Is there Bible Evidence for an Eclipse with Jonah?

 

In our recently completed 2023 OT History Class we presented Biblical prophets chronologically instead of canonically, which brought out the evolution in the revelation regarding Messianic prophecy and Jewish Eschatology. Here are some samples of Rev. Nessle’s comments in a recent email from him:

From Jon’s Email 1/16/24

“Then in the Old Testament History class we followed the development of Messianic Prophecy when we re-ordered the Prophets in chronological order instead of canonical order.  Then we clearly saw how Jonah foresaw the doom of Israel but shirked his responsibility to prophesy against Nineveh for fear that they might obey and not be destroyed. Well, God made sure the message was delivered on schedule even after Jonah had been dead for 3 days and 3 nights! God had to pull a rabbit out of a hat to get the job done, or better said, pull a prophet out of a fish! Why? Because He had an appointment to keep! God had to stay on schedule. They did repent because Rene Fretz pointed out the possibility that God also sent a coinciding sign of a Solar Eclipse. It went right over Nineveh that decade! I think it coincided! Wow!

Then after Jonah, came the prophet that didn’t deserve to be named because he shut up. He clammed up in fear of King Amaziah and stopped prophesying. He just spoke his mind afterward. This disqualified that prophet. The Bible does not name disqualified prophets! After that it was up to the next prophet, Amos, who was the lowest of the low, without pedigree, not of the school of the prophets, a former pig farmer who stood up and became enshrined as the prophet that wouldn’t shut up! He spoke the answer to the burning question of that day. If God promised the kingdom to David’s seed, how can that come to pass if the Assyrians are going to wipe us out? Then we saw the progression and growth of Jewish eschatology and Messianic prophecy that expanded from Amos’ seed through prophet after prophet, in chronological order, until it fully blossomed with Isaiah, who spoke so much Messianic prophecy that the book of Isaiah is said to be the 5th Gospel!

Jon Continued; “Well, that got me thinking and I realized something. I wondered if there was anything in the book of Jonah that could be linked with an eclipse. This was because it was very unusual that a foreign nation like Assyria with a different pagan religion would receive and repent to a message given by Jonah, an unknown prophet to them…  I was thinking the Eclipse had to coincideBut how could I prove that?  Then I realized that God did do just that!  In Jonah 4:5 Jonah made a booth outside the city to see what would become of it.  When he complained about the heat, God prepared a gourd that grew which gave him shade I was looking for evidence of an eclipse which shaded the sun.  Here in that very context is an allegory regarding
a gourd that does just that! Wow!  I think there is a connectionMaybe if some of those verbs in verses 6 and 7 have astronomical overtones that would really nail it!  I am thinking that this was an allegory to an eclipse, explained in terms an ancient man would understand. If God told Jonah the Astro-Physics details, he would not have understoodIf this is true, then we have a fixed date for Jonah!” Love ya!  Jon

This inspired email from Jon Nessle got me moving to delve into the text of Jonah, to see what the Scriptural details may tell us in support of an eclipse allegory. As we will see, there are verbs in this context having astronomical overtones, but it might help if they occurred on the same day, as the eclipse, since I’m not aware of eclipses lasting beyond a single day! With this in mind, lets take a look at the record of Jonah, with this evidence of an allegory like this in mind, too see if it stacks up.

