. “Also from this library is the famousList of Kings and Sages/Scholars” (BagM Beih. 2, 89) that pairs kings with sages (apkallu) or scholars (ummânu) in (mostly) one-to-one fashion, implying that scholars in later times were the intellectual successors of the antediluvian sages. Astronomical texts here include omens and commentaries on the series Enūma Anu Enlil (BagM Beih. 2, 76. 80), other celestial omens (BagM Beih. 2, 75), horoscopes (BagMBeih. 2, 81–82 and 106; NCBT 1231), an astronomical almanac (BagM Beih. 2, 83), a Calendar Text (BagMBeih. 2, 79; Wee 2016b, esp. 182), a GDBT-type text (BagMBeih. 2, 78), as well as various planetary texts, ephemerides, diaries, and other records on the positions of celestial bodies.”#5 The records we are sourcing of Babylonian star diaries and cuneiform texts, fall in the 400-year period, part of when Daniel’s oversight of the Royal Court Magi in the Babylonian and Persian empires, occurred from mid-6th century BC to the mid-2nd century BC. This would have encompassed not only Daniel’s entire adult life, but also the key Magi mentored and influenced by him for centuries.

In the reference from Rochberg below, we find the ancient idea of a Gospel in the Stars, or constellations were “Heavenly Writing” millennia in advance of Rolleston, was not only basic content in Cuneiform Tablets, but also functioned as a kind of “Rosetta Stonelexicon in translating the dead language of Sumerian into Akkadian used in Babylon.

The first of these Mesopotamian astronomical precepts is found in texts stating that the starry sky depicted [sitirti samami, sitir same, or sitir burume], “heavenly writing“—literally a hallowed cuneiform text inscribed by the star-gods themselves, (CAD 17/pt.3, p. 144; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 64, 163, 294, 299; Rochberg-Halton, 1988, p. 15 n. 54; von Soden, 1981, III, 1253, sitru, lexical section). This accords with the title of the Babylonian astrologer: tupsarru, “writer, scribe,”—an expert who read the sacred writing” of the celestial sky for signs of future earthly events to be avoided or exploited (Brown D., 2000, pp. 33-36; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 41, 45, 71, 219; CAD 19, pp. 152-153, tupsarru). The concept is summarized by Francesca Rochberg, “The metaphor may be interpreted to express the idea that a written message was encoded in the sky, and that the message was a form of communication from the gods#6

Hence, Babylonian Astronomers/astrologers were adroit grammarians proficient at reading and writing in the highly complex cuneiform writing system; a task that included mastery of their spoken tongue, Akkadian, as well as proficiency in the reading and writing of Sumerian, which was the “deadlanguage of the southern Mesopotamian people from whom the Akkadian-speaking Babylonians adopted the cuneiform script. Babylonian astrologersknowledge of Sumerian is visible in their study of the Sumerian-Akkadiandictionaries,” a point evinced by the list of texts edited by astrologers serving the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon (Lambert, 1976, pp. 313-318; Rochberg, 2004, p. 211). The circa 1800-1600 BC Sumerian-Akkadiandictionarieslisted a Sumerian logogram beside its Akkadian meaning; a Sumerian logogram consisting of a cuneiform sign or sign grouping for a Sumerian word, which was then used to represent an Akkadian word with the equivalent meaning (Huehnergard, 1997, pp. 107-111). Pertinent to the current article is that these Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries were an essential resource to the astrologer (Lambert, 1976, pp. 313-318; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 209-236). And Mesopotamian and Hellenic scholars were translating these Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries into Greek in the late first century AD, a time contemporaneous with the writing of the Gospels (Geller, 1997, pp. 6495; Sollberger, 1962, pp. 63-72). The Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries illustrate that the cuneiform writing system was predisposed to an astounding level of polysemy, i.e., multiple meanings on a word or phrase. The latter point exemplified in the Sumerian logogram MUL, which meant “star” in Sumerian and represented the Akkadian word kakkabu, “star” (CAD 8, p. 45, kakkabu). Yet MUL also functioned as the logogram for the Akkadian nouns sitirtu, “inscription” and sitru, writing” (CAD 17, pt.3, p. 144, sitirtu, b; CAD 17, pt.3, 144, sitru), as well as the verb nabatu, “to shine brightly” (CAD 11, pt.1, p. 22, nabatu). MUL could also be read MULU, which represented the Akkadian word mulmullu, “arrow” (CAD 10, pt.2, 190-191, mulmullu). #7

This reveals root of the Sumerian concept of “Heavenly writing” with the example of the Sumerian logogram MUL [from the Cuneiform astronomical compendiumMUL.APIN text] translated not only to the Akkadian word for “star,” but also to the logogram for the Akkadian nouns sitirtu, “inscription” and “writing.” This idea that one of the oldest writing systems on the planet was an embodiment of a star-book or Gospel in the stars, is a powerful concept first utilized by the God of Noah and Abraham, prior to the Scriptures being recorded in Hebrew. As these ideas were applied to a cultural Calendar, where the people lived by them, it served as a means to honor either the true God or idols. An example of this is found in heliacal rising stars.

The calendrical significance of heliacally rising stars also fits better with descriptions such as “a constellation exceeding (the limits) of its month” (EBC obv. 5–6) immediately following in §B1. This emphasis on the heliacal rising of stars is also evident in the Gospel of Matt. 2:1-2 where the words “in the rising” in the Greek are “en te anatole” referring to the rising of a star just prior to sunrise, that the Magi had observed as they prepared to depart on their journey to Jerusalem. The star was visible until it was lost in the brightness of the sun. The “star” they observed was the king planetJupiter which we will see in reference to the Cuneiform tablet [LBAT-1601] below, became critical in meaning when it went into retrograde motion. We find an example of this in the Izbu Cunieform tablet below;

B1 Title of Izbu Tablet I (EBC obv. 5–7)

“At its heliacal rising or first visibility, a star is just emerging from the sun’s glare and is still relatively close to the sun, so dates for the first visibilities of stars served as estimates of the sun’s position on the star map during the course of a year. In this way, constellations could be assigned to certain ideal months. Due to delays or errors in intercalation, for example, months reckoned in practice could deviate noticeably from these ideal months, so that constellations appeared to exceed the limits of their expected months. Something similar happens later in LBAT 1601 (obv. 15 H–16H), where an appendix to Sa-gig tablet II (§C2α) does not actually address the incipit-title of Sa-gig tablet II (§C2) but one of its later entries. These instances alert us to the fact that, though the commentator was primarily concerned with incipit-titles, he was also cognizant of other contents of these works, exemplars of which (not only the titles) were available for his consultation. Described in this section is a planet at a point where it appears to be momentarily stationary, either when it first pops up after a period of invisibility, or when it switches from direct motion to retrograde motion or vice versa (innemid) in its movements east and west, or when it arrives at a maximum latitude in its movements north and south. The second of these phenomena, when a planet is reaching a stationary point and about to change its direction along an east-west axis, was expressed by the N stem of the verb emēdu (logogram), which very literally indicates the “meeting” or “joining together” of a planet and a fixed point in celestial space. Although this terminology is normally reserved for stationary points, the commentator extended the idea to planetary positions of first visibility and maximum latitude as well, when the planet appears stationary for a moment.”The context of these comments related to planetary retrograde motion gains importance in light of the subject matter of Izbu Tablet II below. 

§B3 Incipit-Title of Izbu Tablet II
(LBAT 1601 obv. 3 H–5H // EBC  obv. 12–13)

What “begins with the lion” here is not temporal but textual, referring to the incipit-title and teratological entry at the very beginning of Šumma izbu tablet II: “If a woman gives birth, and (the child) has a lion’s head, there will be a harsh king in the land.”

Aligned with the notion that the stars were a “heavenly writing” (šiṭir šamê /šiṭirtišamāmī ), this Izbu omen likely became activated when a planet lit up the relevant scene in the night sky. The lion was of course represented by the Lion (Leo) constellation, which lies a little west of Erua (identified as γ Comae Berenices). According to an Achaemenid or Seleucid List of Stars and Deities from Borsippa, “Erua (is called) Creatress of semen” (5R 46 no. 1: 46), reflecting a medical tradition that women too contributed seed in reproduction, perhaps modeled after how the primeval waters Apsû and Tiamat mingled their fluids as the first act of the Babylonian Creation Myth (Enūma elišh I, 3–5). In any case, the epithetCreatress of semenarose out of similarities between the nameErua” and a.ri.a (the logographic mul mul ku6 (K 42, line 22) in ACh Ištar no. 6. ma In-nu ina -ši Izbu II 1 (Leichty 1970, 45; De Zorzi 2011, 274; 2014, 393). Mul=ba-na-at ri-ḫu-tum 5R 46 no. 1: 46; Wee (2016a, 162f.).  Stol (2000, 7–8). #9

250  John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest writing for “semen”). As portrayed in the sky, Mother Erua right beside the Lion constellation evoked the image of a child born with a lion’s head.

This amounts to historical evidence not only of the Babylonian knowledge of The Star Gospel –“heavenly writing” 2500 years+ before Rolleston, but also this “Izbu tablet omen” refers to many points in line with Biblical Messianic Prophecies starting in Gen. 3:15 the first prophecy of the Promised seed in the Bible. As the tablet notes indicate, the Child with a lion’s head is an astronomical reference to Leo, and the celestial signs that would mark his birth. This also agrees with another prophecy of Leo in Gen. 49:8-10 that details the astronomical elements of the Jupiter-Regulus triple conjunction in 3-2 BC, as the king planet Jupiter [sceptre in Num. 24:17united with Regulus, the king star in the Lion’s heart. This embodies the King planetlighting up the relevant scene in the night sky.” Even if this prophecy was couched in an astrological context, the true Magi would have known how to interpret it correctly in line with Messianic prophecy. It was also a contingent statement, where the Magi were instructed to look for Jupiter in Leo as the relevant scene in the sky to be watchful for. [see traits of the Celestial Prelude] that the Magi would have gathered in their observation of the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn. The statement that “there would be a harsh king in the land” refers to a Messianic prophecy of a king who will rule with a rod of iron, [Ps. 2:6-9, Num. 24:17]. The reference to Erua (identified as γ Comae Berenices) not only refers to the Coma Supernova as the General sign of the Celestial Prelude, marking the general timeframe of Christ’s birth, but also recalls the original star picture Virgo’s decan, of the woman with her child in her lap; [Fig. 2] prior to the corruption of this decan star picture in the Seleucid List of Stars, into the picture of a woman’s wig in Coma Berenice’s. Another aspect of this is Erua’s/Coma’s title of the “Creatress of semen” as an indirect reference to the woman’s seed in Gen. 3:15, describing by the truth that God Created the seed that produced Jesus in Mary’s fallopian tubes so that Jesus would carry the innocent blood as a perfect sacrifice for all mankind, separate and distinct from the first Adam’s corrupted and sinful bloodline carried by Eve, as an astrological view of this unique event that had never occurred in previous secular history, before or since.

Figure 2. Coma Decan in the Dendera Zodiac  #10
Image result for Decan Coma

As this Coma decan of Figure 2 above comes from the ancient Dendera Zodiac, we should also recall that Axis E of this renowned zodiac represents a prophecy of the appearance of Coma’s Child, whose Axis E intersects the fish of Pisces as it extends across the circular zodiac. This tells us that the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn marked the opening of the new precessional age of Pisces, as it closed out the previous Age of Aries the Ram. [See our Dendera Zodiac Poster in the right margin of this blog page]

Figure 3. Axis E on the Dendera Zodiac. #11

Following the triple Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 7 BC was a unique triangular massing of planets. The great German astronomer Johannes Kepler referred to the Feb. 25th, 6BC triangular massing of planets; Jupiter, Saturn and Mars, as the “decisive Conjunction of 6 BC that opened our precessional age of Pisces.” As we have noted, Kepler also advanced the idea that the Magi were guided to Judea by the appearance of this series of Conjunctions.

E.W. Bullinger uncovers below, the popular belief regarding this general sign of the [Celestial Prelude] that was prevalent in and before the first century BC“a traditional prophecy well known in the East, carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star would appear in this sign [Coma] when he whom it foretold, would be born.” 2 This tradition was at least partially based on Balaam’s declaration in Numbers 24, meaning that Balaam’s prophecy holds, for our purposes, minimally a twofold import.

Numbers 24:17 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

 First, Balaam’s revelation refers to the advent of Christ the King, the ascendant bright and Morning Star, who came forth out of Jacob’s genealogical line. This genealogy was marked astronomically by the similarity in the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions surrounding both the births of Abram, Moses and Christ. Secondly, there is a celestial double meaning in the phrase: Star out of Jacob, with bearings on both the general and Specific aspects of our Celestial Prelude. The new star, or supernova in the head of the infant in Coma, visible to the naked eye for over 275 years, was the general sign, the Star out of Jacob, that prepared the Magi to watch for the aspects of the specific signs of the Celestial Prelude, which included the Jupiter-Saturn triple unions of 7 BC in Pisces. We find this second aspect of Balaam’s prophecy relating to the scepter as symbolic of the reign of the king planet; Jupiter. As we progress in our study it will become plain that Jupiter the king planet was the star that the Magi referred to as “his Star” in Matt. 2:2. The Magi had noted the triple Conjunction of signs in 7 BC, involving Jupiter and Saturn, that gave them a blueprint for the Jupiter-Regulus triple union marking the birth of Christ, starting in 3 BC. An early sign in August ofBC motivated them to begin their caravan to Jerusalem.

C2 Incipit-Title of Sa-gig Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 12 H)

The line begins with a citation of the incipit-title of Sa-gig tablet II. What appear to be dates (Month 10 Day 7 ~Month 1 Day 1) actually indicate the incipit-title of the Calendar Text series 10. 7. 11, which identifies the initial position of a virtual moon at Capricorn (sign 10)on Month 1 Day 1 of an ideal calendar. The use of Babylonian month names like (iti) (lit. “Ṭebētu,” 10th month) for zodiacal signs of the same number (i.e., Capricorn, the 10th sign) was not unusual in Calendar Texts, where an ideal year of 360 days was mapped exactly onto the sun’s ecliptic of 360°, so that each month begins with the sun’s movement into a new zodiacal sign, and the 30 days of a month correspond to the 30° of a zodiacal sign.” #12 Here we find an example of how the 12 signs of the zodiac matched their alignment in the astrology of the 12 months of their Babylonian calendar, with the 360-day year matched the 360° zodiac, depicting the Babylonian base 60” hallmark of their number system, still in use in modern times. I submit that a combination of these celestial signs pointed out in the Cuneiform Tablet [LBAT 1601] with the chart on the Characteristics of Celestial Prelude below, gave the Magi all they needed in astronomical information to lead them to Christ’s birth.

The Celestial Prelude and the Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ

In the early 2000’s when I first posted my studies on the Celestial Prelude of the Birth of Christ on [], my proposal that the General Sign of the Celestial Prelude was the Coma Supernova that marked the general timeframe when the Magi should be aware and cognizant of the period leading up to the birth of Christ. The period was highlighted by the explosion and continued naked-eye visibility of the Coma Supernova, that was first reported in historical records around 134-128 BC. This was the inception of the time when the Magi would be looking for a triple planetary union with Jupiter in Leo. The precursor to this was the specific signs of the Celestial Prelude in the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn in Pisces, the primary key that set the precedent for the actual Triple conjunction of JupiterRegulus in Leo, [see the Traits of the Celestial Prelude below.]

In previous blogs on the Coma Supernova marking the Birth of Christ as the General Sign of The Celestial Prelude, it was visible to the naked eye for a period perhaps of 275 years, as we documented in the blogs of the Celestial Prelude. The Second part of these heavenly signs that allowed the Magi to recognize the celestial markers of the birth of Jesus Christ as the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude, revolve around the triple conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC, that gave the Magi the stellar keys to breaking the code that sent them on their 800-mile journey to Jerusalem and Bethlehem to pay homage to the young king of kings. The separation of the General and Specific signs of the Celestial Prelude helped to untangle much of the confusion that has plagued this topic of study for millennia. Our realization that the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunction of 7 BC, was the primary precursor that set the pattern and stage for the actual signs of Christ’s birthremoved added confusion from this topical study. With this fresh perspective of this triple union of Jupiter-Saturn, we can point out the precise details and aspects of the celestial signs marking the birth of Christ. This is a major departure from previous astronomical proposals for the “Star of Bethlehem,” including birth timing that align with the Hebrew Holy days of their calendar. With our updated view of the triple planetary unions of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces, in 7 BC, in the proper historical context of this series of planetary unions that has been taken for Jesus’ actual time of birth by some, and also accepted as just too early to mark his birth by others, adjusts the vague and fuzzy details into clear focus. The debate between these two major camps that continues today, can finally be solved. This study will show, that the details of this celestial pageantry can even mark the very moments of the birth of the infant Jesus, with our recognition of the impact of these signs on the Magi in their search of Scripture for the revelation of the promised seed, in Rev. 12. How did the Magi know what to look for in this search? The entrance of the Babylonian Cuneiform Tablets referenced above, adds another element that fits the historical narrative of how the Prophet Daniel would have provided the best advice and clues for the Magi in their intrepid search for the only Begotten Son of God, that was so richly rewarded. The star trail that the heavenly Father left for Daniel and the Magi, leaving no stone unturned, allowed these notable priests to separate the stardust from the golden gifts that they delivered to Joseph, Mary & Jesus. The signs God left for them- a series of celestial clues for those with eyes to see and ears to hear, made provision so they wouldn’t miss this momentous occasion. This is precisely the proposal of this study that herein lies the true significance of these rare unions of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces in 7BC. Based on the details of this specific set of preliminary signs, the Magi were alerted to a series of planetary unions and heavenly signs announcing the actual birth of Christ.

The Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude of 7 BC to 5 BC  

Dates BC Conjunction of Planets Constellation
May 27th, 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Sept. 15th, 7 Jupiter, Saturn; [ring cycle], Sun & Earth aligned. Pisces
Oct. 5th, 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Dec. 1st , 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Feb. 25th 6 Triangular massing of Jupiter, Saturn & Mars Pisces
Mar. 5th , 6 Jupiter-Mars Pisces
April 15-20, 6 Lunar occultations   Series
Mar. 23rd, 5 Total Lunar Eclipse Virgo
Sept. 15th, 5 Total Lunar Eclipse Pisces

This series of planetary Conjunctions involving Jupiter certainly drew the focus of the Magi to the king planet, which they recognized as “his star.” They would have noted Jupiter’s triple planetary union with Saturn, and they knew that this union was caused by Jupiter’s retrograde motion. The Magi would have noted these triple unions involving Jupiter in both 7-5 and 3-2 BC. Therefore, the Magi would have been watchful not only of Jupiter’s motion, but vigilant also for a triple union associated with its motion. Perhaps we can begin to see the wisdom of the Heavenly Father’s choice of stellar signs, which make up this celestial epistle of introduction, for the Magi to mark the signs surrounding Jesusbirth. These clues alone would have provided the Magi much on their way to finding the Messiah, but God had a lot more in store, as the Jupiter-Saturn triple unions chased, the 6 BC massing of planets with Mars, after which followed a key Conjunction including Mars. Finally, on the heels of this Conjunction involving Mars, in the next month came a remarkable series of lunar occultations, followed by two total lunar eclipses in 5 BC. These preliminary signs not only provided the Magi with the blueprints they would need to recognize the celestial signs identifying the time frame of the birth of Christ in 3-2 BC, but they even set the pattern of Total Blood Moon Lunar eclipses, marking the victorious return of Christ. The fact that the signs of this dress rehearsal unfolded over a period in excess of two years was also a clue of what to expect, when the curtain actually arose on the celestial pageantry of the birth of Christ. The period of exactly 2 years from Sept, 15th of 7 BC to Sept. 15th of 5 BC as seen in the chart above, set the stage for two Jupiter-Venus Conjunctions bracketing the heavenly signs marking the actual birth of Christ between Aug31st, 3BC and Aug. 21st of 1 BC, we can see how the Magi would recognize these specific markers leading them to the promised seed-Jesus Christ. Also, the fact that these signs almost all occur in Pisces, is interesting due in part to an ancient eastern tradition, that the influence of the sign of Piscesthe fishes presided over the land surrounding and including Israel. Others believed that Pisces symbolized the House of Jacob, and with the obvious presence of the King planet Jupiter, would spell out why the Magi came to Jerusalem looking for the King of Israel. This relationship of Jupiter-Saturn heavenly signs linked to Israel stretched back in history even to include the births of Abraham and Moses. In the following reference to Jupiter-Saturn unions related to the birth of Moses, R.H. Allen has probably isolated the quote from Abrabanel referenced by Kepler;

“The Rabbis held a tradition, recorded by Abrabanel in the 15th Century, that a similar Conjunction took place three years previous to the birth of Mosesand they anticipated another at their Messiah’s advent.”13 

Figure 4. May 27th, 7 BC Jupiter and Saturn in Conjunction in Pisces, with the Sun and Mercury in GeminiVenus in CancerMars in Virgo and Moon in Pisces. 14

In this first preliminary sign we find Jupiter the scepter and King planet in Conjunction with Saturn, symbolic of Satan, in Pisces near dawn in the eastern sky, as a result of Jupiter’s proper motion.

birth of jesus

The first thing to notice about the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude from 7-5 BC, is that this first Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn shows the authority of the scepter of God’s kingdom resident with Saturn-Lucifer in his first estate as the Angel of light. He was set apart and alone in his authority from the celestial signs that follow, outside of the clearly marked two-year period from Sept. 15th 7BC to September 15th 5BC, containing the rest of these specific preliminary signs.

Its purpose is to mark the first estate of Lucifer as the original bright and Morning Star, second only to God the Creator, in the 1st heaven and earthhead over all the angels as the angel of light, prior to the Creation of Man in the Garden of Eden. Let’s take some time to digress here and set the background of Lucifer’s history according to the accuracy of God’s Word written in the stars, and in Scripture. This first sign refers to Lucifer in his original estate as the “star of the morning” as Isaiah 14 tells us:

Isaiah 14:12

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!


The demise of Lucifer is indicated in the astronomical mechanism known as the precession of the poles, with the star Thuban: alpha draconis, the brightest star in Draco the dragon, as the original pole star. The precession of the poles indicates Lucifer’s demise, because the pole star has moved from Draco and now resides near Polaris, or Al Ruccaba of the little flock” in Ursa Minor. The pole star between the feet of the crowned king Cepheus, depicts Jesus Christ in at least two ways. First, as the prominent king, and new Chief Cornerstone, since Cepheus is the crowned king, even as Regulus the king star, is between the feet of Leo, the Lion king of Judah; [Gen.49:8-10]. Cepheus also means “the branch” and is depicted as a king holding a branch/sceptre at the north pole, [Jer. 23:5, 33:15]. Secondly, and with spiritual foreshadowing, he is the head of his spiritual body, the Church. God put all things under Christ’s feet, indicating his seven-fold lordship over all Creation; [Eph. 1:20-23]. The exception to this, of course is God Himself, Who Christ ultimately subjects himself to [I Cor. 15:27-28], avoiding the pitfall of Lucifer’s egomaniacal demise. The Decan of Cepheus depicts the Royal king and redeemer coming quickly to rule, enthroned in the highest, at the northern polar reaches of the heavens. With his scepter in hand and the Northern Pole Star symbolizing all things in Creation under his feet, as seen in the capstone of the Great Pyramid, we have powerful imagery of the Authority and Dominion of the King of Kings. As the principles of Biblical Astronomy tell us, the star names relating the Biblical narrative of each constellation they appear in, relate the info. Their description of the promised seed in each constellation and decan of the Mazzaroth, as it aligns with how those star names are used in Scripturesets the standard.  There are 19 main stars in Cepheus, 3 of which we focus on here.

Zech. 6:12-13 “Thus speaks the Lord of Hosts, saying behold the man whose name is the Branch; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the Temple of the Lord.” v. 13 “Even he shall build the Temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne; and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”

Here we see the promised seed of the woman clothed in the celestial royalty of absolute dominion over all Creation, corresponds to the “Branch;” the holy scion of God in light of the branch prophecies in God’s Word. As the only Crowned star picture in the heavens, the name “Cepheus” in the Dendera Zodiac, is known in ancient Egypt as Pe-Ku-hor; meaning “one coming to rule-” a consistent theme of the star names below. The 3 primary stars of Cepheus are as follows;

1. Al Deramin-he who comes quickly from the right Arm or Hand of the Father-The Hand of Blessing.
2. Al Phirk-signifying the Redeemer of the stars of his flocks [Ursa Minor and Major].
3. Al Rai-The Shepherd who bruises or breaks
. [Ps. 23; and the 7 Redemptive Names of God embodied in the Shepherd.]