Jonah’s story is unique since the record of most prophets entails their ministry and background, including the impact of their divine message and how their oracle and vision fits in the prophetic line of Israel, and Scriptural canon. Jonah’s record is different, since being a so-calledreluctant prophet,” it relates the details in this episode where a prophet tries to escape the Godly calling on his life, to cry against the wickedness of Nineveh, by detouring from Nineveh, hopping a slow boat in the opposite direction to the Spanish Riviera, [Tarshish]. As Jonah learns, its not smart to contradict the Almighty Creator, [Jon. 1:9] which put Jonah’s passage in jeopardy of shipwreck. Even the ship’s crew had the common sense to know this was a bad idea, [Jon. 1:10-16] and if any of this crew was not God-fearing before this voyage, none were left thereafter, [Jon. 1:15-16]. This fits with a theme of this book of the Bible, that God’s loving care extends not only to Israel, but the to the Gentile nations also! Jonah told the crew to cast him overboard, then he disclosed that he was the reason their ship was in danger, [Jon. 1:11-12]. God then sent a great fish to swallow Jonah, where he spent 3 days and nights in the belly of the fish. His prayer out of the fish’s belly-called the “belly of hell,” is the Hebrew word for the grave: [H7585-sheol]. #1 This was the same period Jesus spent in the heart of the earth after his death and crucifixion, [Matt. 12:40-41]. This tells us also that Jonah died during this period, until he recalled his prayer and commitment to God, who spoke to the fish to vomit Jonah out on dry land, [Jon. 2:10]. At this point, Jonah got what many of us in life need, his second chance to obey God’s calling on his life, to go to Nineveh and preach his message, [Jon. 3:1-4]

From my June blog in 2017; I referenced research on the impact of an eclipse over Nineveh that may have coincided with Jonah’s ministry, without going into much detail. “In 765 B.C, a plague broke out in Nineveh where even the king was not able to go out to war, as was custom. Next came a civil war and another plague!” The first plague referred to here occurred in 765 BC, followed by the civil war that started in 763, the same year as the eclipse.

Image result for Prophet Jonah in Nineveh images

“An archaeological find of cuneiform tablets was uncovered in the 19th century describing events in Nineveh. A famous eclipse mentioned in the tablets was known as the Bur-Sagale eclipse, which is verified by NASA as occurring on June 15, 763 BC. The path of totality passed very near Nineveh, which was located 4 mi. north of modern day Mosul and Erbil in Iraq. God declared the Sun and the Moon were for signs, and now the Ninevites saw evidence of God’s judgment coming even before Jonah’s arrival. When Jonah did show up, the Ninevites were ripe for repentance.” #2

Figure 1. The June 15th, 763 BC Bur-Sagale Eclipse over Nineveh. #3

Julian calendar does not include the year 0, so the year 1 BC[1] is followed by the year 1 AD. This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. All pages in this web site employ the astronomical numbering system for dates (they use the year 0). Years prior to the year 0 are represented by a negative sign []. Historians should note that there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and year -100 corresponds to 101 BC, etc. This adds a year to the date above making it June 15th, 763 BC. #4

763 BC eclipse map

NASA graphic showing the path of the solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC. The eclipse would have been seen as total in the area between the blue lines. The site of ancient Nineveh (the city) is about four miles northeast of the center of the modern city of Mosul, Iraq; the province of Nineveh occupied a considerably larger territory. If this NASA reconstruction is correct, the eclipse would have been observed as only partial in the city, but total just a few miles further north. The fact that modern astronomical programs show the eclipse as only partial in the city itself has led some investigators to surmise that the eclipse mentioned as occurring in the eponym of Bur-Sagale was some other eclipse at another date. This is usually done to support alternative biblical chronologies that do not agree with the conventional interpretation of the Assyrian Eponym Canon (AEC). However, it is precisely in the 8th century BC that the AEC is most assured of being correct, because various copies of the AEC have been found that overlap this time, and these in turn overlap the reigns of the kings of Assyria and Babylon given in Ptolemy’s Canon, which begins in 747 BC. Map from NASA, #5

We know that the Prophet Jonah ministered during the reign of King Ashur-Dan III since the Bible mentions him in [2 Kings 14:23-5], placing his ministry during the reign of King Jeroboam II of Israel. Since this solar eclipse was a  most noteworthy highlight occurring in the reign of Ashur-Dan III, certain theologians suggest that the Bur-Sagle eclipse was a primary reason that the people of Nineveh were so ready to repent upon hearing Jonah’s message of judgment. “According to E.R. Thiele’s chronology, Jeroboam II was sole ruler of Israel between the years 782-753 BC, while Ashur-Dan III was king of Assyria between 772-755 BC.” #6 An aim of this study is to look for evidence of Jonah’s entry into Nineveh that may coincide with this eclipse.