Figure 5a. Cepheus Decan15


Thus, we have the Redeeming Shepherd coming quickly from the right hand of God who bruises or breaks, to redeem his flocks. An interesting note regarding these 3 primary stars at the North Celestial Pole, as the Pole star recedes according to the Precession of the Poles, each of these 3 brightest stars in Cepheus will inherit the title and function of Pole star, currently occupied by Polaris-[Al Ruccaba] of Usra Minor. Starting around 4000 AD in 1500-year intervals, these primary stars of Cepheus will occupy the coveted Northern Pole Position;”

1st  Al Deramin
2nd Al Phirk
3rd Al Rai

Cepheus as the third and final decan of the sign, “Pisces,” He is the crowned and bearded King arrayed in his royal robes, seated as if on a throne where he holds a scepter raised in his left hand stretched out to Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia is a decan constellation belonging to the next primary constellation group of “Aries, the Ram.” Jon Nessle taught us the record in his recent 8/15/23 session 1b of Chapter 5 in the OT History class, on how the King of Persia-Darius I extended his golden scepter to his Queen Esther, [Esth. 5:1-3] when she entered the royal court uninvited, resulting in saving the Jews in his kingdom, from Haman’s evil plan of genocide against Israel. With a futuristic viewCassiopeia also can represent the bride of Christ, delivered by him. Even as king Darius I saved all Israel with his extended scepter, so Christ has saved all his church. Cepheus has his foot literally planted atop the Northern Pole Star; “Al Ruccaba” as pictured in a time-lapse photo below, depicting how all the stars revolve around the King of Kings. [I Cor. 15:24-28].

Stars orbit polaris

These signs and constellations at the North Pole or circumpolar stars are reflective of the Royal Family since they never set. The ancients called them the imperishables. With the right foot of the King standing over the penned and guarded sheep of Ursa Minor, we can see Jesus the Shepherd protecting his flock of the “little dipper” from his enemies, that will be trodden underfoot.

Figure 5b. Cepheus Decan16


Even in this veiled mythology we can see the light of the narrative of the returning Shepherd-redeemer shining through to deliver his flocks. Bullinger refers to this precession of the North pole and Al Ruccaba specifically as follows:

Although the star does not revolve like the others, the central point in the heavens is very slowly but steadily moving. When these constellations were formed the Dragon possessed this important point, and the star alpha, in Draco, marked this central point. But by its gradual recession, that point is sufficiently near this star Ruccaba, in the Lesser Sheepfold, (Ursa Minor) for it to be what is called “the Polar Star.” But how could it have been known five or six thousand years ago? How could it have been known when it received its name, which means the turned or ridden on? That it was known is clear: so likewise was it made known in the written Word that the original blessing included not merely the multiplication of the seed of the faithful Abraham, but it was then added, “And thy seed shall possess the gate of thy enemies,” [Gen. 22:17]. 17

This is an obvious indicator of the accuracy of these God-inspired star names [Ps. 147:4], dating back to antiquity, showing divine insight inherent in the heavens from earliest times. This establishes a previous point that the purpose of God’s Revelatory Astronomy stands in juxtaposition to the evolutionary theories governing modern scientific Astronomy or the idolatry of astrology. Bullinger’s reference also shows the witness of the stars in concert with that of the Scriptures, and how the individual words in Scripture link to star names as a consistent testimony throughout this study, and a primary theme of our blog and web-site.

This stellar transition of the pole star reflects an aspect of the transference of power from the fallen Morning star, who presided over ten categories of precious stones, representing angels [Ezek. 28:14], to the Risen Morning Star [Rev. 22:16], presiding over 12 categories of precious stones, representing the 12 tribes of Israel, the 12 signs of the zodiac, and later the 12 apostles at the foundations of the Age of Grace and the 12 foundations of New Jerusalem, [Rev. 21:10-21]. The following is a Summary of the Traits of the Celestial Prelude:

The summary below shows the specifics of the signs that led the Magi to the birth of Christ.

Characteristics of the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude

  • Jupiter was clearly marked as “his star.”
  • Jupiter was involved in a triple planetary Conjunction.
  • Jupiter was involved in a series of planetary conjunctions.
  • Jupiter’s retrograde motion would play a key role.
  • Jupiter’s triple union was followed by a massing of planets.
  • This massing of planets was followed by a Mars Conjunction.
  • The Jupiter-Mars Conjunction was followed by a series of lunar occultations, and 5BC total lunar eclipses.
  • This series of conjunctions would last about two years.
  • The annual twenty days when the Sun is in Virgo would be a key.
  • The September 15th alignment of Jupiter, Saturn the Earth and Sun in 7 BC that occurred in the evening at sunset, directed the Magi’s attention to the end of the 20-day period when Virgo was “clothed with the Sun.”
  • The second lunar eclipse on September 15th of 5 BC established that the Magi should be watchful of lunar activity during this time. This framed the 42 minute period between Sunset and Moonset on the only day of the year when Virgo “was clothed with the Sun and the moon under her feet.” [Rev. 12:1-5]
  • The September 15th Heliacal Rising of Jupiter and Saturn foreshadowed the Heliacal Setting of Spica, located between the setting Sun and Moon in Virgo, identifying a 30-minute period when the birth of Christ happened.

This important interlude and temporary detour into the symbolism of the first Jupiter-Saturn conjunction is required to fully grasp the significance of the spiritual war we are currently engaged in, whether we realize it or not. God has fully equipped us for victory with our panoply of spiritual weapons and armor, in Christ but we must dress and train ourselves in our renewed mind implements, if we are to be victorious, [Eph. 6:10-17]. Now we are ready to resume to our dialogue on the Babylonian Cuneiform Tablets as part of the “Esoteric Babylonian Commentary” (abbr. EBC) that represents an excerpt from a larger commentary tablet LBAT 1601, that is unusually wide in scope encompassing … medical diagnosis, cuneiform sign exercises, and magical incantations and rituals, which reinterpreted these diverse fields of knowledge in terms of astronomical phenomena. The topics selectively excerpted into EBC by a lamentation priest suggest a compartmentalization of textual expertise, consistent with professional purviews in the late 1st millennium BC. #18

Next we will look at an Appendix of the EBC below;

  • Qα Appendix to §Q (EBC rev. 4–5)

As was the case with §B2α, the appendix here belongs only to EBC, but not to LBAT 1601. The term âtu probably has the same sense that it had in §Q, referring primarily to the lexical tradition. The commentator’s aim was to ratify the conclusions reached in §Q and to relate the tripartite world of “mound, sea, and wind” to the great gods Anu, Ea, and EnlilAnu’s identity as the “primevalworld mountain rising out of watery origins certainly befitted his status as head of the Mesopotamian pantheon in late period Uruk. Some corroboration, is provided by tablet IX of the incantation series Sag-gig-ga-meš (“Headaches”): “The goddess Ištar, prior to whom (nam-an-na =ullânušša) none exists in tranquility (and) delight, allowed it (i.e., the headache) to come down from the mountain” (CT 17,22: 155–158). The expression nam-an stems from the idea that an (i.e., the god Anu) designated the “primeval” (ullânu). We are on much firmer ground with the other two major gods of the pantheon. “Ea refers to water” simply alludes to the subterranean waters of the Apsû as Ea’s domain. The epithet im-ḫur-saĝ for the god Enlil appears in the composition Enlil in the Ekur (Enlil A: 97), as well as in a bilingual passage where the epithet is left untranslated in Akkadian: “The great mountain, Enlil- im-ḫur-saĝ, whose peaks rival the heavens, whose foundations are laid in the pure Apsû” (4R 2  27 no. 2: 15–18).  To be sure, interruptive glosses such as im tu-ḫur-saĝ (“im-ḫur-saĝ – with the sign read as the logogram 15 ‘wind’”) are less common in commentaries, though there is a striking parallel in another commentary on the Babylonian Creation Myth: tu šá-a-ri, “the sign – read as the logogram 15 – (means) wind.” In view of the avowed plan for these commentaries, i.e., to bring diverse fields of knowledge under the umbrella of pan-astronomical hermeneutics, the singling out of Anu, Ea, and Enlil here most likely served astronomical purposes as well. Just as the entire cosmos was encapsulated in the basic sound patterns of cuneiform (§Q), components of this cosmos typified by the three great Mesopotamian gods were likewise inherent in the sky, since all celestial bodies traveled along three heavenly paths: the Path of Anu centered on the ecliptic, the Path of Ea to the south, and the Path of Enlil encompassing the circumpolar stars to the north. #19

We may prefer, instead, the following syntax: *im-ḫur-saĝ :im:šá-a-ru: šá-du-ú, “im-ḫur-saĝ, (with) the sign im meaning wind (and) the logogram meaning mountain.” Lambert (2013, 140: 20). The erroneous understanding d:d: ul-la-nu: d 40: mu-ú /-ṭú : d: šá-a-ri,“Girra = Anu = fire; from of old. Ea = water. Earth = the Nether-World mountain. Enlil = air” by Scurlock/Al-Rawi (2006, 371f.) has led to the astounding conclusion that these were “Mesopotamian equivalents for the four elements as conceived by Hellenistic philosophers.” #20

In the light, of “the entire cosmos was encapsulated in the basic sound patterns of cuneiform spoken words of the Creator in Gen. 1:1-2…some revealing parallels have been drawn between the Creation Epic of the Babylonian Cosmos and the Biblical Cosmos in Gen. 1, by Iurii Mosenkis, included below. This insight may help to see how these Biblical concepts were corrupted in Babylonian astrology.

Gen. 1:1-2
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was without shape (tōhū) and empty (bōhū), and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep (tehōm), but the Spirit (ah.) a [1] of God was moving (the root rh.f ‘to soar’ related to rh.m ‘to hatch’) over the surface of the water’ (Gen. 1:1–2). Let us interpret the key concepts of the passage.

Tōhū is akin to names of sea and sea monster[2]. Not only Tōhū but also the cognate Akkadian Tiamat ‘primeval water monster’ and Leviathanwater monster’ (mentioned in, Job 41) might be compared to the Egyptian constellation of the Crocodile (modern Draco).[3]

Bōhū as a cognate of Hebrew behēmōtearth monster,’ might be compared to the Egyptian constellation of Hippopotamus (Ursa Minor). [4] The Spirit of God (ah, a cognate of the Arabic legendary bird Ruhh name) can be related to the image of the Cygnus constellation (‘swan’ or simply ‘bird’ in ancient Greek astronomy). e [5]

Thus, three primordial beings in the Creation story (Tōhū, Bōhū, and Ruah) might be linked to the circumpolar (unsetting, ‘immortal’) constellations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Cygnus. Aforementioned Behemoth, Leviathan, and the monstrous bird Ziz of medieval legends might be other images of the same constellations.

On the other hand, three primordial beings of Chaos may symbolize three Babylonian zones of the heaven: tōhū may be referred to the zone of Enki-Ea the water god (the southern constellations), Bōhū may be linked to the zone of Anu the sky god (the constellations near the ecliptic), ruah refers to the zone of Enlil the air god (the imperishable northern constellations).

Behemoth’s sword (Job 40:19) and ‘the flame of a whirling sword’ which guarded the Paradise (Gen. 3:24) may be regarded as sword-shaped Cygnus or more likely as Boötes which also resembles the sword. The fall of the primordial serpent in the book of Revelation 12, may be related to such astronomical events as the exit of the North Celestial Pole from the constellation of Draco (after 2000 BC) and the moving of the constellation toward the horizon. [fall]

The throne of God (merkābāh) is a cognate of the star name of chariot (markab), in Pegasus’ decan, whereas the unsetting circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major is regarded as a chariot in ancient astronomy, [6].

Ursa Major might also appear in the image of menorah (the first description: Exodus 25:31-40) as ‘a lamp to burn continually’ (Ex. 27:20; Lev. 24:2-4). Hanuka (as the rite of altar renovation) and the burning of Hanukal Menorah may symbolize the winter location of Ursa Major in direct opposition to the rising constellation Ara (literally ‘altar’). [Rev. 1:20[7] 

[1] Hebrew ah. breath, soul, wind’, Ugaritic rh, rh. ‘id’ (О Балу, с. 413), cf. Sumerian EN.LILlord of wind’.

[2] Hebrew tehōm. ‘abyss’ or ‘ocean’ (Abb. 3:10; Ps. 42:8; night see: О Балу: Угаритские поэтические сказания, с. 358), Akkadian tâmtu sea’ and Tiamatsea monster as an embodiment of primordial chaos’ (slain by Marduk who was symbolized by Jupiter).

[3] The name of Leviathan is a cognate of Ugaritic Lotan or Lawtan (who fights Baal Hadad) and Greek (borrowed from Semitic) Ladon (Draco, according to Hyginus Astronomy); cf. also Biblical monsters Tannin (Gen. 1:21; Ps. 74:13, comments: О Балу, с. 157; the same word in Ex. 7:9 means ‘snake’, in Ez. 29:3crocodile’, in Is. 27:1sea creature’; Hebrew tannin means ‘snake’, ‘sea snake’, ‘sea beast’: О Балу, с. 363) and Rahab (Is. 51:9; Ps. 89:10), Ugaritic snake Tunnunu fighting Balu (О Балу, с. 19-20, 181–182). The division of the dragon in Babylonian cosmogonical myth means the creation of zodiac (this creation by Marduk after his victory over Tiamat is clearly described in the Babylonian epic). Draco is the primeval snake named Ophion in Orphism. However, some of these images might be influenced by the concept of Hydra constellation.

[4] Bōhū is traditionally compared to βάαυ as a primordial creature of Phoenician cosmogony (Philo of Alexandria). Crocodile (Draco) is depicted on the back of the Egyptian hippopotamus-goddess Taurt (Ursa Minor). Cf. bhmtw as the designation of еру beast-shaped constellation in Qumranб Text I. 4Q 186.1: Тексты Кумрана, СПб., 1996, вып. 2, с. 264.

[5] Arabic Roc like Indian Garuda (which captures elephants and rhinoceroses) may also be Cygnus near Ursa Minor (behemoth in Egyptian mythology). The word ah means ‘air’ and ‘wind’ in the Bible (Dobin, J., p. 215), and this word might be compared with Sumerian; En-lil, ‘god of wind’, as the lord of the northern sky; cf. also Eg. Shu, the god of air, and the first bird on the first hill (perhaps, the North Pole) in Egyptian cosmogony. [Bennu bird]

[6] Cf. also Cassiopeia constellation, associated with a throne in ancient Greek astronomy.

[7] Ursa Major is known also as the Minoan Double Axe in ancient Crete. #21

The last element we want to add for your consideration of the idea that the Cuneiform Tablets, were referred to as “heavenly writing.” and their possible link to the Gospel in the Stars. Evidence has surfaced that indicates that there are two celestial forms of history authentication related to Scripture. From Greece came the belief in katasterismos, i.e., that the constellations depicted tableaux of miraculous earthly events that had been transferred onto the stars. And from Mesopotamia came the belief that the constellations depicted divine, cuneiform writing” that imparted inviolable truth through wordplay encrypted in each star-god’s name or epithet. Originating from Mesopotamia was the astrological belief that the constellations depictedheavenly writingthat divulged unassailable truth through the medium of wordplay encrypted in the star-gods’ titles. Cuneiform literature confirms that Mesopotamian’s construed pun-based wisdom as a form of divine revelation, and recorded such findings in their religious mythologies as if they were historical facts. #22

The Hellenic tenet called katasterismos, or “placing among the stars,” proclaimed the forty-eight ancient constellations as a sacred record of historic events that had occurred on earth—each star-figure engaging in one or more of the preternatural feats that made it, like Jesus, immortal (Cancik, Schneider, 2005: 7, 33-34; Condos, 1997: passim). Moreover, Greek celestial mythology written seven centuries before Jesus’s birth attests that Orion had the ability to walk upon the sea. It will be shown that this supernatural power, which was reported as historical fact, appears to have been derived from astronomical observation. When Orion is plotted on a star-map his outstretched legs depict him striding away from celestial land and onto the astralSea” delineated by the eight, contiguous aquatic constellations consisting of the Dolphin, Goatfish, Southern Fish, Water-pourer, Sea Serpent, River, Twin-Fishes, and Ship; an act accentuated by the fact that his front foot, demarcated by the star Rigel (P Orionis), is also the first star (X Eridani) in the River constellation, Eridanus. #23

Figure 6a. The Star Rigel in Orion’s foot as the first star of the celestial river Eridanus. Fig. 6ab Eridanus Super-void. #24

EarthSky - A winding river of stars called Eridanus 🌌 Tonight, you'll need a very dark sky in order to see Eridanus the River. You won't see this one from the city,The Eridanus Supervoid up close shows galaxy superclusters flat-lined across its massive walls ...

When Matthew, Mark, and John inspected the place where Jesus had ascended, ouranos, “heaven, firmament,” they saw Orion in the act of walking upon the celestialSea” depicted by the eight, adjacent watery constellations; with wordplay in one of the cuneiform titles for Orion imparting the phrase “Walking upon the Sea.” Other puns in Orion’s cuneiform title yielded “Son of God” and “Anointed-One” – terms that accorded precisely with the evangelists’ conception of Jesus. We argue that these correlations compelled the Gospel authors to equate Orion with Jesus and ascribe the constellation’s astronomically based “sea walking” ability to him as well. Moreover, it will be shown that the setting of Jesus’s Sea-Walk miracle corresponds with the celestial landscape surrounding Orion; and that wordplays in Orion’s stellar Sea-Walking tableau correlate with the common themes found in the Gospels’ Sea-Walk narratives. #25

Seven-hundred years before the birth of Jesus the Greek astronomer-poet Hesiod wrote:

Orion … the son of Euryale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon, and that there was given him as a gift the power of walking upon the waves as though upon land” (Hesiod, 1977, pp. 70-71). Interestingly, this claim appears in the Astronomia, “Astronomy,” a text whose subject matter was astronomical in nature. The Greek mythographer Apollodorus reiterated this claim around 50 BC, “Poseidon bestowed on him [Orion] the power of striding across the sea.” #26

And decades before Jesus Sea-Walk miracle took place, the Roman astronomer-poet Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC-17 AD) wrote, “Orion … He had the ability of running over the waves as if on land. . .” (Grant, 1960, p. 221). How did Hesiod and later Greco-Roman astronomical writers conclude that Orion could walk upon the sea? The answer is intimated by Hesiod in the Astronomia. Shortly after proclaiming Orion’s miraculous sea-walking ability, the Earth-goddess sent up a giant Scorpion to pursue Orion and sting him dead. Zeus placed both Orion and Scorpius in the sky as a testimony to this monumental chase scene: as Scorpius rises in the east, Orion sets in the west; a celestial picture simulating the primordial chase undertaken by these two constellations. The simultaneous rising of Scorpius and setting Orion seen in Fig. 8 below, inspired the supernatural story of his deathreported as historical fact in Hesiod’s ‘Astronomia.’ Pertinent here is Hesiod accepted the supernatural, stellar chase scene portrayed in Scorpius-Orion as an event that had once taken place on earth because it was depicted in the heavenly realm of the constellations; the still-frame of Scorpiuschasing Orion, serving as the proof upon which this miracle was based. #27

Figure 6b. Ophiuchus viewed between and above Scorpio and Sagittarius. [public domain]

This section of the sky between Sagittarius and Scorpius, is also where Kepler’s Nova exploded onto the scene at Ophiuchus’ heel, at this truly critical juncture or crossroads in the heavens. This is where the ecliptic, that houses the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, [Ps. 19:4-6crosses the Galactic equator! It is highly fascinating that Kepler’s Nova exploded so close to the star Saiph; meaning the wounded one, as if to specifically mark it. The Planisphere axis intersects the star Saiph, in the LXX Greek meaning bruised,” located in Ophiuchus‘ heel, the same Greek word found in Gen. 3:15 for “bruised,” while Ophiuchus‘ other other leg is poised over the head of the Scorpionstriking his fatal blowcrushing the enemy-scorpionKepler’s Supernova marked the celestial inception point of this Planisphere Axis of the Heavens, in kindred harmony with the Jupiter-Saturn cycle of conjunctions, which over 1600 years previous, had qued the Magi to begin their trek to Jerusalem for the birth of Christ.

With what we have already documented in previous blogs concerning the Gen. 3:15 Planisphere Axis, this Planisphere Axis inter- sects a series of Stars, constellations and decans, telling a very specific story-of the prophecy of Gen. 3:15 which is still in the process of becoming history as Jesus has already fulfilled much of these star prophecies, sealing the dragon’s doom! The root and basis of all world mythology, not only spanning the Ecliptic and the Galactic Equator with the Celestial Gospel, also links the words of Scripture, to specific star names in reference to these prophecies of the Promised Seed Jesus Christ.

Figure 6cThe Ecliptic in relation to the Galactic Equator.

When we consider the location of Kepler’s Supernova in close proximity in the Star Saiph in Ophiuchus’ Heel, being stung by the Scorpion, we are witnessing the first of multiple heel alignments on the Planisphere Axis relating different aspects of the victory of the Promised Seed over the Serpent, as promised in Genesis 3:15Figure 6c above, shows the Galactic Axis in harmony with the Axis of the Planisphere extending through Ophiuchus’ Heel between Sagittarius and Scorpius, rising in the east with Orion setting in the western Galactic Plane. Here Orion’s foot star-Rigel is the first star of the heavenly river Eridanus also intersecting the celestial equator, depicting the relationship at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, unifying the message of The Star Gospel on the ecliptic and equator via the Galactic plane.

Figure 7. Ophiuchus, battling Serpens as the Scorpius stings his heel. #28

the serpent scorpion

In the record of Scripture, with the celestial depiction of the first Messianic Prophecy of Gen. 3:15, we find this stellar chase scene portrayed between Scorpius-Orion at opposite ends of the heavens; 

Gen. 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Here we have a reference to the spiritual battle between light and darkness, embodied between the serpent and its seed, versus the Woman with her seedGod is telling the serpent that the seed of the woman, who is Jesus Christ would bruise the serpent’s head, indicative of the fatal blow that Christ inflicts on the enemy, as opposed to the scorpion stinging Christ’s heel, showing Christ’s sacrifice, as short-term sufferings that freed all mankind from the serpent’s curse. While the man Ophiuchus’ heel is stung by the Scorpion, he is wrestling the serpentSerpens for Coronathe Crown of Dominion aboverevealing how our spiritual adversary, shown as a serpent works through his seedthe scorpion, in conflict with the man, fitting the three Scriptural elements of the star picture; in Fig. 7, the Man vs. the Serpent and its Scorpion-seed. In Hebrew the Scorpion is Akrab, meaning war or conflictagainst the Man, for dominion over Creation. The Church of the body of Christ is already walking in this victorious power, as the entire kingdom of the serpent and his seed is crushed under our feetin Christ. We must recognize this unalterable victory as a past tense reality, we only need to stand on the truth of God’s Word to reap the full benefits of this eternal victory, both in this world, and the coming one.

This story from Gen. 3 is depicted in astonishingly powerful ways in the Gospel in the Stars, as the truths the stellar axis brings to light as it intersects stars across the heavens in Fig. 8 below.

Figure 8. Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis. #29

This “Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis” extends through the North pole intersecting a number of constellations and notable decans that relate aspects of the Genesis 3:15, theme from various teaching perspectives. Starting at the bottom of the planisphere, we find the Scorpion constellationScorpius, whose prominent tail stinger is located under the heel of Ophiuchus the Serpent-bearer sign, who is engaged in a struggle with the serpent-Serpens. The axis intersects the star in Ophiuchus‘ heel, called Saiph, in the LXX Greek meaning “bruised.” [30] This is the same Greek word found in Gen. 3:15 for “bruised,” while Ophiuchus’ other leg is poised over the head of the Scorpionstriking his fatal blow in crushing the head of the enemyKepler’s Nova marked the star Saiph to open the Galactic Axis where it crosses the ecliptic path of the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, calling our focus to this axis, and its alignment of Heels across the heavens between two Stars named “Saiph,” at each end of the Genesis 3:15 Axis. We find further evidence in the lunar signs of the evening on Wed., April 28th, after Christ was crucified. During this evening the 1st Full Moon following the Spring Equinox, in 28 AD, the Moon passed over Ophiuchus’ foot-the Man who just laid down his life, by shedding his sinless blood to redeem all mankind, fulfilled this key part of the Messianic Prophecy of Gen. 3:15. This Paschal Moon seen from Jerusalem rose about 7:16 pm, and set about 6:15 am Jerusalem standard time, the eve of April 28th and morning of the 29th of April, 28 AD. [31]

I submit that the Mythology of Greece, Mesopotamia and many other ancient earthly nations, are all rooted as corrupted forms of what Joseph Campbell called the World Monomyth. In his works he embodies a framework for Comparative Mythology, wherein the Hero’s Journey is a template where he embarks on his journey, has transformative adventures, and returns home. #32  In the Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis as this axis extends through the next sign, we find it intersecting the decan of Scorpius called Hercules, whose foot is placed over the Head of Draco the serpentdragon whose location over the North pole, has been removed from it and now resides under King Cepheus’ foot over the tail of Ursa Minor. The axis runs between the two heads of Hercules and Ophiuchus, who are aligned, but inverted to each other. The star in Hercules’ head is Ras Al Gethi, meaning the head of him who bruiseskeeps with the Gen. 3:15 theme. 33 As this axis extends down to Hercules’ left foot, it shows the result of Ophiuchus‘ battle with the Serpent, since Hercules left foot crushed the Dragon’s headdestroying the devil’s works. As Hercules is kneeling, his right heel is lifted up as if wounded, in some star maps as Fig. 9 with a spear through his heel, [Rev. 12:9-10, Ps. 74:12-14]. Thus, we can see the source of the Greek Myth of the Labors of Hercules, not to mention Jason and his Argo-nauts pursuing the Golden Fleece; the ever-shining constellations as they tell of the greatest Hero of All-Jesus Christ!! Even as “Joshua” is the Hebrew equivalent of “Jesus,” so “Jason” is the Greek namesake of our Lord of Lord’s.

Figure 9. The Decan of Hercules

greek mythology of hercules

A.R. George writes: In ancient cuneiform scholarship the writing of a name can be adapted to impart information about the nature and function of its bearerJohn 20:30-31 leaves an intriguing clue regarding the nature of Jesus’ miracles, referring to them as semeia, signs,” the plural form of semeion. And although the Greek semeion indeed meant “sign, mark, omen”—it also had a more nuanced meaning: “a Godly sign, an omen, especially of the constellations regarded as signs” (Liddell & Scott, 1997, p. 727). #34 Once again most mythographers have it backwards since the constellations existed prior to mankind, and were untouched by the infected hand of man, being the handiwork of the Almighty.

Moreover, one of the astronomical epithets for Orion, SUKAL, “Vizier, Messenger,” also represented a revered type of priest whose title meant “Anointed-One,”the cuneiform equivalent to the Greek-Christos. Their highest order of such priests assumed the designation, “Anointed-One-of-the-ApsU,” implying they held sway over the Apsu, i.e., the stellar Sea that Orion was walking upon in Greek celestial mythology. In an era when celestial punning was construed as religious revelation, it seems likely that Matthew, Mark, and John would have conceptualized this as an epiphany imparting that Orion was the avatar of Jesus, whose Sea-walk also included the disciples’ boat- correlating with Argo, the Ship constellation stationed just southeast of OrionJesus. How the Argo may have come to be seen as a Boat full of “disciples” is found encrypted as wordplay in its Mesopotamian title. The Argo appears to be the derivative of a MesopotamianCargo Ship” or “Barge” written Makurru in AkkadianCuneiform astronomical texts confirm that this stellar Ship was found in the “path of Ea,”-which is the southern region of the night sky (Hunger & Pingree, 1989, pp. 35-39). Mythical texts also confirm its presence in the Apsu, or celestial Sea” that JesusOrion is walking upon; (Kramer & Maier, 1989, pp. 42-43). #35

In summary, some key elements in this study include; the LBAT 1601 Cuneiform Tablet, and how it could have aided the Magi in their search for the Star of Bethlehem, and how this tablet meshes with the Traits of the Celestial Prelude, as a likely basis for Daniel to teach the Magi what to look for in their search. These Cuneiform Tablets could have also provided a historical medium to transmit the prophetic content of the Celestial Gospel from ancient times. As we continue efforts to uncover more documentation along these lines, we could see added evidence for the Gospel in the Stars. In recognition of this, I’m signing off in Cuneiform this month!!

God Bless! 



1. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
2. IBID, 10, 212 obv. 9 – rev. 1. 9–15, (SAA 10,160 obv. 36–45)
3. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
4. IBID, Parpola (1983, 8f.)
5. IBID, (BagM Beih. 2, 89, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81–82, 83 and 106; NCBT 1231, Wee 2016b, esp. 182)
6. (Rochberg-Halton, 1988, p. 15, n. 54)
7. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
8. IBID, B1 Title of Izbu Tablet I (EBC obv. 5–7)
9. IBID, §B3 Incipit-Title of Izbu Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 3 H–5H // EBC  obv. 12–13)
10. Figure 2. picture credit for Coma Decan, p. 39 Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger.
11. Figure 3. picture credit, Axis E on the Dendera Zodiac. The Skies in Memory, John Lash in The Atlantis Blueprint, Wilson & Flem-Ath. p. 171.
12. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest. [C2 Incipit-Title of Sa-gig Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 12 H)]
13. Star Names their Lore and Meaning, p. 341, R.H. Allen
14. Figure 4 picture credit, May 27th, 7 BC Jupiter and Saturn in Conjunction in Pisces, from Starry Night Pro, astronomy software.
15. Figure 5a. picture credit for Cepheus Decan. []
16. Figure 5b. picture credit for Cepheus Decan. []
17. Witness of the Stars, p. 152, E.W. Bullinger.
18. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation PriestEsoteric Babylonian Commentary
19. IBID, Qα Appendix to §Q (EBC rev. 4–5)
20. IBID, Scurlock/Al-Rawi (2006, 371f.)
22. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail:
23. Ibid, (Toomer, 1998, p. 384; Aratus, 1997, pp. 98-99, 316; Condos, 1997, p. 105)
24. Figure 6a picture credit [] Fig. 6ab picture credit Eridanus Supervoid. []
25. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail:
26. IBID, (Apollodorus, 1967, pp. 30-31, brackets inserted)
27. IBID, (Hesiod, 1977, pp. 70-73; c.f., Aratus, 1997: 118121).
28. Figure 7 picture credit, Witness of the Stars, Book cover, E.W. Bullinger.
29. IBID, Figure 8 picture credit
30. Strong’s Concordance [H7779], James Strong.
31. Biblical Astronomy Newsletter, Bob Wadsworth
32. An Introduction [revised edition] Joseph Campbell.
33. Witness of the Stars, p. 59, E.W. Bullinger.
34. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail: Freedman, 1992, I, pp. 472-474)
35. IBID, (McHugh, 2016, pp. 90-94; Hunger & Pingree, 1989, p. 39; CAD 10/pt.1, p. 141; Gossmann, 1950, no. 254; Salonen, 1939, pp. 12-19; ePSD: magur).

The Prophet Daniel, the Magi and King Cyrus.

The Prophet Daniel, the Magi and King Cyrus.

It has been a true blessing and honor to provide this monthly research blog for the believers, and in recognition of the 9th year Anniversary of our research blog this month, we are looking into more history of the Prophet Daniel, especially during the time of King Cyrus. A number of recent blog topics have tracked with Jon Nessle’s OT History class, and while last month’s blog focus was on Daniel’s potential impact on the appearance of the technology found in the Antikythera device, this month’s blog sights are set on Daniel’s times with King Cyrus, and how the impact of these two singular men of God is still evident today. The Prophet Daniel was strategically placed as a top official in the administrations of a number of kings, along with his friends and fellow Magi, as agents to ensure God’s plan would be enacted. The subject of this blog will be to uncover certain specifics not only regarding the history of the Magi, but also pertaining to Daniel’s relationship with King Cyrus, that would have not only made Daniel privy to the detailed plans to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, but also how aspects of these architectural plans are found in other examples of cultural architecture in the ancient middle east.

For centuries Jerusalem has played a central role in the spiritual perspective of the three major monotheistic religions. For Israel and Judaism throughout the world it is the focus of ancient yearnings, a living proof of archaic grandeur of the Golden age of Kings David and Solomon, and a center of national renaissance; for Christians it is the scene of both Jesus‘ triumphant entries into Jerusalem offset by the agony and victory of his perfect sacrifice. For Islam it is the goal of the Muhammad’s mystic night Journey and site for Muslims most sacred shrines. For all three faiths it is a holy city, a center of pilgrimmage, and an object of devotion. As the center of Jewish religious reverence, the most sacred spot in Jerusalem is the Temple Mount, where once stood the most sacred Holy of the Holies. Jerusalem’s oldest architectural remains show that Jewish life was centered around the Temple. As the Temple was the center of religion for the Jewish people and the focus of their life, both spiritually and physically, when the temple was destroyed, so was a part of the Jewish people. Ever since, the Jews have been waiting for a re-establishment of the Temple in Jerusalem. Jews and non-Jews alike travel from all over the world to visit the Western Wall, the only remains from the Temple. Thus, in modern Jerusalem the Western Wall is the most important center of prayer and pilgrimage, while other holy places include the King David’s Tomb on Mount Zion, and the Mount of Olives with its ancient Jewish cemetery, and the tombs of priestly families in the Valley of Kidron.

Central to God’s plan for humanity is Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and his birth was connected with and prophesied in the stars. The Star Gospel as found in the Old Testament, or for Judaism in the Tanakh, long foretold his birth, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension. Following the rise of ancient Babylon, the forces of king Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, the southern kingdom of Israel in 604 BC, and deported most of its key people. Among the exiles was a group of gifted and intelligent young men with their leader named Daniel. After distinguishing himself by first accurately revealing king Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and then interpreting it for him, he was rewarded with a high position in Babylon’s royal court, which included key governmental authority, where he was made chief over all the magicians, soothsayers, and wise men of Babylon. This is a central aspect of the narrative as it placed Daniel and his friends in key positions to influence many of the royal decrees that would come down, not only from Nebuchadnezzar, but many of the subsequent kings including Cyrus, during their lifetimes. As we have recently seen, the Babylonians were already renown in history for their study of the stars both from the perspective of science and symbolism. But with the rise of Daniel and his team of gifted geeks, they were able to bring a positive spiritual perspective to these studies in light of the prophecies of the coming Christ. Having the Babylonian Star Diaries, the cuneiform clay tablets at his disposal, provided a valuable resource for his work in identifying and accurately teaching the Magi the celestial signs to look for, leading to the birth of Christ.

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars not only enlightened his view of the OT Prophecies of Christ, but also provided the key insight needed to teach these critical keys to the Zoroastrian Magi, whose monotheistic religion also influenced King Cyrus, as one of the most enlightened leaders in history. As seen in the principles of the Cyrus Cylinder– his example of leadership was the first true model of diversity, that included successful rule over nations with different languages, belief systems and Religions. Since a number of Persian Kings were of Zoroastrian Faith including Cyrus, this most likely provided a source of religious tolerance exhibited in his rulership. Cyrus’ influence in ruling conquered nations impacted many other kingdoms in history including the Roman Empire, who applied similar principles in their rule of conquered nations.

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars was closer to the original, because the initial revelation of what was originally given, became corrupted in the practices of astrology and divination much of which was rooted and further developed in Babylon. As in modern times, astrologers will cast their horoscopes, while many believe that the stars fatalistically control one’s destiny. Daniel, however, preserved the Tanakh, and developed his own order of scholar-disciples committed to his teaching, based on the truth of Scripture, not to include astrology or other kinds of divination, as they were strictly forbidden in the Hebrew ScripturesDaniel spent all his adult life in Babylon and later in Persia as a high official of the kings he served, while never wavering from his true service for the One true God. When the Prophet Daniel was carried off in captivity to Babylon, it was the result of one of 27 sieges of Jerusalem and its Temple, the first destroy it by Nebuchadnezzar, who burnt the Temple in 587-586 BC, [2 Chron. 36:17-20], the 2nd in 69-70 AD, by Titus and his Roman legions who also burnt the Temple. In both cases Jerusalem lay desolate for the next 50 years on the Jubilee Calendar. Daniel had the occasion to interpret Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the large statue of 4 beasts in Daniel 7, as Nebuchadnezzar was the first king of the first golden kingdom of Babylon, the golden head of this statue. It was Daniel’s privilege to also serve the King of the 2nd kingdom of Persia in this statue, of 4 beasts who embody the four beasts of the king’s dream. 

Daniel 7:17
These great beasts, which are four, {are} four kings, {which} shall arise out of the earth.

This was where the co-regent king Belshazzar hosted a big banquet during which a hand appeared and wrote on the wall the words, “Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin.” Daniel was called to provide the interpretation that was, “God has numbered your days; you have been weighed in the balance and found wanting; and your kingdom has been given over to the Medes and the Persians.”

That night the Medo-Persian army conquered the city, but Daniel was retained as a government minister. He also had several dreams,  described in chapters 8 – 12 of the book of Daniel, one of these dealt with the coming of Christ: “Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to make an end of sin, to make atonement for iniquity, to bring in ever-lasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the most holy place. So you are to know and discern that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince there will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; it will be built again, with plaza and moat, even in times of distress. Then after the sixty-two weeks the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing, and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. And its end will come with a flood; even to the end there will be war; desolations are determined.” [Dan. 9:24-26, Zech. 9:9] We have a detailed study on this important prophecy in Daniel 9 in the preceding link that you can refer to for further analysis.

The above prophesy indicated that the Messiah would be “cut off” and “the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary.” This was fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus and the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple by the armies of the Roman general Titus in 70 AD, In addition to writing his account in the book named after him, Daniel had occasion to teach this information to his inner circle of adherents. Their descendants centuries later-the Magi, based on Daniel’s teachings, were enlightened of the General time when Jesus was to be born. A series of celestial signs were given to them described in the Bible as a “star” as in the OT Biblical prophecy: “I see him, but not now, I behold him, but not near. A star shall come forth from Jacob…”  Numbers 24:17

Sometime in the first half of 3 BC a Jewish girl named Mary in Nazareth, a town in northern Israel, became pregnant. Later that year when she was expecting, her betrothed Joseph and Mary left their hometown, in response to a Roman census for their area. They, along with their countrymen, were obliged by the Romans to register in this census ordered by the Roman emperor Augustus. As a result, they returned to their ancestral city or town in that year-3 BC. This couple Joseph and Mary, being from the tribe of Judah, had to register in Bethlehem, the ancestral town of King David. With an abundance of travelers on the road, the inns and guesthouses were full, so when they reached Bethlehem, accommodations were in short supply, but they were able to secure lodgings with some of their extended family. With Mary nearing her birthing time, in the late summer weeks, on the eve of 11 Sept. 3 BC, on Rosh Hashanah, the 1st day of the Judean New Year and the “feast of trumpets,” their son was born.

As this series of unique celestial signs continued, a month or so before, in August 12, 3BC the planet Jupiter, the King Planet, with Venus, the bright and Morning Star, had risen together in the east. Then on Sept. 14th, Jupiter joined with Regulus, the “king star” of the constellation Leo the Lion, of the tribe of Judah. These unusual conjunctions proceeded through the winter into the following year, culminating with the union of Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury in late summer of 2 BC. The planets then went their separate ways, with Jupiter continuing in its path until Dec. 25th, on the winter solstice, it moved into the constellation Virgo, the virgin, appearing to stand still in retrograde motion. Prior to this period, an even more eye-opening celestial event took place. A bright star appeared in a decan of Virgo called Coma, the virgin, long considered the symbol of Israel and later of Christianity. This brilliant star-the Coma supernova outshone and dimmed all the other stars in same region of the sky. As indicated above, celestial signs were carefully studied by many in the ancient world, especially in Persia, when the kings had long employed court astronomers, like Daniel. The Romans themselves were aware of Biblical prophecies– of a new-born king even as scripture records of King Herod, who consulted the Jewish priests to find out where Jesus was to be born.

As followers of the Prophet Daniel, the Magi star-researchers were well versed in the Hebrew Scriptures and especially those from Daniel in addition to the doctrines of Zoroaster. They knew that a branch would grow out of the tribe of David, who would be Messiah or Savior as their own prophets foretold. The Magi’s two main branches consisted first of those who followed and remained faithful to the teachings of Daniel, versus those who followed the corrupted ways of astrology, divination and magic. The Magi who found the child Jesus were the genuine, while the “magicians” were those, as Scripture mentions; Simon the Sorcerer in [Acts. 8:9-24] and Bar-jesus in [Acts. 13:6] also originally called Magi, who departing-followed a corrupt path. This is evidence that at the time the Magi represented those respected of Persian culture and religion. The term is often translated as “magician.” However, most likely the Magi (priests) in the sense of Zoroastrianism are meant here, rather than sorcerers in the Bible records of Acts above.

The word “Magi” should not be equated with the word “magician“, but according to Herodotus, it refers to people from the tribe of the Magi. In the realm of the Parthians this was the priestly class, like the Levites in Israel. The Medes were an ethnic group, from Media, which was west of Parthia (Persia/Iran). Most Magi resided in and around Ecbatana, near modern Hamadan in Iran. Noting that there were seven cities called Ecbatana, four of them in Persia, suggests that the name simply designated a capital or royal city. From classical and other sources, the name variously occurs: Greek: Ekbátana, Agbátana (reading Apobátana in Isidore of Charax, 6, should be Agbátana), Ecbatana, Ecbatanas, Partiorum (Tabula Peutingeriana), BibleAcḥmeta, Arm. Aḥmatan, Hamatan, Ekbatan, Mid. Pers. Hamadān, etc. The citadel of Ecbatana is also mentioned in the Bible in Ezra 6:2, in the time of Darius I, as part of the national archives. 1#

In the inscription of Darius I at Behistun the name of the city appears in Old PersianHamgmatāna, Elamite-Ag-ma-da-na; Akkadian-A-ga-ma-ta-nu. It is usually interpreted as derived from *hangmata- the “[place of] gathering” and the summary that, prior to the formation of the Median state, some kind of popular assembly met there (Herodotus, 1.97, does mention a Median assembly that appointed Deioces king, but does not specify its location). 2#

Figure 1. The Behistun Rock with inscriptions. [] 3.

Persia /Iran Bsotun / Darius the Great legacy carved in stone | Persia ...

E.W. Bullinger in his Companion Bible Appendices #57 on The Genealogy of the Persian Kings, states “Sir Henry Rawlinson published a complete translation of the trilingual Persian text on the isolated rock of Behistun [or Bahistun] which rises 1700 feet out of the plain on the High Road from Babylonia to the east; in which Darius Hystaspis gives his own genealogy. The famous rock derives its name from the village of Bisitun or Bisutun, near its foot. It is on the High Road from Baghdad to Tehran about 65 miles from Hamadan on the site of the ancient Ecbatana.” On this rock on which Darius Hystaspis had the principal events of his reign carved, commences with an account of his Genealogy. “Darius Hystaspis is thus called to denote him as Darius the Son of HYSTASPES; and to distinguish him from Darius the Mede, who was ASTAYGES, his grandfather. According to HerodotusASTAYGES was the son of Cyaxares, the son of Phraortes [II], who was the son of Deiokes, who again was the son of Phraortes [I]. Consequently, we have under these three names, titles, or appellatives, from Greek, Median, and Persian sources, three persons, called by Herodotus-ASTAYGES, by Darius-ARSAMES, and by Cyrus-Cambyses, who are in reality one and the same. Thus, in all these identifications from independent sources and authoritiesASTAYGES=Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1, Arsames= Artaxerxes of Ezra 6: 14, Neh. 2:1, and Cambyses=Darius the Mede of Dan. 5:31. 4#

According to Herodotus (1.98), Ecbatana was chosen as the Median capital in the late 8th century B.C. by Deioces, founder of the Median dynasty which ruled Media for one and a half centuries. Herodotus describes the royal complex as a palace, treasury, and military quarters built on a hill and encircled by seven rings of walls so that each out-topped the one beyond it, by the height of the battlements. Such a citadel on a prominence surrounded by concentric rings of walls corresponds to representations of Median strongholds in Neo-Assyrian reliefs.5

Figure 2. A. Ecbatana Plan [] side by side with the Plan for Jerusalem. B. [] 6.

Bolivia and the Sumerian Connection | Sumerian, Ancient persia, Ancient near eastPlan of the city in biblical times : the City of David upper left, Solomon's Temple lower centre ...

According to Herodotus, Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes‘ capital in 678 BC by Deioces, the first ruler of the Medes.[4] The Neo-Assyrians do not seem to mention Ecbatana, and it is likely they never penetrated east of the Alvand despite two centuries of involvement in Median areas of the central Zagros.[7] Ecbatana was captured by Cyrus II in 550 BC, under the Achaemenid Persian kings and transferred its treasury to Anshan.[8] Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, is mentioned in several sources, the city was used as a royal archive as evidenced by the fact that Cyrus’s order for the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple was found in the city.[10] In ancient times, Ecbatana was renowned for its wealth and splendid architecture. [7[11]

In the Histories of the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Ecbatana was founded by Deioces, the legendary first king of the Medes. Herodotus names Deiokes (or Dioces), grandfather of Cyaxares, as the king who eventually united the nomadic Median tribes, forming a single kingship that is centered on Ecbatana. The six Median tribes he dominates are named: the Arizanti, Budii, Busae, Paretaceni, and Struchates, plus the independent, priestly tribe of the Magi (Maggai) which serves them all. 8a He writes:

Deioces bade them build for him a palace worthy of the royal dignity and strengthen him with a guard of spearmen. And the Medes did so: for they built him a large and strong palace in that part of the land which he told them […]. He built large and strong walls, those which are now called Ecbatana, standing in circles one within the other. And this wall is so contrived that one circle is higher than the next by the height of the battlements alone. The nature of the landscape, seeing that it is on a hill, lent itself towards this end; but much more was it produced by architecture, since the circles are in all seven in number. And within the last circle are the royal palace and the treasure-houses. The largest of these walls is in size about equal to the circuit of the wall round Athens; and of the first circle the battlements are white, of the second black, of the third crimson, of the fourth blue, of the fifth red: thus are the battlements of all the circles colored with various tints, and the two last have their battlements one of them overlaid with silver and the other with gold. These walls then Deioces built for himself and round his own palace, and the people he commanded to dwell round about the wall. 8b#

This ostensibly fantastic description above, likely based on elements of truth: the seven walls may in fact be a ziggurat, a multi-storied temple tower that was common in the ancient Near East. Ecbatana is also the supposed capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), that was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus (550/549 BC). Perhaps only archaeology is able to offer a reliable description of ancient EcbatanaEcbatana was the Greek name of the capital of the empire of the Medes, and later one of the capitals of the Persian and Parthian empires, the Old Persian name of which was Hangmátana, “the place of assembly.” The city is mentioned several times in the apocryphal books. In Tobit it was the home of Reguel and Sara his daughter (Tobit 3:7; 7:1; 14:13). It was fortified by the Median king Arphaxad in his war against “King Nebuchadnezzar of Assyria” (Judg. 1:1, 2, 14), and to it Antiochus Epiphanes IV fled shortly before his death (2 Macc. 9:1-3). #9

Henry Rawlinson noted that Persian king Cyrus (a descendant of Deioces) with the temple-shaped tomb placed on a series of six plinths was like a miniature seven-tiered ziggurat. [see Fig. 4 below], Thus, he thought it legitimate to compare the seven colors given by Herodotus for the battlements of Ecbatana to the seven-colored stages of ziggurats. 10 I refer to this citation to introduce the idea that these seven colored stages of both the ziggurats in the historic kingdoms of the middle east and in this tomb of King Cyrus had a color scheme [documented below], that appeared to correspond to the five naked eye planets, with the Sun and Moon.

The Seven-Tiered Ziggurats

Gadd countered Rawlinson’s planetary theory with the objection that ziggurats often had less than seven stages, commonly three or four. Indeed they did, but this does not preclude the possibility that ziggurats with seven stages may have exemplified an idealized prototype. No intact types of ziggurats have been found, and, as we have seen, their poor condition typically does not permit confidence about the original number of stages. 11a Nonetheless, in some excavated examples of the first millennium BC, it has been surmised that seven was the original number of tiers. At Borsippa, for example, Allinger-Csollich counted seven stages in the ruins of Nebuchadrezzar’s restoration, but allowed for the possibility of two added top stages with no archaeological remains. 11b At Ur, Woolley discovered 3-4 stages (depending on whether the white court is included in the count), but, based on architectural projections, he suggested that Nabonidus’s intention had been to transform the existing structure into one of seven stages. At Khorsabad only four stages were discerned, but Frankfort thought it reasonable that there had been three further stages, as the height of the structure would then match the base “and this was, according to Strabo, the case in Babylon.” 11a,b,c.

Figure 3. Ziggurat of Susa. 11d.