Ashur-dan III’s reign was particularly difficult. Much of his reign was spent putting down revolts. These revolts were perhaps the result of the plague epidemics sweeping Assyria and the Bur-Sagale solar eclipse on 15 June 763 BC; both the epidemics and the eclipse could have been interpreted by the Assyrian populace as the gods withdrawing their divine support for Ashur-dan’s rule. The Assyrian empire had entered a period of decline, experiencing a plague in 765 BC, a peasant revolt from 763 to 759 BC, and a second plague in 759 BC. The BurSagale eclipse, occurred in the midst of these troubled years, in 763 B.C. We don’t know the exact timing of Jonah’s visit to Nineveh, but we do know from the Biblical record that this was the time period during which he prophesied (2 Kings 14:25).

Jonah 3:3-4 tells us it took Jonah 3 days to navigate the streets of Nineveh to deliver his message of repentance, that Nineveh would be judged within 40 days, to change their ways, a biblical number symbolic for probation, as the 40 years Israel spent in the wilderness, and the 40 days of rain during Noah’s Flood. Not only the general population declared a fast [Jon. 3:5] but also the King published a decree enforcing a fast for both man and beast, to turn from their evil ways, God saw their change and repented the evil that He had previously pronounced, witholding His judgment.

If we fast forward to the celestial signs just before the birth of Christ, on August 12th, 3 BC, the first Jupiter-Venus union in Leo framing Christ’s birth occurred on Elul 1 on the Hebrew Calendar, openingSeason of RepentanceJesus’ birth on Sept. 11th the month after this Aug. 12th union, on Tishri 1-Hebrew New Years Day, was followed by Yom Kippur on Tishri 10, or Sept. 19th that year, marked 40 days to the Day of Atonement, from Elul 1.

In the Great Sign of Revelation 12, a 400-day [40×10] link was found to Yom Kippur 2017 via a conjunction of Venus and Jupiter on August 27, 2016. But, when we view the Pan-American Total Solar Eclipse of Aug. 21, 2017, the eclipse was 40 days before Yom Kippur 2017, on Sept. 30th. Before the modern Hebrew Calendar, from Elul 1 till the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) was 40 days, known as the “Season of Repentance.” The total solar eclipse on August 21, 2017 begins this traditional 40-day Season of Repentance. The Season of Repentance is a call to repent before the Day of the LordJewish tradition says those written in the Book of Life will be resurrected on the Feast of TrumpetsElul is the month of repentance on the Jewish calendar, the time of turning in all the tithes to the storehouseA month later, during the Days of Awe from Rosh Hashanah on Tishri 1 and Yom Kippur on Tishri 10, shows the record of celestial events marking Christ’s birth from Rev. 12.:1-2. A key chronological note to recognize here if viewed in isolation that if there was an eclipse that “coincided” with Jonah’s visit to Nineveh, it likely occurred by this time, or even to open the 40-day season of repentance, as Jonah prophesied in Nineveh. But there is also historical context to be aware of. “The eclipse was not the only calamity during Ashur-Dan’s reign. The AEC recounts a plague in 765, the eclipse and a revolt in the city of Ashur in 763, a revolt in Ashur again in 762, a revolt in Arrapha in 761 and 760, and a plague plus a revolt in the city of Guzana in 759758 BC was marked by a campaign against Guzana and then “peace in the land,” after which the king remained “in the land” for the next two  years. Although there were military campaigns in 755, 754, 749, and 748, the AEC does not list any misfortune until the city of Calah revolted in 746 BC, the 9th year of Ashur-Dan’s brother and successor, Ashur-Nirari V. The Assyrians regarded plagues and eclipses as divine judgments for the whole land#7 (Wiseman 1979: 44). The plague of 765, followed by a revolt and eclipse in 763 and then revolts in the following four years would only confirm in the mind of the Assyrians that they were under divine verdict.  It is appealing to think that the “year of peace” in 758 and the lack of revolts and plagues in the following 11 years were a consequence of God’s mercy because of the repentance of the nation. If so, this could date Jonah’s visit at Nineveh to 759 or 758 BC.”#8