Chogha Zanbil [ Dūr Untash Ziggurat ] | Chiyakotravel

Reconstructions aside, what do iconography and texts tell us about the number of stages? Parrot’s survey includes numerous illustrations, for example, a three-tiered structure on an Old Babylonian cylinder seal, four-to five-tiered towers on Assyrian cylinder seals, and the five-tiered ziggurat of Susa on a relief sculpture shows Assurbanipal’s Elamite campaign. 12a In addition, a considerable body of literary and pictorial evidence documents the concept of a ziggurat with seven stages: 1. The so-called Esagila tablet from Uruk (AO 6555), first noticed by George Smith in 1876, dates to 229 BC, 12b. and is now also known from a partial duplication the British Museum (BM 40813), they are thought to be copies of an original no later than the early-seventh century BC. 12c. This displays the dimensions of the temple-tower Etemenanki (é part of the Esagila-complex in Babylon, completed by Nebuchadrezzar II. Seven stages are described, with their respective dimensions (AO 6555 ll. 36–42). The height of the structure is equal to the base, a fact supporting Strabo’s input,  and Frankfort’s deduction regarding the original height of the ziggurat at Khorsabad.

At Khorsabad only four stages were discerned, but Frankfort thought it reasonable that there had been three further stages, as the height of the structure would then match the baseand this was, according to Strabo, the case in Babylon.13

The Ziggurat at Ur.

Sümerler, Mezopotamya’ya yaklaşık olarak M.Ö. 3500’lerden sonra gelmeye başlamıştır.

This sets out dimensions of the temple tower Etemenanki (é of the Esagila complex in Babylon, which was completed by Nebuchadrezzar II. Seven stages are described, with their respective dimensions (AO 6555 ll. 36–42). The height of the structure is equal to the base, a fact supporting Strabo’s words and Frankfort’s deduction regarding the original height of the ziggurat at Khorsabad. George regards it as “an ideal of how the tower was meant to look,” not “a physical survey of a built structure.”2. A broken Neo-Babylonian stele (MS 2063) in the Schøyen Collection depicts a king, apparently Nebuchadrezzar II, “standing before a seven-story ziggurrat drawn in outline & labelled [é].tem[en] [ziqúra-at ba-bili (ká.dingir.ra)ki  ‘E-temen-anki, ziqqurrat of Babylon.’ The tower is as high as it is wide.” 14

Ziggurat models of Ur and Babylon. 14a

What is a Ziggurat? - Amazing Facts, History & Information


Woolley’s considerations included the distinct changes made by Nabonidus’s builders to the lower levels, calculations from the amount of debris covering the ruins, suggesting that it originally stood to a considerable height, the layout of the flights of stairs and their angles, plus an idealized plan providing the best symmetry possible, where the “(Belou táphos)” is described as a quadrangular structure a stadion both in length and height. #15.

With regard to the remaining colors in the Ecbatana sequence (light red, silver, and gold), one should not be too skeptical given that Place and Thomas reported the discovery of glazed tiles around the Khorsabad ruin sporting these very colors. Further, the restriction of silver and gold decoration to the topmost stages is credible enough, for purely practical considerations. As it happens, silver and gold are mentioned in characters drawn at the center of the seven-staged ziggurat plan on the Jena tablet. #16

A hundred and fifty years of further archaeological research have produced a very telling result. We have seen that Rawlinson’s color scheme at Borsippa was largely imaginary. By contrast, the Ecbatana tradition has been partly confirmed by the evidence from other sites (Khorsabad and Ur). A reexamination of the possible meaning of this color sequence (hereafter “the Ecbatana/ziggurat sequence”), especially where it has been confirmed by excavation, is thus long overdue. Aside from the placement of precious metals on the topmost levels and the protective function of the bitumen at the base, it is hard to imagine any practical reason for the positioning of the other (better-attested) colors, namely, white, red, and blue. All the more since they appear to have occurred in a fixed sequence. One understandably turns, therefore, to the likelihood that their arrangement had some religious or cosmological significance. 17

According to H.G. Wood: the ziggurat of Jupiter Belus at Babylon had an ideal basis in the number 360. He describes a 7-staged pyramid in which each of the six upper stages is 360 inches shorter than the one next below it: the base side was 3,600 inches, and the total height of the structure was 3,600 inches. Wood therefore concludes that: the entire system of ancient Babylonian metrology appears to have been derived from 360 x 360 x 100 or, 12,960,000.” 17b

Based on this quote above, H.G. Wood not only confirms the equal height and width of the Ziggurat of Belus at Babylon, but also shows how the base 60 number system employed in Babylon, that is still used today, provides a universal key to the sacred geometry of Creation in a standard world measure. When we divide the sun’s orbital speed of 43,200 mph, by the 12 houses of the ecliptic, we get 3600, or the number of arc-minutes in a solar day. This matches the 36 decans of the zodiac’s 360 degrees, the same celestial and numeric standard manifested at increasing powers of 10, showing the Creator’s signature of Symmetry throughout His Creation. The sun’s orbital speed; of 43,200 mph, is also 10% of half of its circumference in miles (864,000 miles or 2/3 of 12,960,000). This is undeniably the signature of the divine Hand of the Creator, or the Great Geometer as the Pythagoreans called Him, exhibiting the dominion of His divine measure of Light, His own essence ruling over all kingdoms of terrestrial and temporal life. [John 1:3-4] For an extended discussion on this topic, please click this link for Noah’s Calendar.

As the ancients expressed this potential cosmological significance in Ziggurats, whose earliest examples seem to be found in the “tower of Babel,” I think it would be more fruitful to recognize the geometry at the basis of this planetary order, that the ancients were describing in their architecture. In this following link to our 2019 blog, on Solar System Symmetry we show how the relative planetary distances average to the pattern of the Phi ratio.

Relative planetary distances average to Phi

Beginning with Neptune and moving inward toward the sun, the ratios are 1/2 (Uranus: 30,688 earth days to Neptune: 60,193 earth days)1/3 (Saturn: 10,670 to Uranus: 30,688), 2/5 (Jupiter:4,332 to Saturn:10,670), 3/8 (Ceres: 1,681 to Jupiter: 4,332), 5/13 (Mars: 687 to Ceres: 1,681), 8/21 (Venus: 225 to Mars: 687) and 13/34 (Mercury:88 to Venus: 225). These are all Fibonacci numbers in proper sequence, skipping Earth, as if the Designer of this system had foreknowledge that Earth was the vantage point from which this pattern would be observed. The influence of the Fibonacci series in the order of our Solar System, reflects how the orbital distances of the planets approximate the phi ratio.

The average of the mean orbital distances of each successive planet in relation to the one prior approximates phi: #18

Planet Mean
in million
per NASA
Mercury 57.91 1.00000
Venus 108.21 1.86859
Earth 149.60 1.38250
Mars 227.92 1.52353
Ceres 413.79 1.81552
Jupiter 778.57 1.88154
Saturn 1,433.53 1.84123
Uranus 2,872.46 2.00377
Neptune 4,495.06 1.56488
Pluto 5,869.66 1.30580
Total 16.18736
Average 1.61874
Phi 1.61803
Degree of variance (0.00043)

At times we forget about the asteroids when thinking of the planets in our solar systemCeres, the largest asteroid, is nearly spherical, comprises over one-third the total mass of all the asteroids and is thus the best of these minor planets to represent the asteroid belt. (Insight on mean orbital distances contributed by Robert Bartlett.)

The Fibonacci number series of; 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,… But this doesn’t mean Earth is haphazard. It also has an intermediate set of Fibonacci ratios of 8/13 (Earth: 365 to Mars: 687) and 13/21 (Venus: 225 to Earth: 365). There is no way arbitrary haphazard chance that can account for the precision behind this kind of mathematical and geometric order and design. This kind of design demands an Intelligent DESIGNER, also known as the Father of Lights.

Rom. 1:18-20
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who [d]suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because what may be known of God is [e]manifest [f]in them, for God has shown it to them20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and [g]Godhead, so that they are without excuse. The truth however of the cosmological significance of God’s order and Symmetry in how He organized our Solar System, is not only evident, but has been obscured and indeed suppressed in the idolatry of mankind, in the worship of his various mythological pantheons, that have ignored the eternal power and Godhead of our Almighty Creator.

The concept of “seven heavens” and “seven earths” could well have found its architectural expression in the seven-tiered ziggurats. In the annual Akitu ritual, Marduk was symbolically imprisoned in Etemenanki, as explicitly stated in Marduk’s Ordeal (VAT 9555+9538; ND 812(a), l. 13;) “[That which] they do [on] the ziggurat: Since the gods imprisoned him he disappeared and was held captive inside.” He was released from captivity by Nabû  (ll. 8–9), the tutelary deity of astronomy to whom the Borsippa ziggurat was dedicated. This, in combination with Strabo’s reference (16.1.5) to the ziggurat of Babylon as the [Belou táphos], the “tomb of Belus [Marduk],” indicated to many scholars, though not all, that Marduk’s enacted imprisonment can be seen in terms of a ritual death scheme, suggesting that the ziggurat acted as a representation of the underworld. #19

Since the Great Pyramid embodies the ideal conception of the cosmic world mountain” as its passage system of star shafts are noted first, for their very telling star alignments, that relate a specific and significant story. The Descending Passage of the Pyramid was aligned on the archaic pole star Thuban, of Draco the dragon, whose shaft realized its dark destination in the pit of the Pyramid’s base. This symbolized the fall of Lucifer [Isa. 14:12] as a result of his failed coup attempt to overthrow the Almighty. This also embodies the “underworld” of fallen 1/3 of spirit angels that he deceived in his defeated revolt [Rev. 12:4], where some of these angels are imprisoned in the bottomless pit, [Rev. 9:1-11], where the future dragon-the Devil and Satan himself will be imprisoned for a thousand years, [Rev. 20:1-6]. The Great Pyramid thus not only symbolized God’s Holy Mountain wherein He called Moses in [Ex. 3:1-12, 15:17, 19:3, 20:18-21], but also tells the story of redemption through Christ.

From the references above by leading authorities of ancient archaeology, I find it intriguing that these ancient ziggurat structures were built and designed with equal height and length, that conforms to the plans of the Jerusalem temple as stated in Ezra 6:3 below. Furthermore, the record in v. 2 tells us that copies of King Cyrus’ decree were found at Achmetha, which many authorities above as Herodotus, Josephus etc. acknowledge as being Ecbatana, including E.W. Bullinger. This seems to support the notion not only, that King Cyrus’ tomb was built with these blueprints in mind, as with the tomb of Belus (Belou táphos) above, and attested to by its ziggurat form and matching colors of its seven levels.

Figure 4. The Tomb of King Cyrus. 20a

Image result for King Cyrus' Tomb-images

The Tomb of Cyrus is located in the south corner of the site, which was once the royal park of Pasargadae, was built of yellowish-white limestone, probably from the Sivand mine. The tomb building has been resistant to natural and unnatural factors for 2500 years and is still standing in Pasargade plain. Its main base/foundation is a stone platform whose design forms a rectangular square with a length of 13.35 meters and a width of 12.30 meters. This building consists of two completely separate parts: a six-step stone platform, and a room with a gabled roof on the 7th step. 20b[11]

According to Josephus in Antiquities; “Now when Daniel was become so illustrious and famous, on account of the opinion men had that he was beloved of God, he built a tower of Ecbatana, in Media: it was the most elegant building and wonderfully made and still remains […] Now they bury the kings of Media, of Persia and Parthia, in this tower to this day; and he who was entrusted with the care of it was a Jewish Priest also observed unto this day.” #21

Daniel’s potential influence and strategic placement in the courts of Babylon and later in Ecbatana would have followed King Cyrus’ take-over, and their doubtless cooperation in rebuilding the city and temple of Jerusalem. We find this not only in the good reputation of the Magi, but also in archaeological evidence that shows an active Jewish community in Ecbatana. Daniel’s key contributions may have helped the rise of Ecbatana with the resulting decline of the ancient city of Babylon in importance. As Ecbatana ascended to claim its royal position: “The actual seat of the Persian government, where renown and Great-kings wrote their decrees, received foreign ambassadors, was not in Persepolis, but in Susa and Ecbatana.” 22 If Daniel did indeed help to build this tower as part of Ecbatana, in recognition and honor of the Median, Persian, and Parthian Kings it most likely would have been spared by King Cyrus in his later

According to Pliny, he also did much to restore its former importance, and in the time of Antiochus III (222-187 B.C.), the temple of Anāhitā still had gilded pillars, some silver tiles piled up inside, a few gold bricks and many silver bricks (Polybius, 10.27.11). Out of this material, Antiochus minted royal coinage to the value of nearly 4k talents to fill his depleted treasury. In the course of his program to hellenize the kingdom, Antiochus IV Epiphanius (175-64 BC.) renamed the city Epiphania after himself. This may be the Seleucid refounding of the city to which Pliny refers. 23

In the time of Jesus’ birth, the explorers in Ecbatana were better known and more influential in the royal court than those of Babylon, where a probable rivalry existed between the cities. In summary it is logical that the wise men came from Ecbatana and not from Babylon. For further study on this subject see: “Die Magoi von Ekbatana [The Magi of Ecbatana]”.

Babylon versus Ecbatana

Babylon was for a long time the most important city in the Middle East, but lost to Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. in validity. Among the Seleucids and Parthians, other cities besides their new capital, Ctesiphon, were significant as a winter residence for the royalty, with its sister city Seleucia, on the other side of the Tigris and Ecbatana, where the summer residence of the Parthian kings was, due to the coolness of the 1800m elevation. Ecbatana was not only an economic and political center, since coins were minted mainly there, but also a royal archive as Cyrus’s order to rebuild the Jerusalem temple was found there. Strategically its location on a crucial crossroads made it a staging post on the main east–west highway called High-Road. Ecbatana was the capital of Media, called in Chaldee Achmetha (Ezra 6:2). It is situated at the foot of Mount Orontes, and was surrounded by seven walls, each overtopping the one before it, from the outer to the inner, crowned with battlements of different colors. Its citadel was used as a royal treasury. Below it stood a splendid palace, with silver tiles, and adorned with wainscotings, capitals, and entablatures of gold and silver. These treasures, to the value of 4,000 talents, were coined into money by Antiochus the Great of Syria. 24#

Secondly, if as Josephus holds, that Daniel himself may have been an influential source for the design and building of such a tower as part of the Ecbatana complex which may have been designed to fit into a similar plan, influenced by the first Jerusalem temple, of David and Solomon-especially with a structure of equal base and height, it makes more sense that the design of Ecbatana could have been based more-so on religious or cosmological significance, as the rebuilding of Jerusalem under King Cyrus would have afforded Danielrich details to build this “tower” as part of the plan referred to above. Also, in light of the blueprints for King Cyrus’ separate tomb are concerned, the tower at Ecbatana may have been a secondary monument to Cyrus. The tomb of King Cyrus also provides a smaller scale example of an ancient intact seven-stage ziggurat, which exhibits this type of architecture, as part of similar middle eastern cultural traditions during this important period in history.

The Cyrus Cylinder, [] 25

Isaiah 1 3, Gods Discipline And Our Response

Ezra 6:1-3
6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon.
And there was found at Achmetha; [Ecbatana] in the palace that is in the province of the Medes, a roll, and therein was a record thus writtenIn the first year of Cyrus the king the same Cyrus the king made a decree concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, Let the house be [re]-built, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits; With three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber: and let the expenses be given out of the king’s house: And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, everyone to his place, and place them in the house of God. Another similarity between the structure of Ecbatana and the Jerusalem Temple is also found in the cedar walls and ceiling of God’s House, that in turn was overlaid in Gold: [I Kgs. 6:13-22] The design of the Jerusalem Temple, whose stone walls were covered with cedar wood and then over laid with gold, according to E.W. Bullinger was symbolic of the “saved sinner who was covered both with Christ’s human and divine righteousness imputed unto him” by God’s Grace. [I Kgs. 6:15-16] #26 As described by Bullinger above, the design of Ecbatana seems to share certain aspects with Jerusalem’s Temple, not only in its opulence, but also its potential spiritual symbolism. We find some of these details also in Polybius’ description below.

Polybius of Megalopolis’ description 

In the 2nd Century BC, Polybius writes about Ecbatana. He mentioned that the wealth and magnificence of its buildings make it stand out among all other cities. It has no walls but an artificial citadel with amazing fortifications. Underneath this is the palace which is about seven stories in circumference, and its magnificence shows the wealth of its founders. During his time, no parts of the woodwork were left exposed. There were silver or gold-plated rafters, compartments in the ceiling, and columns in the porticos and colonnades, and silver tiles were used throughout the structure. In the invasion by Alexander, most precious metals were stripped, while the remainder were stripped during Antigonus‘ and Seleucus‘ reigns. However, Antiochus found that the columns of the temple of Aene were still gilded and that several silver tiles were piled up around the temple along with some gold bricks. 27

The Polybius offers probably the best available description of the city. He writes that the city was richer and more beautiful than all other cities in the world; although it had no town wall, the citadel had impressive fortifications. This confirms Herodotus words that the Medes were ‘to dwell round about the wall’, but Polybius offers more plausible dimensions: the circumference of the citadel was 1,300 meters. He also states that the builders used cedar and cypress wood, which was covered with silver and gold. The roof tiles, columns and ceilings were plated with silver and gold. This not only sounds like a credible description of an eastern palace, like Persepolis, but also resembles the construction of the Jerusalem Temple. 28

When the Persian king Cyrus the Great, a member of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty, had overthrown the Median empire in 550 BC, he captured Ecbatana. The tablet the Chronicle of Nabonidus records Cyrus’s conquering of Ecbatana, the capital of the Median king Astyages, in the sixth year of the reign of Nabonidus. This chronicle describes in several entries the self-imposed exile of Nabonidus in the Arabian oasis of Tema (mentioned as Teiman in Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls known as the Testimony of Nebonidus dated to 150 BC)[10][11] and the disruption that this caused to the Akitu (New Year) festival for a period of ten years.  The king spent ten years in Arabia and left Babylonia administered by his son, Bel-shar-usur (Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel in the OT). The celebration of the Akitu festival is recorded, indicating Nabonidus’s return to Babylon. The text describes of the Battle of Opis, in which the Persians decisively defeated Nabonidus’s army, massacred the retreating Babylonians and took a great haul of loot. The Persian army went on to capture the cities of Sippar and Babylon [Isa. 45:2] itself without further conflict.[12] Cyrus is reported to have been received with joy by the city’s inhabitants and appointed local governors. The idol gods that had previously been brought to Babylon by Nabonidus, were returned to their home cities on the orders of Cyrus. 29#

The Lion of Ecabtana, Hephaestion’s tomb

The stone lion of Hamadan, Hellenistic sculpture, Ecbatana… | Flickr

In December 522 BC, the Median rebel Phraortes reoccupied Ecbatana and made it his capital; but he was defeated, by the Persian king Darius I the Great (May 521 BC). He celebrated this event with a large relief and an inscription along the road between Babylon and Ecbatana (the famous Behistun inscription). In 1923, two foundation plaques of silver and gold were found, inscribed with the name of Darius I, and also column bases of Artaxerxes II. These indicate that Darius I and Artaxerxes II built palaces in Ecbatana. 30

Greek sources mention temples dedicated to the goddess Aenê (probably Anahita) and the goddess of healing, which the Greeks called Asclepius. This shrine was destroyed by the Macedonian king Alexander the Great, who overthrew the Achaemenid empire, because the god had allowed his friend Hephaestion to die in Ecbatana (324 BC). Hephaestion’s sepulcral monument, a lion, is still visible [above]. Earlier, Alexander had had his general Parmenion killed in the capital of Media (330 BC). Later, Ecbatana was one of the capitals of the Seleucid and the Parthian empire, sometimes called Epiphaneia. #31

Another critical aspect of the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem involved laying the foundation [H3245] of the House of God. The word for foundation is [yacad] to establish, set, found, build up, appoint, be settled, ordain, or fix firmly. #32 It can be literal as here, where the physical foundations of the Temple are referred to, or metaphorical as in the popular usage of Isa. 28, in the Messianic Prophecy of the Chief Cornerstone in v. 14-16. #33 In this context we find the in v. 6 that the physical foundations of the temple were not yet laid, until the builders of v.10, laying the physical foundations of the temple had been set, could the spiritual aspects of the temple foundations in Israel be set in motion, with the priesthood carrying forward their ministries, with trumpets, and the Levite sons of Asaph with cymbals, as King David had done with the first temple.

As the record in Ezra depicts in Chapter 6:6-12;

From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt offerings unto the Lord. But the foundation of the temple of the Lord was not yet laid. They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of PersiaNow in the second year of their coming unto the house of God at Jerusalem, in the second month, began Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and the remnant of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to set forward the work of the house of the LordThen stood Jeshua with his sons and his brethren, Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, together, to set forward the workmen in the house of God: the sons of Henadad, with their sons and their brethren the Levites10 And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel.  11 And they sang together by course in praising and giving thanks unto the Lord; because He is good, for his mercy endures forever toward Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the Lord, because the foundation of the house of the Lord was laid.  12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy:

In spite of formidable opposition, it was by the decrees and provision of the reign of King Cyrus that much of this activity in Jerusalem was allowed to go forward. Why was King Cyrus singled out by the Hand of the Almighty, and what was so unique about him? According to 2 Chron. 36:22-23, Cyrus was a singular OT Gentile who had the spirit [ruach] of God dwelling on him, that God stirred up in him to proclaim the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple. Perhaps the fact that Cyrus was of Zoroastrian descent as were the Magi, plays a part in this scenario, as Zoroastrianism was essentially the only monotheistic religion other than Judaism at the time. The Almighty speaking of Cyrus [Isa. 44: 28] called him “My shepherd,” to bring Israel back to a rebuilt Jerusalem with a restored Temple.

Isa. 45:1-5Thus says the Lord to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have [a]held—To subdue nations before him, And loose the armor of kings, To open before him the double doors, So that the gates will not be shut: I will go before you and[b] make the [c]crooked places straight; I will break in pieces the gates of bronze and cut the bars of iron. I will give you the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, That you may know that I, the Lord, Who call you by your name, Am the God of Israel. For Jacob My servant’s sake, And Israel My elect, I have even called you by your name; I have named you, though you have not known Me. am the Lord, and there is no other; There is no God besides Me.

Verse 1 calls the Gentile king Cyrus His Anointed,” a Messianic title reserved for Christ. Only Jesus was the Biblical Messiah, but God called King Cyrus, His Anointed as the only Gentile in historynaming him from before his birth as He had only done with 3 other Bible figures; Isaac, [Gen. 17:19] Solomon, [I Chron. 22:9], and Josiah [I Kgs 13:2]. How could King Cyrus be the only “anointed” OT Gentile for Israel? Only because as 2 Chron. 36:23- Tells us as “the Lord God of Heaven” had given Cyrus all the kingdoms of the earth, and He hath charged me to build God a House in Jerusalem which is in Judah. As E.W. Bullinger notes; this is the first usage of the phrase the ‘Lord God of Heaven’ in the Bible, now used because His people were [Lo Ammi=not My people], and Jehovah had withdrawn from their midst. It is a title applied only in the times of the Gentiles, while God acts from heaven, and not from between the Cherubim as Jehovah the God of Israel, or as “the Lord of all the Earth”-His millennial title.#34 God’s plan included Israel ‘s protection by King Cyrus during the 70-year Babylonian captivity of Israel, so they could return under God’s protection once the captivity period was fulfilled, to a city of Jerusalem restored and the temple rebuilt, according to God’s specifications.

Figure 5a. New Jerusalem, Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid     5b.The Molten Sea of the OT Jerusalem Temple. #35
A.                                                                                           B.
Stonehenge 27

The New Jerusalem represents the true JerusalemNOT the one in bondage, but the heavenly Jerusalem, [Gal. 4:25-26, 29-31, Heb. 12:22, James 1:17]. As the Square of New Jerusalem also embodies the Holy Mt. Zion, it includes the Lord Jesus Christ who said in Matt. 16:18; And I also say to you that you are Peter, [G4074-petros] and on this rock [G4073-petra]36will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. Peterpetros was a small chunk of rock, but Jesus is the massive mountain, the Rock-petra, in reference to himself, the foundation upon which he builds his ChurchJesus surpasses the OT Temple, as he fulfilled all the OT sacrifices linked to the former Covenant, which will be back in effect during the 6th spiritual administration of the Millennial Kingdom, when Christ rules over the earth, with a rod of iron. Thus, Jesus embodies the foundation of the Church, as he is our peace who has broken down the middle wall of partition [OT law] between us, [Eph. 2:14] enacting our unity. Here we not only see the difference between the three groups of people signified in God’s WordJews, Gentiles and the Church of God, but the unity of both the Jews and the Gentiles related to the NT Church of Grace, in the spiritual body of Christ.

In summary, the Bible does not tell us the extant of the relationship between Daniel and King Cyrus, only that Daniel prospered in his reign, [Dan. 6:28]. This study has investigated some historical details in an effort to explore the truth of the Scripture Narrative, and build up to shine its light on areas that may not have been enlightened previously. I trust it this will help you consider how these aspects of the Word including history, science and archaeology can assist us in our research efforts. As we recognize our true foundation who is Jesus Christ, we are building an impregnable foundation for our lives and for our family and loved ones in the body of Christ.