This view fits with God’s Grace and Mercy to acknowledge the repentance of the Ninevites, supported by the historical record. This is also why Jonah’s displeasure and great anger at God’s forgiveness of the Ninevites, shows how far out of line his thinking was in pronouncing judgment on God’s forgiveness, which was the goal of Jonah’s mission in the first place. This history probably is the best evidence that the eclipse may not have coincided with Jonah’s visit to Nineveh, but preceded it by 3-4 years, as we would expect the repentance of the city, to effect a change in their misfortune. The record in Jonah 4:4-11 is as follows;

Then said the Lord, Doest thou well to be angrySo Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the cityAnd the Lord God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourdBut God prepared a worm when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it witheredAnd it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, It is better for me to die than to live. And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry for the gourd? And he said, I do well to be angry, even unto death. 10 Then said the Lord, Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for the which thou hast not labored, neither made it grow; which came up in a night, and perished in a night11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than six-score thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle?

The word for “booth” in Jonah 4:5 is [H5521-cukkah; a temporary abode, hut or tent, as the booths the Feast of TabernaclesLevi. 23:40-43, Deut. 16:30, Isa. 4:6]

It is important to point out here the three potential sources that Jonah had in this record to shade him from the sun’s intense heat. The word for “shadow” in vs. 5 and 6 are the same Hebrew word [H6738-tsel] lit. or fig. This is also the same Hebrew word used in [2 Kings 20:10-11, Isa. 38:8] for the astronomical shadow that went down 10 degrees in the miracle of Ahaz’ Sundial. E.W. Bullinger teaches this word for “shadow” in Jonah 4:5-6 [H6738-tsel] is the figure of speech called “paranomasia” or rhyming words, or the repetition of words similar in sound, but not necessarily in sense, [p.307, 317]. #9 In this potential allegory, the plant [gourd] ostensibly representing a solar eclipse, was stricken by the worm [Jon. 4:7] as it smote [H5221] the gourd to the end it withered, [H3001yabesh]. Strong’s says “yabesh means to be ashamed, confused or disappointed, also to dry up or wither as herbage.” #10 A Biblical sample of this kind of language refers to a solar eclipse. In Isa. 24:23 we find this once again expressed by Bullinger as the figureAntimereia” of the adjective the exchange of one part of speech for another. #11

Isa. 24:23 says;

23 Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before His ancients gloriously.

This seems to support the idea of the gourd as an allegory for a solar eclipse as it is found in this recordIt also is possible that a solar eclipse may have been accompanied by the growth of the gourd, at the same time outlasting an eclipse– that normally only last a few minutes, to 3-5 hours, in a single day providing Jonah added relief from the Sun. This notion is supported by Jonah 4:7 dictated by the diurnal solar cycle when “the morning rose the next day.” an eclipse of the Sun is not historically known to last beyond a day, and with the lunar blockage of the sun completed the previous day, the gourd was not withered by the worm until the next day. With both the shading of the gourd and the Moon no longer stopping the sun, the sunlight beat [H5221]-same word as “smote” in v.7 which can be either lethal [90x] as the worm struck a lethal blow to the gourd, or a non-lethal blow[Ex. 21:12, Josh. 10:26].

This is not only a personification, where in the Sun and Moon are given human qualities, but also the related figure of prosopopeia, when the absent are spoken of as present, the dead as alive, or anything is addressed as a person.#12 [p.861] This language is indicative of both solar and lunar eclipses when Sunlight is blocked by the Moon, or the Earth-shadow turns the lunar surface red-as with
a blood moon. This could have fulfilled an allegory in Jon. 4:6 where the Lord made a gourd to shadow over Jonah’s head to deliver [H5337natsal] Jonah from his grief. This rhyming word with shadow[H6738-tsel] in Jonah 4:5-6 s
hows the Lord’s potential act to deliver Jonah from the Sun’s intense heat by shading him with a solar eclipse, where the Moon blocks the sunlight either partially or totally.  The sun’s unblocked heat combined with the intense east wind beat down on the Jonah’s head, that he fainted, and begged his death by sunstroke. Here we find two possible sources of shade over Jonah, so where is the 3rd? If we recall from Jon. 4:5 he built himself a booth, the kind of which is the same as those built by the Jews for the Feast of Tabernacles. During this feast the Jews honored God not only as their provider, but their deliverer also, just as God had done for Jonah with the fish. As Isa. 4:6 tells us;