  1. ZIGGURATS, COLORS, AND PLANETS: RAWLINSON REVISITED; Peter James and Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs (London) (Weissbach, col. 2155; Ezra 6.2).
    2.(DB 2.76 ff.; Kent, Old Persian, p. 122) & (Kent, Old Persian, pp. 183, 212)
    3. Figure 3 picture credit; The Behistun Rock with inscriptions. []
    4. Companion Bible Appendix #57, E.W. Bullinger [ppg. 79-82]
    5. (Gunter, pp. 103 ff., and pls. II-III, IVa).
    6. Figure 2 picture credits on Ecbatana plan compared to the Plan for Jerusalem. []
    7. on Ecbatana.
    8a. [Herodotus, Histories 1.98-99] 1858 The History of Herodotus. London: John Murray
    8b. IBID
    10. (Parrot 1949: 50–51) Ziggurats et Tour de Babel. Paris: Albin Michel.
    11a. (Woolley 1925: 14 n. 1 and 1939: 142 n. 1) Ur Excavations, Vol. V: The Ziggurat and Its Surroundings. Publications of the Joint Expedition of the
    British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia to Mesopotamia. London: Oxford University Press.
    11b. (Allinger-Csollich, 1998: 103) Birs Nimrud II. “Tieftempel”—“Hochtempel”: Vergleichende Studien Babylon—Borsippa. BaM 29: 95–330.
    11c. (Frankford 1970: 79) The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. 4th edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
    11d. Fig. 3 picture credit. []
    12a. (Parrot 1949: 37–50)  Ziggurats et Tour de Babel. Paris: Albin Michel.
    12b. (Parrot 1949: 22–24.; Wiseman 1991: 71) Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon. The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy. Oxford: Oxford University
    12c. (George 2005/2006: 75, 78; The Tower of Babel: Archaeology, History and Cuneiform Texts. AfOr 51: 75–95. (Allinger-Csollich 1998: 290–94).
    13. (Frankford 1970: 79) The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. 4th edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
    14. (George 2005/2006: 75, 77, 78, 79, 86; Allinger-Csollich 1998: 290–94). The Tower of Babel: Archaeology, History and Cuneiform Texts. AfOr 51: 75–95.
    14a. Picture credit from
    15. (Wolley 1939: 137–41) Ur Excavations, Vol. V: The Ziggurat and Its Surroundings. Publications of the Joint Expedition of the
    British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia to Mesopotamia. London: Oxford University Press. and See Strabo, Geog., 16.1.5,
    16. (Suter 1997: 5) Gudeas vermeintliche Segnungen des Eninnu. ZA 87: 1–10
    17. ZIGGURATS, COLORS, AND PLANETS: RAWLINSON REVISITED; Peter James and Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs (London)
    17b. Ancient Metrology, H.G Wood
    18. []
    19. (Livingstone 1986: 236–37, also 212–13, 230–31 l. 40; Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Oxford: Clarendon.; Naydler 2005: Shamanic Wisdom in the Pyramid Texts; The Mystical Tradition of Ancient Egypt. Rochester, VT: Inner
    Traditions. 56; see Bidmead 2002: 87, 2002 The Akÿtu Festival; Religious Continuity and Royal Legitimation in Mesopotamia. Gorgias Dissertations: Near Eastern Studies 2. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Frankfort 1948: 322–23) Kingship and the Gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
    20a. Figure 4 picture credit;
    20b. of Cyrus
    21. Josephus in Antiquities [p. 284; 264]
    22. “Nouruz in Persepolis?” 2009 page 1, Josef Wiesehöfer
    23. Pliny (Naturalis Historia 6.17, 43) (Stephanus Byzantinus, Deurbibus, s.v. Agbatana; Morkholm, pp. 117, 171-72. n. 22).
    24. [Herodotus, i. 98; Polybius, x. 27]. 1858 The History of Herodotus. London: John Murray
    25. The Cyrus Cylinder, []
    26. Companion Bible; marginal note, [I Kgs. 6:15-16] E.W. Bullinger
     (Polybius, 10.27).
    28. (World history 10.27. 5-13)
    30Ecbatana (Achmetha) – Encyclopedia of The Bible – Bible Gateway
    31. []
    32. Strong’s Concordance [H3245-yacad] James Strong.
    33. IBID, notes on [H3245-yacad] on Isa. 28:14-16.
    34. Companion Bible; marginal note, [2 Chron. 36:23]
    35. Picture credit-Figure 5aThe Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries5b. []
    36. Strong’s Concordance; [G4074-petros, vs. G4073-petra], James Strong.

Daniel, the Antikythera Device and the Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions of the Celestial Prelude.

Daniel, the Antikythera Device and the Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions of the Celestial Prelude.

We have reached a stage in our OT History Class of completing the last OT Prophets. In looking back on what we have covered, it has been a singular impact milestone of a summary coverage of the OT Prophets & Kings; from Adam to Enoch, Noah, Abraham, JobJoseph, Moses, Joshua, SamuelDavid, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, to the none soMinor Prophets,” we come upon the Prophet Daniel. Daniel has a special place in my heart, due to his key position over the astronomers in the king’s court in Babylon/MedoPersia, leading to the birth of Christ, in the key historical period prior to Christ’s birth that I have termed the Celestial Prelude.

was part of the group of Israelites taken into captivity by the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar, who ascended to power in the year prior to the Battle of Carchemish in 604 BC. In Dan. 1:3-4 The King took the choicest of the children of Israel to train in the courts of Babylon, for three years correlating with the first 3 years of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. It was also in the third year of this period when Daniel and his 3 fellow students Shadrach, Meshach & Abednego were found “10x better than all the magicians and astrologers in all the king’s realm,” [Dan. 1:19-21]. According to Bible history, Daniel lead the group of stargazers that came to be known as the Magi beginning early during the Babylonian Captivity. As the king made Daniel master of the Magicians, [Dan. 4:9] Daniel was put in charge of the Magi Wise menincluding Shadrach, Meshach & Abednego [over astrologers, Chaldeans, and magicians; [Dan. 1:20, 2:2, 27, 4:7] The Chaldeans were renown astronomers who were known for, among other things, their ability to predict eclipses. The Chaldeans were also known for keeping of their Star Diaries, or the records of their astronomical observations. Daniel’s direction & production of this collection of Babylonian Cuneiform
texts containing the systematic records of astronomical observations and predictions in Babylon, first fell under Daniel’s purview, starting with Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Many Babylonian Tablets, currently held in the British Museum, included the Saros tables- a catalogue of 19-year eclipse records, that provided the Babylonian astronomers the ability to predict eclipses accurately. These star diaries of Babylon also correlated to Ptolemy’s Calendar/King’s list, that was the primary authority as a common dating system in converting the Greek to the Roman calendars. #1 The Greeks were not only a key influence regarding the New Testament Scriptures, but their philosophy and science also carried much weight during this period of the ancient world. The Greek philosophers like not only Plato and Aristotle, but also the following key figures in Greek history-are noteworthy to name a few;

Thales of Miletus – The First Greek Philosopher and key Astronomer

Image result for thales of miletus astronomy and eclipse

Archimedes of Syracuse -Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor.


– The Father of Mathematics

Socrates – The Father of Western Thought

Thales of Miletus; a Pre-Socratic Philosopher [c. 624-545 BC] engineer, mathematician, astronomer and statesman, studied in Egypt for mathematics, and astronomy, and used Babylonian celestial charts to predict a solar eclipse in 585 BC. If Herodotus‘ account is accurate, this eclipse is the earliest recorded as being known in advance of its occurrence. While doubts have swirled on the truth of this story, there are other accounts of it besides that of HerodotusDiogenes Laërtius says that Xenophanes, who lived at the same time as Thales, was impressed with the prediction, and he also gives additional testimonies from the pre-Socratics Democritus and Heraclitus.[1a] Cicero mentions that Thales was the first man to successfully predict a solar eclipse during the reign of Astyages, last king of the Median empire.[1b] Pliny the Elder mentions as well that Thales had predicted a solar eclipse during the reign of Alyattes of Lydia.[1c] History records that the “The Battle of the Solar Eclipse” was concluded with an astronomical event of a Solar eclipse, which he predicted. The war described in the opening paragraph, after 15 years of fighting, on 28 May 585 BC, the armies of King Aylattes of Lydia were in battle with the forces of King Cyaxares of Medes, near the River Halys in what is today central Turkey. In 585 BC, the war between these two Kings had started 6 years earlier with neither side making significant progress. Their war was particularly bitter because a group of hunters working for the Medes had killed one of Cyaxares’s sons and served him up as a meal (yikes). This fight was personal. Chroniclers noted the “heavens darkening” and soldiers on both sides laying down their weapons in awe of the spectacle and this event ended both the battle and the war. The kings of Cilicia and Babylon intervened, and a peace treaty was negotiated and the River Halys, where the “Battle of the Eclipse” was fought, became the border between the Lydians and the Medes.”[1d]

Figure 1. The 585 Eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. [584 BC shown below due to the lack of a zero year on the timeline.] #2

Another reason this eclipse is of interest is that it seems to be one of the nearest to the first destruction of the Jerusalem Temple when King Nebuchadnezzar’s second siege of Jerusalem took place. Historians agree that Jerusalem fell the second time in the summer month of Tammuz (as recorded in Jeremiah 52:6). However, some scholars disagree as to whether this dates to 586 BC or 587 BC.

While most astronomers would agree that May 28, 585 BC, is the most likely candidate date for Thales’ predicted eclipse, a Wired article says this famous astronomical event has been debated by hundreds of scholars for nearly two millennia and that some authorities believe Thales’ eclipse may have occurred 25 years earlier in 610 BC. But the reason most agree with the 585 BC date is the record of the famous battle in Asia Minor ending when “the day was suddenly turned to night.” #3

An added reason for interest in this period is the potential influence of Babylonian astronomy on the astronomy of the period under the  supervision of the prophet Daniel, who not only had great personal influence in the interpretation of dreams in the King’s court, but also related to the influence of Babylonian astronomy during this period in the middle east. This period also witnessed the rise of Greek influence in philosophy and astronomy, witnessed not only in figures like Thales of Miletus, but also Archimedes of Syracuse, who were both linked to types of astronomical devices that played a key role in a transition from the ancient technological dominance of Babylonian astronomy to that of the Greeks.

The Roman figure Cicero mentions two machines that modern scholars consider as some kind of planetarium or orrery, predicting movements of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known at that time. The first built by Thales while the second by Archimedes, was brought to Rome by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus after Archimedes death at the siege of Syracuse in 212 BC. Marcellus had great respect for Archimedes and one of these machines was the only item he kept from the siege (the second was placed in the Temple of Virtue). The device was kept as a family heirloom, and Cicero had Philus (a participant in a conversation that Cicero said occurred in the villa of Scipio Aemilianus in 129 BC), saying that Gaius Sulpicius Gallus (consul with Marcellus’s nephew in 166 BC, and credited by Pliny the Elder as the first Roman to have written a book explaining solar and lunar eclipses) gave both a “learned explanation” and a working demonstration of this device. These planetarium or orrery devices, also called “spheres“, are also referenced in a treatise, “On Sphere-Making”—by Archimedes, a rare item since all of Archimedesknown works were of a theoretical character, yet his interest in mechanics nonetheless deeply influenced his mathematical thinking. The reference below is from “THE PLANETARIUM OF ARCHIMEDES” by Antikythera device researcher Michael Wright.

Archimedes’ Sphere-Making

Physics Lover: The 10 Greatest Physicists in History

“Though I had heard this globe mentioned quite frequently on account of the fame of Archimedes, when I actually saw it, I did not particularly admire it; for that other celestial globe, also constructed by Archimedes, which the same Marcellus placed in the
temple of Virtue, is more beautiful as well as more widely known among the people. But when Gallus began to give a very learned explanation of the device, I concluded that the famous Sicilian had been endowed with greater genius than one would imagine it possible for a human being to possess. For Gallus told us that the other kind of celestial globe, which was solid and contained no hollow space, was a very early invention, the first one of that kind was constructed by Thales of Miletus, and later marked by Eudoxus of Cnidus, (a disciple of Plato, it was claimed) with the constellations and stars which are fixed in the sky. He also said that many years later Aratus, borrowing this whole [geocentric] plan from Eudoxus, had described it in verse, without any knowledge of astronomy, but with considerable poetic talent. But this newer kind of globe, he said, on which were delineated the motions of the sun and moon and of those five stars which are called wanderers [five visible planets], or, as we might say, rovers, contained more than could be shown on the solid globe, and the invention of Archimedes deserved special admiration because he had thought out a way to represent accurately by a single device for turning the globe those various and divergent movements with their different rates of speed. And when Gallus moved the globeit showed the relationship of the Moon with the Sun, and there were exactly the same number of turns on the bronze device as the number of days in the real globe of the sky. Thus, it showed the same eclipse of the Sun as in the globe [of the sky], as well as showing the Moon entering the area of the Earth’s shadow when the Sun is in line … (missing text) (i.e. It showed both solar and lunar eclipses.”) #4 [brackets addition mine]

Due to the unique technology employed in the Antikythera device, the first evidence of an analog computer in the ancient world, stunned historians and caused the total rewriting of ancient history of astronomy for this period. This astronomical calculator used know-how from ancient Babylonian expertise of the Saros cycle to predict eclipses, and applied it in a device that could dial-up eclipses in the past, present or future. Of course, these were not the only two sphere’s in ancient history, but they were two types of sphere’s referred to by Cicero in the quote above, linked to this historical chain of events accounting for this type of device that modern science had not encountered the likes of this advanced technology in ancient Greece (circa 212 BC) heretofore.

People have wondered if Archimedes could have built something like the Antikythera device, but history and what we know of his work certainly seems to support this idea. As the discussion of the historical commentary as the discussion from Michael Wright’sThe Planetarium of Archimedes” states; “Archimedes himself is credited with the endless screw or worm-and-wheel gear, and so we must suppose that he was aware of other configurations of toothed gearing also. Therefore, we have no difficulty in accepting that the planetarium instrument, which tradition in late antiquity so insistently ascribed to him, depended on the use of toothed gearing.”#5

In his description Cicero refers to the firstsphere” as “solid” telling us that it had an unbroken spherical surface, “but the point he seems to make is that it contained no mechanism; and in this respect he contrasts it to the other instrument.” #

(c. A.D. 240 – 320), compares the technology of Archimedes’ Sphere to what “God Himself is unable to fashion…” #7
“Could Archimedes the Sicilian have devised from hollow brass a likeness and figure of the world, in which he so arranged the sun and moon that they should effect unequal motions and those like to the celestial changes for each day as it were, and display or exhibit, not only the risings and settings of the sun and the waxing and waning of the moon, but even the unequal courses of revolutions of the heavens, and that sphere, while it revolved, exhibited not only the approaches and the wandering of the stars as that sphere turned, and yet God Himself be unable to fashion and accomplish what the skill of a man could simulate by imitation?”

From these historical accounts, it seems plausible that since there were two devices in Cicero’s account, the first very ancient solid compact globe built by Thales was perhaps an eclipse predictor. The second sphere built by Archimedes was improved by him, not only able to predict eclipses, but also to present the variable motion of the planets-a more difficult problem to solve which the genius of Archimedes solved, present in the second machine, able to predict not only eclipses but also Planetary motions of the 5 naked-eye planets of our solar system. Below in Figure 2 we find the front face of the Antikythera device as proposed by Freeth and Jones.

Figure 2. Frontal face of the Antikythera Mechanism. #8

Front Face of the Antikythera Mechanism | The Shamblog

The initial discovery of the Antikythera device after its underwater recovery, in the early 20th cent. was by German Philologist Albert Rehm, the first to understand this device as an astronomical calculator. The new x-ray CT scans also unexpectedly revealed thousands of new text characters hidden inside the fragments of the device, unread for 2000+ years. In his earlier research Rehm had proposed the Sun and planets were displayed in concentric rings on the device’s frontal display, that included extensive inscriptions. The back dial inscriptions seen in Figure 3 below, amounted to a user manual for the device. In 2022 researchers proposed its initial calibration date, not its construction date, that may have been Dec. 23178 BC. Other experts have proposed 204 BC as a more likely calibration date for this 2nd device by Archimedes.

Figure 3. Antikythera Device inscriptions. #9

The Greek word saros apparently comes from the Babylonian word “sāru” that refers to the number 3600[10a] or the Greek verb “saro” (σαρῶ) that means sweep (the sky with the series of eclipses). The Saros is a period of almost exactly 19 years after which the lunar phases recur at the same time of the year. The recurrence is not perfect, and by precise observation the Metonic cycle defined as 235 synodic months is just 2 hours, 4 minutes and 58 seconds longer than 19 tropical yearsMeton of Athens, in the 5th cent. BC, judged the cycle to be a whole number of days; 6,940. Using these whole numbers facilitates the construction of a lunisolar calendar. 10b#

Figure 4. Interlocking gears on the rear side of the Antikythera Device. #11

Omnilingual - Antikythera Mechanism Revealed

The Antikythera Mechanism refers to the Saros cycle to predict eclipses ΣΚΓ′, in the Fig. 3red rectangle, and means 223 months. The Saros period of 223 lunar months (in Greek numerals, ΣΚΓ′) is in the Antikythera Mechanism user manual for this instrument, which relied on the expertise of earlier middle-eastern science. The Babylonians recorded the daily positions of astronomical bodies on clay tablets, revealing that the sun, moon and planets moved in repeating cycles-knowledge critical in their prediction making ability. The Antikythera device utilized several celestial period relations from Babylon, represented on its rear face on two large dials. The top dial was a calendar of 235 lunar phases recuring against the backdrop of the stars every 19 years, in reference to the ‘Metonic cycle,’ named after the Greek astronomer Meton, but discovered far earlier in Babylon. This upper dial was a Metonic/Callippic calendar [76 yr. cycle] that reconciled the lunar month with the solar year. 12# The number 19 was found inscribed on one of the fragments of the Antikythera device, with the 223 months of the sarosBabylonian eclipse prediction cycle, represented on the lower dial on the back of this device. This lower dial predicting solar and lunar eclipses via the Saros cycle, was a saros/exeligmos calendar-[The exeligmos being a period of 54 years, 33 days used to predict successive eclipses with similar properties and location].

A hypothetical schematic representation of the gearing of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the 2012 published interpretation of existing gearing, added to complete known functions, and proposed gearing to accomplish additional functions, namely true sun pointer and pointers for the five then-known planets, as proposed by Freeth Jones, 2012.[5] Based also upon similar drawing in the Freeth 2006 Supplement[15] and Wright 2005, Epicycles Part 2.[66] Proposed (as opposed to known from the artifact) gearing crosshatched. #13


Daniel’s supervision
of the Babylonian Star Diaries during this key historical period contributed greatly to the astronomical expertise utilized in Babylon, and later in Greece, that found it’s way into the Antikythera device, which also included dials of key planetary movements and conjunctions tied to the eclipse information, providing added anchor points of historical events. This advanced ancient celestial computer contained gears specifically to display the cycles of the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn mounted on a circular plate linked to the main drive wheel by pillars. 14#

As advanced as the Babylonian Star diaries were, the information on their planetary cycles required higher degrees of accuracy to be used in a celestial instrument like the Antikythera Mechanism. To correlate specific astronomical events in this period of Bible history, we are presenting the following information on Solar and lunar eclipses, with Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions.

Fig. 5. Timeline of the Babylonian Captivity. #15

The Nazaroo Zone: February 2015

The Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was and remains, the Great Conjunction series that outlines key points in Biblical history. Daniel lived in or near two of these triple conjunctions in his lifetime in 563-562 in Taurus, and 523-522 BC. In the Fig. 5 above we find the start of the Babylonian Captivity with king Nebuchadnezzar’s attack on Jerusalem, where he carried away Daniel and his companions captive. Daniel and his friends were teenagers or in their early 20’s and Daniel lived into his mid 90’s, as he sat in the King’s gate, he influenced the reigns of King Cyrus and his son Cambyses also known as Darius the Mede, during this time. Here 561 BC is marked as a transition year of the kings Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar in Babylon, as Ren Manetti taught us in our OT History class, [Dan. 7:1] as Belshazzar was the son of Nebuchadnezzar, [Dan. 5:11, 22, 8:1]. This would have been a prominent marker in the minds of Daniel, and his companions, that their Babylonian captivity ruled by Nebuchadnezzar was marked by a triple union of Jupiter-Saturn in Taurus, as seen in Fig. 7 below.

Figure 6. Transition to the Persian Empire rule over Jerusalem under King Cambyses and Cyrus. #16

The Nazaroo Zone: Excursion into Daniel (2): Persian Period

The Lunar Eclipses of the 7th Year of Cambyses

The British Museum text #33066 (78-11-7, 4 = Strm. Kambys. 400 = LBAT 1477) mentions two lunar eclipses (on 16 July 523 BC & 10 Jan. 522 BC) that occurred during the 7th year of the Persian king Cambyses. The first lunar eclipse is also mentioned in Ptolemy’s Almagest. (book V, chapter 14). As Jon Nessle taught us, Cambyses was the son of Cyrus, and viceroy as Cyrus’ provincial governor of the city of Babylon, in the first year of King Cyrus’ decree to free the Jews in c. 538 BC. King Cyrus was a likely follower
of the Zoroastrian faith that may have contributed to Cyrusreligious tolerance that he exercised as part of the tenets of the Cyrus Cylinder. King Cambyses’ reign opened c. 530 BC, seen on the left-side in Figure 6 above. 17#

Figure 7 below depicts Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions just prior to, during and after this transition period to Belshazzar.

Figure 7. Jupiter-Saturn Triple Conjunctions #18

600 BCE to 2400 CE copyright 1998-1999 by Richard Nolle 
all rights reserved -

Date                   Time                Jupiter     Saturn

SEP 10, –581 | 06:56 AM | 000 | 16VI47 | 16VI47 |
|JUL 27, –562 | 12:09 PM | 000 | 07TA33 | 07TA33 |
|NOV 01, -562 | 02:11 PM | 000 | 05TA05R | 05TA05R|
|FEB 10, –561 | 01:21 AM | 000 | 02TA29 | 02TA29 |
|DEC 13, –542 | 10:49 PM | 000 | 03CP51 | 03CP51 |
|DEC 16, –522 | 11:46 PM | 000 | 27VI59 | 27VI59 |
|MAR 14, -521 | 02:10 PM | 000 | 25VI54R | 25VI54R|
|JUL 10, –521 | 05:24 PM | 000 | 23VI07 | 23VI07 

SEP 16, –164 | 02:16 AM | 000 | 08SC49 | 08SC49 |
|OCT 18, –145 | 11:50 AM | 000 | 16CA44 | 16CA44 |
|DEC 10, -145 | 12:56 PM | 000 | 15CA33R | 15CA33R|
|MAY 04, –144 | 03:15 PM | 000 | 12CA11 | 12CA11 |

|APR 24, –125 | 08:15 PM | 000 | 02PI14 | 02PI14

The Chart above from Richard Nolle, reflects both “normal” and triple conjunctions of Jupiter-Saturn over the last 600 years leading to the birth of Christ. According to the extended version of this Chart, there were Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions in Pisces in 861/860 BC and in 981/980 BC, marking the Temple of Solomon, where both times the proximity of Jupiter-Saturn was closer than 7 BC. Triple unions of Jupiter and Saturn are rare enough to be regarded as indicators of major cultural change. It was just such a triple conjunction in Pisces – anciently regarded as the sign of the Jews – that led the Magi to search for The King of the Jews” in 3BC. The triple conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn marked above in 522-521 BC, actually took place in 523-522 BC due to the lack of a year zero.

Plate 1. The Rev. 12:1-2 Sign and Great Wonder as seen from Jerusalem at sunset on 9-11-3 BC. 19#

Virgo Clothed with the Sun on 9-11-3BC

This triple conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in Virgo would have provided excellent advance cases for Daniel to teach the Magi the signs that would lead them to the birth of Christ, to clearly identify the location of the Rev. 12 signs in Virgo and Leo that provided the exact timing of the moments of Christ’s birth as the star Spica set between the setting Sun and Moon in Virgo as Rev. 12 describes it. Even though the NT record of Rev. 12 was still future, it provided the Magi an advance notice to frame the celestial signs marking Christ’s birth. The Jupiter-Regulus triple union in Leo told the Magi the King of Juda-Leo [Gen. 49] had been born! [Matt. 2:2] with the same king planet that set them on their trek to Jerusalem and Bethlehem at the outset. They also noted Jupiter in Retrograde with these triple unions, including on Tishri 1, 3BC. According to Nolle’s chart in Fig. 7, this triple union of Jupiter-Saturn took place on the following 3 dates in 523-522 BC, correlated with the two lunar eclipses during that time;

A. July 16, 523 BC lunar eclipse
1. Dec. 16th, 523 BC-the 1st
 union of Jupiter-Saturn in Virgo

B10 Jan. 522 BC lunar eclipse
2. Mar. 14th, 522 BC-the 2nd union of Jupiter-Saturn Virgo

3. July 10th, 522 BC-the 3rd union of Jupiter-Saturn Virgo

This is also the case with the spectacular Jupiter-Saturn triple union in the constellation Cancer that occurred in 146/145 BC, was marked above as -145 and -144 as the others, due to the lack of a zero year on the timeline. The dates and planetary activity of this 146-145 BC triple union that are not supplied in Figure 8, fit in the gap between the 185 BC and 126 BC Jupiter-Saturn signs as follows:

1. Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Cancer on Oct. 18th, 146 BC, in the Crab’s lower pincer, with the Sun in Libra, Moon in Gemini, Venus at the feet of Virgo, Mars in Capricorn and Mercury in Scorpius.

2. Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Cancer on Dec. 10th, 146 BCSun & Mercury in Sagittarius, Moon in the Horns of Taurus, Venus in Libra & Mars in Aquarius.

3. Jupiter-Saturn union in Cancer- May 4th, 145 BCSun and Mercury in Taurus, Moon in Virgo, Venus in Aries, Mars in Gemini.

Plate 2. The Decan Coma adjacent from Virgo, in the Dendera Zodiac

sun of righteousness

This countdown of Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions led the Magi first to the Coma Supernova in the decan of Virgo, as the General Sign or prevailing period when the Messiah was expected to appear. This alerted the Magi to the general historical period c. 128 BC to 3 BC when the bright light of the supernova shined during daytime in the head of the infant in the woman’s lap associated with Virgo as a primary decan. The “normal Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Pisces on April 24th, 126 BC is unique to our purpose due to its proximity to the appearance of the Coma Supernova. Since Hipparchus about one hundred twenty-five years before Christ, who saw this supernova
in C
oma as a new star, puts this sighting close to 128 BC. This sighting was confirmed by Church Father Ignatius in 69 ADAfter the Coma Supernova first appeared, this notable Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Pisces on April 24th, 126 BC, took place. This Jupiter-Saturn union was one in a series on the ecliptic paralleling the Band of Pisces holding the horizontal fishtail of PiscesFigure 7 below shows 7 Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions in Pisces from 185 BC to 54 AD, leading to Jesus’ birth. During this Jupiter-Saturn union, Venus also appears in the loop of the Band located at the future location of the June 8th, 7 BC union of Jupiter-Saturn nearly 120 years in advance. The Band with the horizontal fish of Pisces, here embodies a countdown not only to the opening of the Piscean Age marked by this triple union of Jupiter-Saturn, but also marking the Jupiter-Regulus triple union in Leo of 3-2 BC for the Magi, as the signs marking the birth of Christ.

When any two planets outside earth’s orbit enter a conjunction, it has the potential for a triple conjunction, where instead of only one flyby the pair of planets can form a triple union over the space of a few months, based on the planet’s retrograde motionJupiter and Saturn had “normal” unions or conjunction phases nearly every 20 [19.85] years. Jupiter-Saturn triple unions have a rich astronomical cross-cultural history going back into ancient times.

Figure 8. Seven Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions in Pisces from 185 to 54 AD. #20


According to Bullinger, the Fish of Pisces reflect “the multitude of Abraham’s seed where God compares his future posterity to the stars of the sky, and the sand upon the seashore. This very great multitude of fish [Ezek 47:9] also recalls Jesus with his disciples during his resurrection appearance to them by the sea [John 21:5ff], and the miracle of the 153 fish in the unbroken net. Figure 8 depicts the triple union of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC in white letters with the June 8th, 7 BC union in the loop of the Band as Jupiter initiates its retrograde loop with Saturn. In 7 BC in the constellation Pisces, this Jupiter-Saturn triple Conjunction also coincided with the dawn of a new Precessional Age, the Age of Pisces, with a new age every 2160 years. After these Jupiter-Saturn triple Conjunctions, there was a planetary massing of Jupiter-Saturn and Mars, followed by a key Conjunction involving Mars. This unique Feb. 25th, 6 BCtrianglar massing of planets Jupiter-Saturn and Mars, was referred to by Kepler; as the “decisive Conjunction of 6 BC that opened our precessional age of Pisces.”
As we have noted, Kepler also advanced the idea that the Magi were guided to Judea by the appearance of this series of Conjunctions.

According to Peter Thompkins, the Mayans also; “calculated the orbit of the Earth about the Sun as 365.2420 days, and marked the close of the year by the erection of a stone they called a “tun.” They did likewise for a 20-year cycle or “Katun,” a period they considered governed by the
Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.” 21

Thompkins continues by saying; “The Maya had a very special sacred year of 260 days called tzolkin, that the Aztecs called tonalamatl.” This 260-day sacred calendar was “divided into 13 months of 20 days and the multiples of 13 and 20 became the heart of a chronological computation, stunning in its simplicity and exactness. A greater cycle of 260 years was 13 consecutive Jupiter-Saturn Conjunction cycles of 20 years.”22 [emphasis mine]

A Jupiter-Saturn Conjunction

Related image

This greater 260-year cycle based on the cycle of Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions, was also a tool anciently utilized by the Mayans to break down the very long cycle of the precession of the equinoxes. Thompkins states that: the “Maya also had a cycle of 942,890 days, or 2,582 years, that turned out to be 130 Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions.”23 [10 x 13] Twice this 2,582 year cycle [5,163 years], not only gave the equivalent of the greater 260-year cycle of Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions, but 100 of these greater 260-year cycles was equal to 26,000 years, often reckoned the length of the precession by the ancients. With Kepler’s recognition of the pattern of Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions and the Mayan tzolkin, we have two culturally distinct and seemingly independent views of how Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions subdivided the precession. Similarities not only in planetary and star names, but also in their symbolism, among widely removed nations in both space and time is a feature so common in the study of Astronomy, that it discounts any idea of mere coincidence. This adds to the mound of evidence favoring what Joseph Campbell called the world monomyth which is the idea that all world mythology is rooted in one Great Epic narrative based on stellar truths, which we contend is preserved in the ancient star names God first gave to Adam and the Biblical Patriarchs [Ps. 147:4] known as the Celestial Gospel. This age-old system was organized around the continual nesting of shorter celestial cycles, like the precession of the poles, nested as gears within the larger stellar wheels of the precession of the equinoxes, a strategy we find utilized in the construction of the Antikythera Device. This provided the framework within which the truths of the celestial gospel were first unveiled to Biblical Patriarchs, and later corrupted forming the basis of astrology and mythology the world over.

Although the 523-522 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn was only a few years after Daniel fell asleep, his supervision of the Babylonian Star Diaries along with his knowledge of eclipses would have informed him of these coming planetary unions, as he was aware of the coming eclipses accompanying this planetary activity. This not only allowed Daniel to teach these Messianic truths to his fellow Magi, but also to establish the impact of their occurrences in history, in reference to the Celestial Prelude, leading to the Birth of Christ.

During the time of the rise of ancient Israel, in last millennium BC, there were 43 “normal” conjunctions between the two planets, with at least 7 Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions taking place, with varying intervals from 40 years (as from 861 to 821 BC and again between 563 BC-
) to 377 years (as between 523 to 146 BC), as seen above. The events following the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn are depicted in the chart below [Fig. 6], including other key celestial events leading to the birth of Christ.

The intervening period between 563-62 BC Jupiter-Saturn triple union leading to the decisive triple conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC to open the precessional Age of Pisces, reveals some key historical references from British Physicist Derek De Solla Price, who after 20 years of research on the Antikythera device published an important paper; “Gears from the Greeks,” in which he references a key quote from the Roman lawyer and politician Cicero (106-43BC), who not only mentions that Marcellus brought to Rome the planetarium Thales of Miletus built, but also refers to a second machine made by renown Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC), “on which were delineated the motions of the Sun, Moon and of those five stars which are called wanderers-(the 5 planets). The device seems to fit the description of the Antikythera mechanism, whose origins may have overlapped the latter years of Archimedes’ life. Price was able to get a more detailed peek inside this device when he arranged x-ray images, to identify 30 distinct gears, in enough detail to count/estimate gear teeth on specific device wheels. Driven by the main drive wheel on the frontal display of the device the gear train starts with a 38-tooth gear (2 x 19), which in turn drives a 127tooth gear or half the 254 sidereal rotations in the 19-year Metonic cycle. Its precision gears with 1mm-long teeth, allowed the device to predict the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets on any specific day in the past, present or future, was unique in the ancient world. The device also showed the star positions in relation to the 12 signs of a zodiac dial that divided the ecliptic into 12-30 degree sections of the ecliptic constellations. More detailed x-ray CT imagery was produced in the early 2000’s by Dr. Tony Freeth and his research team, revealed in detail the 223 teeth of the device’s Saros gear, uncovering added gears that beautifully calculated lunar variable motion, related to the Moon’s elliptical orbit. Translated, this means the Moon moves slower against the stars, the farther away it is from earth, but moves faster the closer it is. This is especially interesting since the Greeks were not aware of elliptical orbits, yet they explained this subtle Lunar motion by combining two circular motions in their theory of epicycles.#24 Based on an observation by device researcher; Michael Wright, who saw a link between two gears where “one gear has a pin on its face that engages a slot in the other gear.” But these two gears turned on different axes separated by over a millimeter,” thus incorporated variable motion.” Dr. Freeth noted; “Calculating the Epicyclic theory of the Moon with the epicylic pin and slot gears in this subtle and indirect way was an extraordinary conception by the ancient Greeks. This ingenuity reinforces the idea that the device was designed by Archimedes.”#25

The x-ray CT of the front-cover inscription shows it is divided into sections for each of the five planets. In the Venus section, Jones found the number 462; in the Saturn section, he found the number 442. Since no previous research hinted any ancient knowledge of these numbers, they  astonished the research team, especially because they embody more accurate period relations than the ones found by the Babylonians. It seems that the makers of the Antikythera device discovered their own improved period relations for two of the planets: 289 synodic cycles in 462 years for Venus, and 427 synodic cycles in 442 years for Saturn. #26

The Freeth research team assembled a detailed list of the planetary period relations and their estimated errors from Babylonian astronomy. Were combinations of these earlier relations the key to the more accurate Antikythera period relations? They found a process, developed by philosopher Parmenides of Elea (6th to 5th cent. B.C.) and reported by Plato (5th to 4th cent. B.C.), for combining known period relations for  better ones. Their method was accurate to match the known period relations for Venus and Saturn, factorizable so planets were reckoned with gears small enough to fit the mechanism with economy, so different planets could share gears if their period relations shared prime factors, reducing the number of gears needed. Such economy is a key feature of the surviving gear trains. Based on these criteria, Freeth’s team derived the periods 462 and 442 using the idea from Parmenides employing the same methods to discover missing periods for the other planets where the inscriptions were lost or damaged. Freeth’s team “proved that these indirect gearing system from the variable motion of the moon were not only adaptable to these planets, but also could be extended to incorporate the new period relations for the planets. This system allowed the Antikythera makers to mount several gears on the same plate and design them to precisely match the period relations.” #27 This evidence is supportive not only of the idea that Archimedes was able to improve on the accuracy of Babylonian eclipse data, but also how he was able
to do so, in his building of the Antikythera device.

The preliminary signs from 7-5 BC provided the Magi with the blueprints they would need to recognize the celestial signs identifying the time frame of the birth of Christ. The fact that the signs of this dress rehearsal unfolded over a period in excess of two years was also a clue of what to expect, when the curtain actually arose on the celestial pageantry of the birth of Christ. These heavenly signs exactly 2 years apart; [5-3 BC] enlightened the Magi that they should be on the lookout for heavenly signs marking the birth of Christ, in the next 2-years in Sept. of BC. The fact that these 7-5 BC signs almost all occur in Pisces, is interesting due in part to ancient eastern tradition, that the influence of the sign Pisces, the fishes presided over the land of Israel, likely linked to God’s promise to Abraham. This included Pisces symbolism of the House of Jacob, with the obvious presence of the King planet Jupiter, detailing why the Magi came to Jerusalem looking for the King of Israel. [Num. 24:17]

Figure. 6 The Celestial Prelude of 7 BC to 5 BC

Date Conjunction of Planets Constellation
May 27th, 7 BC Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Sept. 15th, 7 BC Jupiter, Saturn; [ring cycle], Sun & Earth aligned Pisces
Oct. 5th, 7 BC Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Dec. 1st , 7 BC Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Feb. 25th 6 BC Triangular massing of Jupiter, Saturn & Mars Pisces
Mar. 5th , 6 BC Jupiter-Mars Conjunction Pisces
April 15-20, 6 BC Lunar Occultation   Series
Mar. 23rd, 5 BC Blood Moon Total Lunar Eclipse/Nova  Virgo
Sept. 15th, 5 BC Blood Moon Total Lunar Eclipse Pisces

Finally, on the heels of this Feb. 25th, 6 BC Conjunction including Mars, in the next month came a remarkable series of lunar occultations, followed by two total lunar eclipses in 5 BC. As we have noted, the importance of Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions is recognized in close relation to the precession of the equinoxes in the Hebrew cosmology evident in Genesis 1:6-10, and the world-views of ancient cultures including, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt and in Greece. According to this patternJupiter-Saturn triple unions occur in Pisces only once every 800 years. This exhibits how the Conjunction series subdivides the precession, which totals a period of about 25,920 years, since every 30 cycles of Jupiter-Saturn triple unions that take place in Pisces totals the period of 24,000 years, a time close to the full cycle of precession.

The Triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC marked the first time that the Sun arose in the Sign of Pisces, on the Spring equinox, signifying a new Precessional Age, the Age of Pisces. Over 2000 years has already passed since this opening of the Piscean Age, and the Birth of Christ that occurred 4 years after its opening. This Sign of Pisces is marked by two fish, one swimming vertically towards the North Pole and the other horizontally along the ecliptic. These fish represent the houses of Israel and Juda, further disclosing that the Promised Seed had to come from the Royal House of Judah. Jesus Christ had to be the Son of Adam, Abraham and David to fulfill all righteousness. The fullness of the gap between the sufferings of the Lord, seen in his first coming, and his glorious return as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, continues to take place in the Piscean Age. Finally, this 7 BC triple Conjunction gave the Magi key info required to identify the signs marking the birth of Christ in 3-2 BC when the triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Regulus occurred in Leo, the Lion of the tribe of Juda. This panoramic view of Biblical and Celestial history, beautifully encapsulates how God utilized the witness of the Celestial Gospel in the heavens, coordinated with Divine Scripture, to disclose in increasing detail, the identity of His only begotten Son Jesus Christ.

Another sign that took place around the same time as this Lunar Occultation in Aries was a Nova most likely in Capricorn. Similarly, in mid-March of 5 BC there were Chinese reports that an object described as a Nova was stationary and seen for 2.5 months. Despite its longevity
of visibility, the object was not a supernova, which was concluded from the lack of a visible remnant, or radio source. This bright Nova
seen in northern Capricorn or southern Aquila in mid-March 5 BC was chronicled by the Chinese and Koreans. The date (March 5 BC), date falls into the Celestial Prelude period leading to the birth of Jesus, its position in the sky (in the east at dawn) and long duration of visibility (70+ days), make it a key contribution to the Celestial Prelude before the Star of Bethlehem. Being another Nova sign while the Coma Supernova was still visible to the naked eye, only lends added emphasis to our thesis, given that the Magi must surely have observed the critical nature of this Nova in this celestial context including this Lunar Occultation. This would have alerted the Magi to the importance of the lunar activity during the Rev. 12 sign when it took place in 3 BC.

Daniel was able to forewarn the Magi to watch for the star, not only from Biblical prophecy, but also due to his unique position as the curator of the Babylonian Star Diaries, which augmented what he learned from both direct and written revelation, even as the Magi said they were taught to look for a specific star (Matt. 2:2). Many scholars have agreed on the Biblical prophecy, of this star in
Numbers 24:17, and Daniel 9:24-27 which not only disclosed the 70 weeks prophecy from Gabriel, but combined with their notice of Jupiter the King star, the wise men as part of this exclusive group of Babylonian priests and astronomers under the supervision
of the prophet Daniel who had charge over them from over 500 years earlier.

History tells us their origin was a religious group in the Medo-Persian empire in the time of Zoroaster. The Zoroastrian religion is noted as the only other monotheistic religion of the middle east other than Judaism. The Magi represented the priesthood of Zoroastrianism in the Parthian empire, which embodied a main adversary and rival to Rome. They also believed their supreme God and Creator, to be the author of all that is good, would send a prophet and coming redeemer to save mankind. They were not idolators as the other nations of the world, but followed a strict code of ethical laws to uphold a system of moral conduct. This tradition of the religious caste of the Zoroastrian Magi allowed them to pass the vital information from one generation to the next until the time when they witnessed the star; Jupiter in triple conjunction with Saturn in 7 BC, that alerted them to the impending triple union of Jupiter and Regulus that initiated their 800+mile long journey to Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

Due to Daniel’s devotion to God, he retained his position as master of the Magi when the Persians took over the Babylonian empire, under Darius. He would not defile himself (1:8). Daniel honored Jehovah God his entire life. As Daniel, had charge over all the wise men (Magi) of Babylon, he made sure he taught them the doctrine of Jehovah & the coming Messiah, according to the prophecy written in the stars.

Num 24:17I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near: a star shall come out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel. To interpret the king’s dream he needed to know the details of the dream itself, that the king had forgotten [Dan. 2:5-6], which goes back to the Scripture of the God of Secrets [Dan. 2:18-23, 28-29, 47-48, Deut. 29:29] along with its interpretation!

Daniel’s teachings were passed down to generations of Magi until what Daniel taught came true in the star [planet Jupiter] the Magi followed from Babylon to Jerusalem and to a house in Bethlehem! The Magi’s arrival from the east was no cosmic coincidence… it was the fruit of God working in Daniel! The Magi were men of faith who followed the teachings Daniel consistently adhering to these truths in the five+ centuries between Daniel and their quest to the holy land in search of the promised Messiah. These events and related celestial signs have been thoroughly documented on my website and blog, found in the links of this post. The correct timing of Christ’s birth is based on the death of Herod being properly understood as taking place Jan. 9th, 1 BC Not Mar. 13th, 4 BC! This further evidence provides strong support for the thesis of the Celestial Prelude, giving us a firm footing for the Sept. 11th, 3 BC, Tishri 1 birthday of Jesus Christ!

God warned his people of the coming captivity, but during this challenging time of Daniel’s life (Exile) he was able to take the message of salvation to the Babylonian’s who otherwise would not have heard it. Due to Daniel’s ministry in Babylon the king became a believer who worshiped Jehovah-God (Dan 4:34-37). The Prophet Daniel was a great example of a man devoted to the true God regardless of the circumstances. As a spiritual leader, astronomer, and statesman in king’s courts of two prominent kingdom’s in world history, he witnessed the captivity of Israel starting as a teenager, through King Cyrus’ decree to free the Jews. As other heroes of faith he embodies the witness of Hebrews 11 from v. 32-33 below…Daniel made an impact that reverberates down through the ages.

Heb. 11:32-33And what shall I say more? Time would fail me to tell of Gideon, Barak, and of Samson, and Jepthae, of David, and Samuel and of the Prophets. Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouth’s of lions

As we follow the example of this great cloud of witnesses, we too will do great exploits

God Bless!



1. OT History Class by Jon Nessle & Ren Manetti, Chapter 4 Session 17a.
1. [a,b,c,d/en. of Thales]
2. Five Millennium canon of Solar eclipses, Fred Espenak
3. [] UPDATED 28 MAY, 2020 – 18:57 ASHLEY COWIE
6. IBID [Commentary on “De Re Publica, Book I.]
7. IBID. [Commentary on “The Divine Institutes,” Book II, Chapter 5, 18]
8. Frontal face of the Antikythera Mechanism. Proposed by Tony Freeth and Alex Jones.
9. Figure 3 picture credit. []
10a/b. [ of athens]
11. Figure 4 picture credit, []
12. Tony Freeth and Jones’ reconstruction of Antikythera Mechanism.
13. IBID, Freeth Jones, 2012
14. An Ancient Greek Astronomical Calculation Machine Reveals New Secrets – Scientific American- Tony Freeth
15. Figure 5 picture credit, [Timeline for Ezekiel and Daniel – Saferbrowser Yahoo Image Search Results]
16. Figure 6 picture credit, IBID.
17. Late Babylonian Astronomy texts-British Museum text #33066 (78-11-7, 4 = Strm. Kambys. 400 = LBAT 1477)
18. THE JUPITER-SATURN CONJUNCTION (GEOCENTRIC TROPICAL ZODIAC) 600 BCE to 2400 CE copyright 1998-1999 by Richard Nolle,
19. Picture credit, Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, V.P. Wierwille, p.71,
20. Figure 8, Picture credit, []
21. Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids. Peter Thompkins. p.289.
22. IBID
23. IBID
25. [2006 Nature Magazine]
26. An Ancient Greek Astronomical Calculation Machine Reveals New Secrets – Scientific American- Tony Freeth
27. IBID



Ancient Megalithic Code of the Great Pyramid, Stonehenge and New Jerusalem.

Ancient Megalithic Code of the Great Pyramid, Stonehenge and New Jerusalem

Happy Memorial Day Weekend to everyone!

It has always been fascinating to me that two of the most renown megalithic structures in history, the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge, share a unique relationship as Monuments to the wisdom of the ancients. These ancient wonders however, share much more in how they embody the message of their wisdom for mankind. I have referred previously in my archive of blogs and studies to how the Great Pyramid is a witness to Jesus Christ, as Isaiah tells us, [Isa. 19:18-20]. This study represents my first blog pertaining to Stonehenge specifically, and its unique relationship to the Great PyramidIsaiah’s description of the Great Pyramid includes its location, and that its primary purpose is to serve as a witness for Christ. As we will see, the location of Stonehenge also is unique not only in its witness, but also in its relationship with the Great Pyramid. I first had the occasion to visit Stonehenge in the mid-90’s on my way from London to Bristol, England, as a guest teacher to fellowship with the great Bristol believers lead by Brendy McCann, who showed me wonderful hospitality during my stay. The warm and radiant hearts of God’s people, with the beauty of the green pastures and countryside, left an indelible impression on me that I will never forget!

The media and the message of both of these megalithic structures is sacred geometry. Geometry is a Greek word that literally means the measure of the earth. In History, mankind has used geometry to measure land boundaries, in surveying techniques, & building technology, while also drawing conceptual borders between the sacred and profane. In this light, geometry becomes sacred in at least two way, first where it is found in Scripture, and second as it embodies certain sacred ratios like Pi, or Phi in its orientation in specific directions, many times with astronomical significance. Perhaps this is why Stonehenge’s trilithons resemble the character pi, long before the Greeks adopted it, denoting the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. Archaeologists have more than not over-looked geographical coordinates in the study of ancient monuments, but the latitude of Stonehenge is a simple and elegant function of pi. Furthermore, similar functions specify with great accuracy the location of Craig Rhos-Y-Felin, the quarry from which the bluestones were taken to build StonehengeHistorians remain unsure of how these Blue Stones were moved to their current location, since their origin from the Perseli mountains, is 240 miles away from the site of Stonehenge.

Plate 1. The Great Central Stonehenge Trilithon.

The Trilithons of Stonehenge allude to π and their own [1, 1, π] latitude.

The focus of Sacred Geometry across many cultures embodied in structures from stone circles to pyramids, permeates the archetypal patterns expressed via architectural, mathematical or natural proportion. In natural proportions, we find the main reasons why this geometry is considered sacred, since it reflects the mathematical patterns behind God’s Creation and handiwork. These patterns are readily found in the structure of water, and its flow in rivers, or in the crystalline order of snowflakes and ice. This mathematical order is found in the study of gematria in the number values of the words used in Scripture. This provides specific links to the truth of God’s Word relative to the subject matter and context of Scripture on certain relevant topics. As we’ll see in this study, the designers of the Egyptian Pyramids, and Stonehenge, applied sacred geometry in the layout and orientation of their structures, even to the point of aligning them!

The earliest stages of Stonehenge were raised near the same time of the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza, and Stonehenge is part of the same neolithic complex as Avebury on Salisbury Plain. Avebury is located at 51.4286N, 1.854W. Some 1450m to the south, we find  Europe’s largest man-made mound: the 40m high, conical Silbury Hill. Given that Avebury is situated exactly (4/7) ×90◦ north of the equator, it is key to consider Silbury Hill’s latitude, 51.41574 ±0.00004in the context of Stonehenge, which is 6 megalithic miles away or 86,400 feet from Silbury Hill, whose latitude is 90◦ × 3999/7000 90× [1,1,3,142,1,1,3]. Here we see that the 2π/7 latitude of Avebury is far more succinct; [1,1,3] × 90. Viewing the slightly modified continued fraction [1, 1, π], where the angle (3999/7000) × 90◦ falls in this range, suggests that Silbury Hill was precisely located just 1/7000 south of Avebury, confirming the idea that Avebury’s notable latitude is not by chance. 1#

Image result for creature and images

In her discussion of the circles constituting Stonehenge, Bonnie Gaunt relates the orientation of the Sarsen and Aubrey Circles, not only in context of the Great Pyramid, but with New Jerusalem also. Gaunt states; “assuming that the 360◦ of Aubrey’s Circle could be a timeline of 7,000 years, it is a simple matter of math to determine that one year would equal .051428.” Using this idea, Stonehenge could become a chronometer with the Aubrey Circle as the dateline: one circuit of its circumference representing a period of 7000 years relative to man’s history. The azimuth’s, or points where each alignment intersects the Aubrey Circle become date points. Bible chronologers called this span of 7000 years a “day,” the Hebrew word for day; “yom” has a gematria value of 56, correlating to the 56 holes [8 x 7of the Aubrey Circle.” 2#

This led to Gaunt developing a theory that the Aubrey Circle was a timeline, and that the summer solstice sunrise marked the zero point on the Sarsen Circle, wherein she compiled an in-depth description of each alignment related to human history, which she published in her book “Stonehenge…a closer look.”#3

Stonehenge is an ancient real time calendar laid out in a perfect circle, which maps out seasons, equinoxes and solstices, and has long been regarded as a place to celebrate and venerate the Summer Solstice. The Summer solstice or “mid-summer,” usually occurs between June 20-22, when the axis of the Earth tilts toward the sun. The sun not only reaches its highest point in the sky, seen from the north and the south pole, but those north of the earth’s equator experience the longest period of daylight for the year. People usually flock to Stonehenge at this time of the year because the solstice sun sits perfectly in between the U-shaped stones; [Fig. E below] known as trilithons two vertical stones capped by a horizontal lintel, as in Plate 1 above.

Thus, the Heelstone Axis of the sunrise alignment bisecting Stonehenge, framed between the arch of stones 15-16 in the Sarsen Circleextended between stones 55-56, in the lower slot of the Great Central Trilithon, next divides stones 31-49 of the Bluestone Circle, to finally divide stones 30-1, at the other end of the Sarsen Circle, splitting the gap between the Slaughter stones, where our brilliant sun appears to rest atop the Heelstone, fixing Stonehenge’s original alignment seen on the central axis of the solid red arrow in Figure A below. 4#

Figures A. Stonehenge’s Central Axis between two Slaughter stones, aligned to the Heelstone, and horizon#5/B. Stonehenge Circles .#6

A.  B. 

This is why the line from the center of the Sarsen Circle to the center of the Heelstone is 51.85 from North, and it never changes. In the works of Bonnie Gaunt, she states that; “I became aware of the astounding fact that the angle to sunrise & North at Stonehenge was the same exact angle as that of the face of the Great Pyramid, namely, 51.85.”[7#] This is an initial common point shared between Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid that contributes to their alignment on the face of the earth. Stonehenge is built on the only place in the northern hemisphere where the azimuth of the summer solstice sunrise forms an angle of 51.85 from North, as seen in Fig. H. below.

The Sarsen Circle consisted of 30 upright stones, topped by 30 lintels, using “tongue and groove to join the lintels. If we divide the circumference of the Sarsen Circle by 30, we obtain the width of one upright, plus the interval between; [3.52 ft.] equaling 10.56 feet. This also relates to the Sarsen circle’s diameter of its outer face at 105.6 feet. Once we divide the height of the stones with their lintels, by 10.56, the resulting ratio is a very close approx. of Phi. The average width of these uprights is 7.04 ft, with intervals between of 3.52 ft. Multiplying this interval by 30 of the uprights in the Sarsen Circle [3.52 x 30=105.6], equals 1056, as seen in Image 8a below. In Ex. 33:22 the “cleft of the Rock” also has a gematria value of 1056, where Moses hid from God’s presence, is a picture of Christ. This numeric value of 10.56 ft. also matches the length of the Reed seen by Ezekiel in his vision of the measuring the temple, specifically in the height of the “most holy,” part of the Temple, [Ezek. 40:5]. This reed consisted of 6 great cubits, to which a hand breadth was added, equivalent to 18:14 British inches. With the extra handbreadth the total measure for this Reed of Ezekiel was 21.12 British inches, or 1.76 feet. Six of these great cubits totaled a reed of 10.56 ft.”#7a As Isaiah told us [Isa. 19:20]; “He shall send them a Savior and a great one,” with a value of 1056 referring to Christ embodied in the Great Pyramid.#These 30 Lintels, form a perfect circle atop the uprights, having a mean length of 10.56 feet, once multiplied, produce the 316.8 value; [10.56 x 3=31.68], as we will see below is a key number pointing to Jesus Christ.

Image 8a. Sarsen Circle lintel dimensions. #8a

Stonehenge 06

“The Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge had an outer rim circumference to code 345.6 feet or 11.52 inches per degree of arc.”#9 There are
a series of circles at Stonehenge that are in a direct Phi relationship to each other. The Phi diminishing circles start out on the Avenue where marked positions indicate a diameter that is a Phi increase of the Aubrey Circle. The most noted Phi relation at Stonehenge is that of the Sarsen Circle to the Bluestone Circle, where the ratio between the squares of their radii is phiStonehenge Phi circles are 466 feet, reduced by Phi to 288 feet (Aubrey Circle), reduced by Phi to 178 feet (“Y” Holes), reducing by Phi to 110 feet (Sarsen Circle outer rim), etc. The “Z Holes Circle (132 foot diameter) is a non-Phi customized circle, which codes a navigational diameter of the “11 series.#10 This number of 3456 is also found at Stonehenge in the measure of inches of the diagonal of the Station Stone Rectangle, along with the diameter of the Aubrey Circle. It is also prominent applied to our Sun, as it measures not only the square drawn tangent to its perimeter at 3,456,000 miles, but also the Sun’s radius at 3456,000 furlongs

THE 51.84-DEGREES and 25920 YEAR CODES.

The side angle of the Great Pyramid was intended to code 51.84-degrees. The Great Pyramid covers a base area of 5184 square reeds. Herodotus, said that the Great Pyramid was 8-Egyptian acres per side. Inasmuch as each face equates to 230400 square feet (11520 x 2), we now know that an Egyptian acre was 28800 sq. feet. Therefore, there are 32 Egyptian acres in the Pyramid’s 4 faces and 19.845 in the base… or 51.845 overall. The 5184 coding was used in navigation, and a circle based upon a diameter of 1 league (16500 feet) covered 51840 feet in circumference …breaking down to 144 feet per degree of arc. The Menkaure Pyramid’s combined Egyptian acreage (4 faces and base) is 11.52 exactly under its Phi dimensional assignmentA Phi increase of the Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge (288 feet) produces a marked circle of 466 ft. The number 51.84 is 1/500th of 25920…the number of years in the Precession of the Equinoxes. 11#

“The steep sided, flat bottomed 56 Holes of Aubrey’s circle vary from 2.5 to almost 6 feet in width and between 2 to 5 feet in depth. Although irregular in shape, there is little irregularity in their spacing. They formed a very accurately measured circle 288 feet in diameter with a 16-foot interval between their center points. The greatest radial error was 19 inches and greatest circumferential or interval spacing error was 21 inches. It’s noted that such accurate spacing of 56 holes around the circumference of so large a circle was no mean engineering feat.”12He discovered also, that lunar eclipses could be predicted through a system of moving stones around the circle of Aubrey Holes.

A number of these alignments involved the Equinox Moon, that is the full Moon nearest the Spring equinox; and the Passover Full Moon. One of these alignments involved one of the Station Stones [#94] as it aligns with the Heelstone. A related line drawn adjacent to the Station Stone alignment below, in Fig. Cintersects the Aubrey Circle dateline in the Fall of 2 BC, at Equinox Moonset, with the corresponding Equinox Moonrise marked in the Fall of 3507 BC. 13# Of interest here is after this Equinox Moonset in 2 BC, was when the Magi appeared in Jerusalem in Dec. of 2 BC, at the winter solstice and later found the young child Jesus-over a year-old in Bethlehem. The Passover Full Moon relates to the Station Stones of Stonehenge, seen in the circumference of the Aubrey Circle, where four unhewn boulders are found forming the corners of a rectangle within the Aubrey Circle, below in Figure C. Sir William Petrie first numbered these lunar alignment stones 91-94, but only 91 & 93 remain today. [See also Fig. F. below]

Figure C. The Stonehenge Complex with luni-solar alignments. #14

The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map:

First, it is vital to understand how the geometric alignments of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid intersect. We find this represented, as a symbol of atonement in Squared-Circle geometry with both megalithic edifices, reconciling [squareman, temporalEarth to the [circle-God, spiritual] in heaven. The Great Pyramid thus embodies its location and purpose as a solar male monument, and only one of two aligned buildings on the earth’s surface that both feature squared-circle geometry symbolizing Christ’s atonement sacrifice on Rosh Hashannahthe day of his birth. Stonehenge is a lunar female edifice with two inner circles of stones, one in a U-shape of a womb/Omega sign, [Fig. B] thought to symbolize the conception date of Christ at the winter solstice sunset.”#15  This was witnessed at Stonehenge 9 months prior to the Great Pyramid’s autumn equinox marker. [Figure G.]

Gerald Hawkins was the first to apply the computer to his analysis of Stonehenge, proved that this stone circle was aligned to the rising and setting points of the Sun and Moon. It was common knowledge for millennia prior to Hawkins, that Heelstone was aligned to the summer solstice sunrise, which was a local draw for onlookers to witness annually on summer solstice mornings, leading some researchers to conclude this was the design of the monument’s axis. It’s interesting that Heelstone’s alignment, not only perfectly bisects the Sarsen Circle of Stonehenge, but the full orb of the Sun is framed and enclosed in the lower slot of the Great Central Trilithon in the center of Figs. D & E below;

Figure D. Stonehenge Restored. 16#

Stonehenge Stone Circle – The Modern

The lunar female construction of Stonehenge with two inner circles of stones in a U-shapedwomb or Omega symbol is thought to mark the date of conception of the Lord at the winter solstice sunset. It is aligned to the Winter Solstice Sunset, 9 months prior to the fall equinox marker of the Great Pyramid; a male, solar construction tied to the Alpha symbol. The position of the Moon’s alignment in the Trilithon’s upper window, with the sun in the lower split windows of the central-tallest Trilithon, provides a singular astronomical marking from this ancient megalithic monument, of the conception and birth of Christ, viewed from the marker stones to the southeast on winter solstice sunset.

In this alignment it appeared to observers that the sun was resting upon the Heelstone, making Stonehenge a most precisely aligned solar observatory in the ancient world. In these two windows at Stonehenge just above the main altar stone of the innermost U-shaped of the stone circles, [female womb] the Moon sets above the sun in the upper of two windows at winter solstice sunset, positioned to receive and inter-face with light [male symbol] from the rising Sun and Moon in the east. In John 1:7 Jesus is called “the light” with a gematria value of 2640, related to 264.#17 Since the zero has no numerical value in gematria, it can be dropped, equalizing the values of 264 and 2640. From the Winter Solstice sunset to the Fall Equinox is 9 months, [human gestation cycle] the Fall Equinox marking the Biblical holy day of Rosh Hashanah and the birth of Christ on 9/11/3 BC. Also, in Israel it is the Day of Trumpets, when Kings are anointed over their kingdoms, and the reigns of Israel’s Kings were always calculated from this day on Tishri 1.

Figure E. Lower and upper windows framed in the Central Trilithon at Stonehenge.#18

The Architect of Stonehenge chose the one spot on the surface in the northern hemisphere of the earth, where solar and lunar alignments form a rectangle. Station Stones 91-92 parallel the axis of Stonehenge aligned to the summer solstice sunrise, as do stones 93-94, forming the short side of the rectangle. The two remaining Station stones 91-93 form the diagonal of the rectangle with their lunar alignments. #19 It is key that the lunar alignments of the diagonal of the rectangle formed by Station stones 91-93, point straight to the Great Pyramid on the Giza‘ Plateau, that qualifies as a highly notable sign, in Fig. F below marked as Stonehenge Sunrise alignments are seen between stones 91-93. The fact that the measure of the longside of the Station Stone Rectangle is 264 feet, is a witness to the gematria accuracy of Scripture. Since the Hebrew/Greek Alphabets are alpha-numeric, where every letter in their alphabets is also a specific number, so “number values of the letters in the Biblical Hebrew/Greek alphabets, can be calculated and compared to decipher the numerical gematria Bible codes.” This provides added levels of numerical verification of Scripture, divinely designed into God’s Word, attesting to the accuracy of Holy Writ.

 An example of this related to our current topic of Stonehenge, as an astro-archaeological monument, significant for its luni-solar alignments, that function as signs [G4592semion]; pointing to someone or something significant to come.#20 Since [Isa. 19: 19-21] tells us the Great Pyramid is “an altar in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. And it shall be for a sign and a witness to the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt, and He shall send them a Savior, and a great one, and he shall deliver them.”

Plate 2. The Station Stone Rectangle with its Diagonal as a 5:12/13 Phi Rectangle.#21

5. Stonehenge - 6. Royal Mile, foot and planets - 7. Stonehenge and the quarry - Newton and his ...

Since the dimensions of the Station Stone Rectangle conform to a Phi Rectangle with 5:12/13 Fibonacci proportions, we can see how the principles of divine proportionPhi are present in the Sacred Geometry of Stonehenge. With the solar-lunar alignments of the Station Stone diagonal of Stonehenge pointing directly to the Great Pyramid, it points also as a sign and witness to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ! An interesting note here is related to some of the common measures shared in the Station Stone Rectangle of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid; The perimeter of the Stonehenge Rectangle is .144 of a mile, while the length of one side of the Great Pyramid also measures .144 of a mile. Two sides would be .288 of a mile, with three @.432 of a mile, giving a perimeter of .576 of a mile. If we straighten out this rectangle it would equal the measure of one side of the Great Pyramid at rock level. #22 When converted to a measure for reeds, the sides of the Great Pyramid are 72 reeds. Two sides measure 144 reeds, which is a number value for Greek words describing our “everlasting” [144] and divine nature [144]. #23 The Kingdom of Heaven has a gematria value of 2880, aligns with Jesus as the king of this kingdom, as Zecharia refers to him-“He shall be a priest on his throne,” with a value of 288. The Aubrey Circle at Stonehenge, as seen before, forms a very accurately measured circle 288 feet in diameter, with a 1728 in. radius, also the number not only for the perimeter of the Khufu Pyramid in great cubits, and the circumference of the circle reaching the pyramid’s apex in reeds, but also for holy Jerusalem, [Rev. 21:10].#24 Added to this, the 1728 furlongs of it’s diameter, provides a well-rounded witness for Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid and New Jerusalem, with the two great lights of Gen. 1:16.

Figure F. Stonehenge and the Station Stone Rectangle. #25

In Acts 2:18-21;

18 And on My menservants and on My maidservants, I will pour out My Spirit in those days; And they shall prophesy.
19 I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneathBlood and fire and vapor of smoke.
20 The sun shall be turned into darknessAnd the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the Lord.
21 And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the Lord Shall be saved.’

Back in July of 2021 Rev. Jon Nessle taught us about the record of Peter’s sermon on the Day of Pentecost in 28 AD. His teaching on the Figure of SpeechMerismos was a key revelation to us all, and a milestone to me especially with Peter’s reference to the Prophet Joel in Acts 2:17-21. Jon taught us that in v. 20 where; “The sun shall be turned into darkness and the Moon into blood before the great and notable day of the Lord come,” first refers to solar and lunar eclipses that don’t take place together as the science confirms. Since this reference does not point to literal truth, it must be figurative. As solar and lunar eclipses depict the Moon on opposite sides of the earth, it represents a “juxtaposition of 2 extremes,” which in Biblical Figures of Speech is called a Merism. This figure illustrates a combination of two contrasting words or subjects in reference to an entirety, as from “A to Z.”#26 Since this Merismos in Acts 2:20 is celestial in nature, the entirety referred to here is different kinds Celestial signs, not only Solar and Lunar eclipses, taking place before the Lord’s Return. Since Peter’s Pentecost Sermon in Acts 2 took place on the opening day of the Age of Grace, the entirety of Celestial Signs can potentially include all these signs during the administration of the Age of Grace. Thus, we are very thankful that the Heavenly Father gave us both a general and specific pattern of various celestial signs that not only marked the birth of Christ, but also mark his Return, based on similar celestial patterns in each case. This is the basic premise of the Celestial Prelude, which are the preliminary celestial signs that allowed the Magi to recognize the actual signs marking the birth of Christ, in the first Celestial Prelude.

 This prophecy spoken by the Apostle Peter in his teaching on the Day of Pentecost, and birthday of the Christian Church, points out the key role of luni-solar signs leading to the Lord’s return. This is supported in the phrase found in James 5:8-“the coming of the Lord” with a gematria value also of 2640. If the number 2640 of this measure is converted to inches-it will equal 3168, or the number of the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. #27

Image #27a. Alternate Measuring Standards of the Station Stone Rectangle.

Stonehenge 10

In fact, the long-side of the Station Stone Rectangle at 264 not only equals 3168 inches, but 88 yards, .4 of a furlong, .5 of a mile, and 25 Reeds, among others. #28 The Image 27a above provides a basic key to translate the measures of various world standards, to decipher the dimensions provided for the Great Pyramid, Stonehenge and New Jerusalem, as presented in this study. In Graphic 1 below in its explanatory notes, overlay the Station Stone Rectangle on the ecliptic circle and related Great Pyramid Latitude of 30 degrees N, the vertical [redblue] line that bisects the planisphere below, mirrors the point where the ecliptic crosses the galactic equator. This also conforms to the primary Stonehenge axis of the Summer solstice sunrise.

Graphic 1. Station Stone Rectangle overlayed on the ecliptic. #29

Ancient World Blog: Stonehenge Station Stones : Precession of the Equinoxes (Axial Precession) : A Graphic-Based Decipherment Encore

As He set the truth of the coming redeemer-Jesus Christ in His Written Word, He also backed these truths with many signs and wonders on earth, and in the heavens. These Heavenly Signs spoke to those with eyes to see, according to the principles of the Celestial Gospel, first revealed to men of God like Abraham, in the Patriarchal administration, [Gen. 15:4-6, Gen. 17], just as surely as the witness of the Scriptures. As this was the case with the first coming of Christ, so it is with his imminent Return. In light of the merismos-figure of speech in Acts 2, that refers to solar and lunar eclipses specifically, but includes a general reference to all types of celestial signs in the Age of Grace, our examination of the Great Pyramid, Stonehenge and New Jerusalem signs” for example, take on added meaning and depth for the end times, since God provided a blueprint of heavenly signs, starting over 2000 years ago, marking the birth of Christ, in the first Celestial Prelude, providing the keys to our recognition of The Celestial Encore of Christ’s 2nd Coming.

The Lord Jesus Christ = 3168 is the Word and Alpha and Omega,” [Rev. 22:13]

Jesus the Word is also called Alpha and Omega. This refers to the Word as being the apex of what God can communicate of Himself in human form, without losing any of His own identity. Alpha and Omega is another example of the figure Merismos, being the first and last, in a series also representing an entirety. #30 The Lord Jesus Christ with a numeric value of 3168 as the First and Last means of salvation for mankind, is the pivotal character in bringing salvation to humanity, to establish God’s Kingdom on Earth. He is also the “Mediator between God and man” –3168 in [1Tim. 2:5]. #31 This number is seen not only in the 316.8 ft. circumference of the Sarsen Circle, but also the 316.8 ft. long-side of the Station Stone Rectangle

  Thus, when God ordained and spoke His WORD, He ordained the words of the Greek and Hebrew languages with His numeric signature; as the Alpha and Omega, He invented the Greek alphabet from the letters alpha to omega. When the Almighty spoke the universe into being in Gen. 1:1, the sonic boom of His Spoken Word left a deep impression on all Creation, which is still discernible in the imprint of the Cosmic Background Radiation. The sweet sounds of His Words were ordained by God even, as the Greek and Hebrew languages both were indispensable aspects of the Design and communication of all Creation, spoken into existence by the Word of God. At Stonehenge we find the relationship between the Sarsen circle [outer circle in Fig. G.] to the Bluestone Circle [inner circle in Fig. G.] as the same as that of New Jerusalem as seen in Fig. G below. #32

Figure G. Squared-Circle Sacred Geometry of Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid and New Jerusalem. #33

The Four Earthly Elements

The diameter of the New Jerusalem wall is 7,920,000 feet [Bluestone inner circle].
The diameter of the Stonehenge’s circle is 79.2 feet [Bluestone inner circle].

The perimeter of the New Jerusalem Square is 31,680,000 ft.
The circumference of Stonehenge’s Sarsen Circle is 316.8 feet. #34

Here we can see how that if the Earth and Moon are drawn to the same scale, they also overlay the precise measures not only of New Jerusalem, but also the exact proportions of the Great Pyramid [triangle in Fig. G.] built on the dimensions of the Earth and Moon. The idea that these signs; Stonehenge, the New Jerusalem, the Great Pyramid, the Earth, Sun and Moon, are all are based on the same numbers of Sacred Geometry, shows the work of the master Architect behind Creation. For example, the triangle [Great Pyramid] is constructed on the diameters of the Earth and Moon. The Inner Circle of this diagram embodying the Earth, also corresponds by both number and proportion to the Bluestone Circle of Stonehenge, seen in Fig. B above, and the New Jerusalem. Also, the Square drawn tangent to the circle of the Earth is commensurate by both number and proportion to the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge, the outer circle in Fig. G above. #35

Figure H. The Stonehenge angle between the Summer Solstice Sunrise and North-equal to Pyramid angle of exactly 51 degrees, 51 minutes, and 14.3 seconds. #36

As Pi, is inherent in the Great Pyramid’s structure, so it is also in Stonehenge. The circumference of the Lintels equals 31.4159Reeds”, or 10 x 3.14159. With the infinite nature of Pi, it embodies the Almighty Creator. “Almighty” has a Gematria value of 314. In addition, the area inside the outer face of the lintels is .00314159, of a square mile. The angle, 51’51”, or 51.85 degrees, is present in Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, the angle provides the “Pi” answer of base/height ratio that is depicted in the Great Pyramid. Also, if the height of the pyramid is taken as the radius of a circle, then the circumference of this circle is the same as the perimeter of the base. This provides the complimentary squaring of a circle and cubing of the sphere, found in the Great Pyramid in Fig. G, above. However, as the Pi and Phi ratios are irrational numbers, they don’t embody finite concepts in a static way, as they calculate in ever-growing accuracy to infinity. This is one reason why the trinity dogma violates the Laws of Physics, since it’s impossible for something to be both finite and infinite at the same time and in the same relation, as the God-man theology promotes. This also adds a pantheistic element to the Trinity, as the Creator becomes part of His Creation, a dogma that provokes God’s wrath, which the Apostle Paul warns us of in Romans 1:18-25.

Gerald S. Hawkins notes that: “The inner diameter of the Sarsen Circle is 97.325 ft, and through the centers of the stones, 100.825 feet. So circumferences of 305.75622 and 316.75182 feet respectively, and areas of 29,757.724 and 31,936.502 square feet respectively. The diameter of the Aubrey circle is 288 feet. That’s a circumference of 904.78 feet and an area of 260,576.87 sq. feetThe website referenced below cites this about the Sarsen circle and the Aubrey circle.”#37 

The key to this relationship is knowledge of the value of Pi, and designing the angle of the Pyramid to be exactly 51 degrees, 51 mins, and 14.3 seconds, as seen in Fig. H above.

Plate 3. Sacred Geometry of Earth’s Diameter and the New Jerusalem. [The Four Earthly Elements – (] #37a

earth furlong sgi 2

The position of the North Pole has moved via the Precession of the Poles over time, but the Pyramid was exactly aligned to the pole star Thuban at the time of its building. These and other astronomical alignments unveil a system of revelatory Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy, as seen in Scripture [Gen. 1:14-17], encompassing the various calendars and celestial cycles of the Sun, Moon and Stars. In Plate 4 below we find the dimensions of the Sun-Moon-Earth plan embodied in the Great Pyramid, all unified in a Base 60 number standard. On top of this diagram, we see the diameter of the Moon equal to 2160 miles [6 x 6 x 60]. Since the light of the moon is the reflected light of the sun, both are seen in the Plate 4 graphic below in the 2160 mi. lunar diameter, with the square drawn tangent to the circle, has for a perimeter the solar number 8640: [2160 x 4]. #38 This top-stone is not only the “stone which the builder’s rejected” with a value of 2160, #39 but the cornerstone also, equal to 864, set in the midst of these two great lights. The Celestial Jerusalem too holds the number value of 864, foretelling the time when “He shall reign,” also with a value of 864, via “the word of the Lord from Jerusalem;” 864.#40 The Moon is flanked by two 3-4-5 [in green] triangles with the capstone of the Pyramid contained in the Moon. Below that, we see a diameter of the Earth equal to 7920 miles, [12 x 660], also seen in Fig. G; [79.2] above. So, we find a standard of other related measures like 7920 inches in a furlong, of [660 feet] reflecting 7920 feet in a league, that not only measure of the diameter of the Bluestone circle, but also the 12,ooo furlongs that measures the side of New Jerusalem. #41 This earth commensurate standard, seen in the sides of New Jerusalem [Rev. 21:16] makes a cube of 12,000 furlongs, per side or 12000 x 660 ft, equaling 7,920,000 ft., as seen in Fig. G. The diagram of Plate 4 below gives the diameter of the earth as 7920 miles, seen on the left of Fig. G, above as [79.2]. The 1st Adam was given dominion over the earth, by God-“Jehovah the maker of the heavens;” having a value of 792; [Ps. 121:2], His God-given authority seen in; “You made him to rule,” also has a value of 792.#42 Once man fell, God supplied a ruling redeemer offering salvation, also with a 792 value [Ps. 116:13], allowing humanity on Earth to once again take part in the “Kingdom of God,” equaling 792 in [Matt. 21:31]. #43

Plate 4. The Great Pyramid and the Squared Circle. #44

The combined Earth radius of 3960 miles with the Moon’s radius of 1080 miles are too shown in Plate 4 graphic above, totaling 5040 miles. The height of this earth commensurate Pyramid is also 5040 miles. The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles, seen on the upper left side of the Plate 4 graphic. Again, in the topstone of the Great Pyramid, Jesus is called the stone which the builders rejected,” in [Matt. 21:42] with a value of 2160. #45 The apex of the glorious capstone of the Great Pyramid fits exactly in the center of the sun-moon figure of this Plate 4 diagram. It represents Jesus in [John 1:9] in his position of divine rulership as the head of his spiritual body, the church; “the true light that lights every man that comes into the world.” The radius of the Moon is 1080 miles as the entire capstone rests wholly inside this radius. This truth is also found in Hab. 2:20But the Lord is in His holy temple. Let all the earth keep silence before Him,” also with the gematria number 1080.#46 We uncover the intention of the Master Architect established in Ps. 8:3; “When I consider the work of thy fingers, with a value of 1008, the moon and stars which thou hast ordained… #47 in reference to all the handiworks of the Almighty.

As Michell concluded, “using the actual proportions and dimensions of the solar system [based on pi and phi] the canonical figure of the 12 sided New Jerusalem is produced.” #48 Here God employed the dimensions of our earth and Moon contained as part of the geometric phi symphony of our solar system preserved in the Great Pyramid, and embodied in the measures of the New Jerusalem and Stonehenge relating to the divine canon of Scripture. As Gaunt agrees; The Pyramid built on the diameters of the Earth and Moon, bears the precise proportions of the Great Pyramid. #49

The evidence above reveals the sacred geometry of the world’s two greatest megalithic monuments, both as witnesses for Christ. They are Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, the only two ancient megalithic structures on Earth featuring both; perfect squared-circle geometry – THE archetype of the atonement of Christ in their reconciliation of the square (representing earth, man, and the temporal), to the perfection of the circle (representing heaven, God, and the spiritual). Squaring the circle or cubing the sphere is constructing a square equal in area to a given circleThese sacred geometry concepts are found in ancient to modern buildings across the globe, embodying Christ-centered geometry concepts in Art and architecture, with standing stone circles, churches, Pyramids, Gothic Cathedrals, and temples. How both these structures interface with the harmonics of light (the sun, moon, and stars), and on specific calendar dates (winter solstice and the fall equinox), points to the conception of Christ at the winter solstice, and His birth 9 months later on Rosh Hashanah, the day of the coming of King on the Hebrew Calendar. #50

These symmetric principles designed by God, into various living and non-living systems from the very beginning, do not appear as a result of any exclusive evolutionary process in Nature. Very simply, if this Symmetry is present at the outset, not in an isolated sense, but in all kingdoms of life regardless of scale, then Intelligent Design is not only implied but, it becomes a given. Since we find many manifestations of the phi ratio
operating at the basis of the mathematical reality underlying all Creation even at the quantum levels, we don’t discover or formulate it, we only observe it in its beauty and awesome detail. These Symmetry principles in Creation don’t occur randomly, but are witnessed systematically and on multiple inter-related levels and dimensions throughout all Creation. This is undeniable evidence of the Intelligent Design of the Creator.

Graphic 2A. Great Pyramid Passage alignments on 9-20-21-2017. 51

A. Celestial Sphinx Christ angle Alignments.           B. Great Pyramid Regulus-Venus and Apex-Al Nitak alignments

The Great Pyramid embodies the Christ-centered squared-circle geometry as found in the Pyramid’s top-stone. In Scripture, the words; “sun,” “headstone,” and “cornerstone” all share the same Hebrew gematria value of 53. In Greek the word “Son” also shares this number value, of 530, tells us the Pyramid’s top-stone, embodied in the Lord Jesus Christ, is “the Saviour” [432] and “foundation” [432] of “all things
[432] as a “great sign” [432] symbolizing the light of the Sun [Ps. 19:4], whose radius is [432,000 mi], which is half the Sun’s diameter; [864,000 mi.] matching “cornerstone” [864], “the word of the Lord from Jerusalem” [864] in [Mic. 4:2].#52  In Graphic 2a above we find the ascending and descending passages of the Great Pyramids two primary interior passageways. They appear linked to the Doctrine of the Two Ways, one going up to the King’s Chamber, and one down to the pit. It also features the missing 5th, central capstone, symbolizing Christ as the Chief Cornerstone, he is the headstone at the apex unifying the cornerstones of the base, “the stone that the builder’s rejected,” (Ps. 118: 21-23). These Christ-centered features, revealed in its sacred geometry, many featuring the spatial measures of many of its various dimensions of the earth below, reflecting astronomical features of time in the heavens above. Jesus’ authority rules over all dimensions of space-time. One example is the perimeter of the base of the Great Pyramid (space) at 25,960 inches. This measure of space below on Earth is the same as the temporally-based number above in the precession of the equinoxes, also called the Great Year. It is 25,960 years -the time it takes all 12 signs of the zodiac to make one complete revolution around the earth. This number matches the perimeter of the structure at the 50th course of its masonry – the height of the King’s Chamber. A third witness of this number is found in the sum of the length of two diagonal lines at the Pyramid’s base. All these witnesses are revealed in the sacred number or geometry of the edifice. #53 [Researcher Daniel Matson uncovered many of these witnesses. See his great research at: [] See also Lost Wisdom: Archetypes of the Atonement, Ascension and At-one-ment, [].

As we mentioned above, concerning the diagonal of the rectangle formed by Station stones 91-93, and how the azimuth of the Aubrey Stone Circle at Stonehenge points straight to the Great Pyramid on the GizaPlateau, qualifying as a highly notable sign that aligns these two unique ancient megalithic monuments. What follows expands on this aspect of the blog, relating to the Great Pyramid as Boundary Stone
of Israel.

Graphic 3. Global and astronomical alignment of Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid, Bethlehem, Jerusalem and the Crucifixion Moonrise.#54

In Graphic. 3 from Stonehenge on the day of the Crucifixion, the Moonrise azimuth and the great circle route to Jerusalem, the site of the Crucifixion forms the Christ Angle, which is the Angle of the Great Pyramid’s sloping Ascending and Descending passages. The diagonal of Stonehenge’s Station Stone Rectangle is on the azimuth of a great circle passing through the Great Pyramid, so the 9123.84 inperimeter Station Stone Rectangle is linked to the Great Pyramids 9123.84 in. x 9123.84 in. full design base by a 9123.84 megalithic mile circumference great circle of the earth. A rhumb line from the Pyramid to Bethlehem forms the Christ Angle with the latitude of the Great Pyramid (the world’s longest land parallel) and the distance on a great circle route equals one Pyramid furlong for every year counting from the Pyramid’s datum year to the birth of Jesus. This leaves a 31680 ft. bridge joining Bethlehem to Jerusalem to complete a circuit with Stonehenge, the bridge being the life of the Lord Jesus Christ from his birthplace to the Crucifixion (31680 ft.) on the feast day of Passover, as the rituals of Passover prophesied of his Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension. The extra line at the top of Graphic 3 of the circuit points to the Passover moonrise on the day of Crucifixion. Stonehenge’s Outer Bank has a 380.16 ft. diameter symbolizing the Moon’s 3801600 yard diameter and the 31680 feet from Bethlehem to Jerusalem= 380160 in. also symbolizes the Passover Moon diameter, and 380160 yards is the diameter of the 1/10th scale model great circle of the Moon around the Great Pyramid. #55

The equator is designatedand is a factor in calculating all latitudes, lines drawn from the earth’s center to Bethlehem and the equator create the angle 31.68° thus, latitude 31.68° north crosses Bethlehem, latitude 31.68° north’s relationship with the equator is more profound than other latitudes, from the equator to Bethlehem’s latitude 31.68° represents 35.2% of the arc of the northern quadrant of longitude 35.2° east. Bethlehem’s latitude 31.68° north would be written in atlases as 31° 40’ 48” meaning 31 degrees 40 min. and 48 seconds (of latitude), when we write latitude 31.68°, its just another way of expressing the latitude using only degrees and the decimal system.  The three most profoundly design orientated spots on the earth’s surface are (1) Bethlehem, (2) the site of the Great Pyramid at the center of the 1/10 scale model great circle of the Moon, and (3) the 3168 Cross inside the 1/10 scale model great circle of the Earth.#56

“The circumferences of the earth and its moon equal the perimeter of a square placed tangent around the earth. This is a simple but profound design, a description made without using any units of measure. If we change the square’s perimeter into a circle its circumference will perfectly contain great circles of the earth and its moon placed side by side, as seen in the upper part of Graphic 4 below. This is another description without using units of measure. The sun and moon have the same apparent size which is especially obvious and emphasized when there is a total solar eclipse, another description of design harmony without the use of units of measure. When appropriate measuring units are introduced to the designs above, layers of design harmony are revealed. Unlike the metric system which is not attuned to the cosmos, other measuring systems harmonized with the cosmos and the four kingdoms of life thereinnot only attuned to humanity and the cosmos but also in numeric and mathematical harmony with the numbers of music found on the musical scale.” #57

Graphic 4. Circumferences of the Earth and the Moon related to a Solar Eclipse.#58

“In Genesis 1:14, the sun and the moon, are for “signs,” and the most spectacular sign concerning these celestial bodies is a solar eclipse. Why are they the same apparent or angular size? The moon’s orbit is elliptical so the distance from the earth to the moon varies, at its closest approach to the earth its apparent angular diameter is 33.5167 arcminutes, and at its maximum distance from the earth its apparent angular diameter is 29.367 arcminutes, so about once a week its apparent size is 31.68 arcminutes, in the earth’s elliptical orbit of the sun four times a year the apparent size of the sun is also 31.68 arcminutes. Sometimes the sun and moon’s angular diameters are 31.68 arcminutes at the same time. During a solar eclipse the 31.68 arcminute Solar diameter is eclipsed by the 31.68 arcminute lunar diameter, and if a square was placed tangent around the moon its 3168 megalithic mile perimeter would also perfectly surround the 316800 megalithic mile Solar diameter with a radius of 316800 Roman leagues.” #59

Graphic 5. Earthly and lunar orbits around the Sun. #60  

The KJV of 2 Pet. 1:16 “For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. The Greek word for “majesty” is number 3168 in Strongs Greek dictionary and  Concordance, and the Lord Jesus Christ above has a gematria of 3168, it is significant that this use of the number 3168 is found in the same verse especially because the Greek word listed number 3168 is used only three times in the Bible, Strong’s definition of word number 3168 is; “Superbness, glory or splendour: mighty power, magnificence, majesty.”#61

A 31680 mile perimeter square fits tangent around the 31680 furlong earth radius, and using a 22/7 version of pi to calculate the circumference of the earth and its moon produces a combined total of 31680 miles. A study of the Bible’s Greek text and the Greek alphabet has revealed that the number 3168 is used as a numeric signature of the Creator marking his work. Thus, when we see that a 31680 mile perimeter square fits tangent around the 31680 furlong earth radius, it is not only the design of the earth that is verified, but also the mile, the furlong and the Greek language that are also verified. The earth existed before man thus, the details above reveal that the mile, the furlong and the Greek language are factors of the Creator’s Godly Design in place before man’s creation. The units of measure used in this investigation have the same verifiable Source, they were ordained by the Creator. #62

To begin putting this all together, our focus must shift to the New Jerusalem which embodies all the promises of Old Jerusalem, as seen during the reigns of Kings David and Solomon going back to ancient Israel circa 1000 BC. The royal reigns of David and Solomon who each reigned 40 years in the Christ line, represent the closest mankind has come to the coming reign of the King of Kings Jesus Christ, in earth’s history, since Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. As Adam and Eve embodied the sacred canon of the truths in God’s Word, preserved in the laws, symbols and customs before the Old Teastament, they anticipated the Architecture of the Temple of Jerusalem under David and Solomon, as the center of spiritual life in Israel. Only Jesus Christ inhabits and fulfills the apex of the Priest-King, not only of Israel, but the entire world as the universal savior and perfect sacrifice for all mankind. Thus, Christ not only embodies the fullness of what the Temple stood for, but after its destruction, he prophesied, and fulfilled its living reality, to unify the Jews and Gentiles under the headship of his rule, in the graceful salvation of his New Covenant. This is the reality of the King of Kings-as the singular yet universal spiritual Head of the body of Christ, he alone embodies the top-stone and chief cornerstone– the head of His Church.

Even as Zechariah saw the man with a measuring line in his hand to measure the length and breadth of Jerusalem; [Zech. 2:1-2], so we have seen some key correlations above, of the measures and patterns of New Jerusalem, Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, confirmed in the gematria values of Scripture, and the media of Sacred Geometry. We find this in the key to the City of God related by John the revelator, which is modeled on squared-circle sacred geometry, as the New Jerusalem is identified as a cube containing a sphere, with a model of the earth on the scale of 1 foot:1 mile, for the diameter of the sphere is 7920 ft, with the earth’s mean diameter being 7920 miles. As Michell states; “The macrocosmic city of 12,000 furlongs square and the microcosmic citadel wall of 144 cubits differ in scale, but belong to one geometric figure.”#63 John the Apostle writes in reference to the 12 apostles; [Rev. 21:14-17] “Now the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the [j]names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb15 And he who talked with me had a gold reed to measure the city, its gates, and its wall16 The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth. And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand [k]furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal17 Then he measured its wall: one hundred and forty-four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel.”

With the twelve Apostles identified with the 12 foundations of the walls of the city, the wall has a diameter of 7920 ft. and 14,400 cubits in circumference, with the 12 foundations geometrically inscribed in the double hexagon of its 12 corners, as seen above in Plate 3 graphic of New Jerusalem, enclosed within the model of New Jerusalem in Graphic 6a below. #64 

The 110th Psalm provides a picture of Christ’s dominion on the earth, after he successfully brought redemption to mankind resulting from his first advent. It describes his rule over his remaining enemies on Earth, which will be headquartered at Jerusalem. Verse 2 tells us he is seated at God’s right hand, indicating the complete success of his rule and authority over the world, as the Priest-king after the order of Melchizedek, not the Aaronic order. As Jon Nessle recently taught in his OT History Class; “The order of Melchizedek is referenced in three places in the NT book of Hebrews; 1x in Chapt. 5, [v. 5-10] and twice more in Chapt. 7. A major difference between these priesthoods is that Christ needs no sacrificial offering for his sin, Heb. 7:27-28] because as the perfect sacrifice for mankind, he is sinless.” Once Christ will have destroyed the last of his enemies with his army of saints, [I Cor. 15:25-26, Rev. 19] then he will hand over his kingdom to God the Father, [ICor. 15:24-26] Who is the exception of the authority of Christ’s rule, to Whom Christ himself is subject. [ICor. 15:27-29]. #65

The 12 sides of New Jerusalem with the Star of David. [picture credit]]
BeFunky Collage7and12

The Holy Mt. Zion of the Lord in Jerusalem also has the value of 1440, where the Lamb stands with the 144,000 redeemed of the earth; [12,000 x 12,000 tribes, 12 apostles and foundations of New Jerusalem, 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, 12 Pearly Gatesetc.] Within the cube of the New Jerusalem is a sphere with a circumference of 144 cubits, and a diameter of 79.20 ft, symbolizing the earth on a scale of 1 foot to 100 miles, since 7920 miles is the earth’s mean diameterAs we have seen in the myriad dimensions and measures of New Jerusalem above, as they are represented in Stonehenge and in the Great Pyramid, as a historical foretaste of the holy city John saw descending out of heaven in Rev. 21:1-2; the tabernacle of God is with men to dwell with them as His people. As God is in Christ, and Christ lives in his Church, [Col. 1:27] so God is with His people as their God. The diameter of the New Jerusalem measures 7,920,000 feet. This corresponds to the diameter of the Bluestone circle of 79.2 feet, the diameter of the earth, at 7,920 miles, and the perimeter of a square 12k gallon Bath drawn on the Molten Sea at 792 in. seen in lower left corner of Graphic 6a below. While a side of the square of New Jerusalem is 12,000 furlongs or 7920 feet, the side of this square contains 1440 acres. #66

Graphic 6a. New Jerusalem, Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid     6b.The Molten Sea of the OT Jerusalem Temple. #67
A.                                                                                           B.

Stonehenge 27

The New Jerusalem represents the true Jerusalem, NOT the one in bondage, but the heavenly Jerusalem, [Gal. 4:25-26, 29-31, Heb. 12:22, James 1:17]. As the Square of New Jerusalem also embodies the Holy Mt. Zion, it includes the Lord Jesus Christ who said in Matt. 16:18; And I also say to you that you are Peter, [G4074-petros] and on this rock [G4073-petra]68I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. Peter-petros was a small chunk of rock, but Jesus is the massive mountain, the Rock-petra, in reference to himself, the foundation upon which he builds his ChurchJesus surpasses the OT Temple, as he fulfilled all the OT sacrifices linked to the former Covenant, which will be back in effect during the 6th spiritual administration of the Millennial Kingdom, when Christ rules over the earth, with a rod of iron. Here we can see the difference between the three groups of people signified in God’s Word; Jews, Gentiles and the Church of God, with the Jews related to the OT, and the Gentiles and Messianic Jews related to the NT Church of Grace, the spiritual body of Christ.

Revelation 22:13I am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

  • In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Genesis 1:1. Those words are the beginning or alpha of the Bible.
  • In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. John 1:1 (the beginning of John’s Gospel).
  • Rev. 22:21The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen. (The Bible’s omega verse signed Lord Jesus Christ = 3168).

It is also very appropriate and significant that the Omega verse of the Bible is Revelation 22:21 shown above which signs off using the words; Lord Jesus Christ which has a gematria of 3168.

The subject of the 53rd chapter of Isaiah is the Lord Jesus Christ, the chapter prophesies centuries beforehand of some important details of Jesus’ life, the Crucifixion and his burial, seeing into the future concerning important supernatural details of the Bible. The following verse has a gematria of 3168 and it is prophesying about his CrucifixionIsaiah 53:11. He shall see the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied; by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. It is significant that this Old Testament verse written in Hebrew has a gematria of 3168 which is a reference to the gematria of the Lord Jesus Christ written in Greek. This demonstrates that according to God’s Perfect foreknowledge, He knew many centuries before it happened that the New Testament was to be written in Greek, that the main subject would be the Lord Jesus Christ and the gematria of his name would be 3168. Elsewhere in Isa. 53 it explains why Jesus came with details of his life and death, the 3168 verse above tells us that the Crucifixion justified many, elsewhere in the chapter it refers to the Lamb of God brought before Pilate. Isaiah 53:7He was oppressed and afflicted yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before its shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth. See also Matt. 27:13- 14; now history. Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? 14 And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marveled greatly...

In Isaiah 42:5 there is another 3168 verse, we leave out the introduction (Thus saithGod the Lord, He that created the heavens and stretched them out; spreading out the earth and its offspring, giving breath to the people on it and spirit to those walking in it. Gematria 3168. The two 3168 verses of Isaiah describe the most important pre-historic event concerning man, when man’s home was created and we were given life. The other verse is the most important historic event concerning man, for without this event the first event would have been in vain. Both 3168 gematria verses equal a gematria of 6336, man’s earthly home has a 31680 furlong radius and a 63360 furlong diameter.69

‘The 3168 verses were revealed by Bonnie Gaunt in her book, NILE, The Promise Written in Sand, and I should mention that reading some of Bonnie Gaunt’s books led to my own project, her books supplied the tools for my investigation.” #70

I appreciate this author’s [James Heyworth] summary and can add my own, as Bonnie Gaunt’s books have obviously been a key influence, not only on this blog-study, but also in understanding principles of Sacred Geometry and its relation to Scripture. I have also not included numerous references from Mrs. Gaunt and Mr. Heyworth which they each have provided in great detail in their works on this subject. I refer the reader to Mrs. Gaunt’s many books and Mr. Heyworth’s website, for reference; []

God Bless,




1. Earth & Sun Association, September 2016, Robin James Spivey.
2. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 33 Bonnie Gaunt
3. Ibid, p. 33
4. Ibid, p. 32
5. Figure A. picture credit;
6. Figure B. picture credit;
7. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, ppg. 32-33, Bonnie Gaunt
7a. Ibid, p.25
8. Ibid, [ppg. 22-23, 114]
8a. Image The Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries
9. Martin Doutré’s plan of Phi circles at Stonehenge. [Bush Barrow Lozenge Part 2 (]
10. Ibid
11. Ibid, []
12. Stonehenge Decoded, G. Hawkins (1965)
13. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 34, Bonnie Gaunt
14. Figure C. picture credit, The Stonehenge Complex with alignments. []
15. 7 heavenly witnesses at the Great Pyramid on Rosh Hashanah, p. 4 []
16. Figure D. Picture Credit. []
17. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 37, Bonnie Gaunt
18. Figure E. Picture Credit. The Mystery of Stonehenge › Buensalido+Architects
19. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 38, Bonnie Gaunt
20. Strong’s Concordance [G4592], James Strong
21. Plate 2 Picture credit; Stonehenge – 6. Royal Mile, foot and planets – 7. Stonehenge and the quarry – (
22. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 53, Bonnie Gaunt
23. Ibid, p. 53
24. Ibid. p. 52
25. Figure F. Picture credit. [The Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries]
26. Figures of Speech used in the Bible; Merismos-p. E.W. Bullinger
27. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 37, Bonnie Gaunt
27a. Image 27a. The Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries
28. Ibid, p. 36
29. Stonehenge []
30. Figures of Speech used in the Bible, E.W. Bullinger
31. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p.81, Bonnie Gaunt
32. Ibid.
33. Figure G. picture credit. [The Four Earthly Elements – (]
34. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 79, Bonnie Gaunt
35. Ibid, p. 81
36. Ibid, p. 43
37. Stonehenge Decoded, G. Hawkins (1965) []
37a. Plate 3 Picture credit [https://www.megal]
38. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 81, Bonnie Gaunt.
39. Ibid, ppg. 49, 82. Bonnie Gaunt.
40. Ibid, p. 52,
41. Ibid, p. 81
42. Ibid.
43. Ibid.
44. Picture credit Plate 4-City of Revelation, John Michell [ppg. 31-32]
45. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 82, Bonnie Gaunt.
46. Ibid, p. 82.
47. Ibid, p. 79.
48. City of Revelation, John Michell [pg. 31].
49. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 81, Bonnie Gaunt.
50. 7 heavenly witness at the Great Pyramid on Rosh Hashanah []
51. Ibid.
52. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 96-101, Bonnie Gaunt.
53. 7 heavenly witness at the Great Pyramid on Rosh Hashanah []
54. Graphic 3 picture credit; [] James Heyworth
55. Ibid.
56. Ibid.
57. Ibid.
58. Graphic 4 picture credit; Ibid.
59. []
60. Graphic 5 picture credit; Ibid.
61. [].
62. Ibid.
63. “City of Revelation,” p.25 John Michell
64. Ibid, p. 33.
65. OT History Class by Jon Nessle, 5/16/23
66.  “City of Revelation,” p. 81 John Michell
67. Picture credit-Graphic 6aThe Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries. 6b. []
68. Strong’s Concordance; [G4074-petros, vs G4073-petra], James Strong.
69. []
70. Ibid.