6 And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

The word for “shadow” in Isa. 4:6 above is the same as Jonah 4:5-6 [H6738]. This shows us that Jonah was angry at the loss of his shade, but God points out that Jonah was more concerned with the shade from the gourd and the eclipse than he was with the potential impact of the eclipse on the repentance of a city of 120,000 inhabitants in Nineveh. Jonah’s booth-building during the Tabernacles Feast, tells us these events took place in the month Tishri, our Sept.-Oct. and that Jonah also had his personal repentance to make right with God, for disobeying His call to preach to Nineveh. It also establishes the link pointed out above to the 40-days of Repentance and the birth of Christ, our intercessor and mediator of our repentance.

Added astronomically related verses in this context are found in Isaiah 40; 45:12, 34:4, Jer. 33:22, Dan. 8:10, Mt. 24:29]

Isa. 40:22-26   

21 Have ye not known? Have ye not heard? Hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? 22 It is
He that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretches out the heavens as a curtain, and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in
23 That bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges of the earth as vanity24 Yea, they shall not be planted; yea, they shall not be sown: yea, their stock shall not take root in the earth: and He shall also blow upon them, and they shall wither, [H3001] and the whirlwind shall take them away as stubble. 25 To whom then will ye liken me, or shall I be equal? saith the Holy One26 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that He is strong in power; not one faileth. [cp. Ps. 147:4]

This Scripture not only includes the astronomical context as the Almighty Creator stretches out the heavens as a curtain, and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in: but also the botanical allegory related to princes and judges of the earth that are not planted or sown, whose stock takes no root and they wither, which is the same Hebrew word for “withered” as seen in Jonah 4:7, above.

The purpose of Jonah’s prophecy is to show the sovereignty of God at work in the life of an individual (the prophet Jonah), and his concern for His own people and that the way to avert national catastrophe is a concentrated outreach effort to all people. Jonah’s theme is God’s mercy to the individual (Jonah, a Jew), a group (the heathen sailors), the heathen world power (Assyria, a Gentile nation), and His people (Israel).

Jesus employed the repentance of the Ninevites to rebuke the Pharisees, thereby illustrating the hardness of the Pharisees’ hearts and their lack of repentance, (Matt. 12:38-41; Luke 11:29-32). The heathen city of Nineveh repented at the preaching of a reluctant prophet, but the Pharisees would not repent at the preaching of the greatest of all the prophets, in spite of over-whelming evidence that He was actually their Lord and Messiah. Jonah is a picture of Israel, who was chosen and commissioned by God to be His witness (Isa. 43:10-12; 44:8), who rebelled against His will (Exodus 32:1-4; Judges 2:11-19; Ezek. 6:1-5; Mark 7:6-9), but like Israel, was miraculously preserved by God through centuries of exile and dispersion to finally preach His truth; (Jer. 30:11; 31:35-37; Hosea 3:3-5; Rev. 7:1-8; 14:1-3).

As Tom Hobson, chair of Biblical Studies at Morthland College, observes:

The Assyrian nation was weak and in chaos in the decade around 760 BC…. They had one earthquake (one sign of divine wrath). There was a famine from 765-758 BC. Assyria was losing battles and losing territory to its enemies. There were domestic riots… Now was a perfect time for a prophet from far away to arrive on the scene and command a response. Is it possible that in His mercy, God not only planned the miracles to engineer Jonah’s visit to correspond with an impressive eclipse, but He also spun the heavenly bodies in perfect synchronization with these events to help convince Nineveh to repent. #13

According to the Assyrian writings cited by Wiseman, here’s what a solar eclipse would have meant to them: “the king will be deposed and killed, and a worthless fellow will seize the throne…rain from heaven will flood the land…the city walls will be destroyed.” The Assyrians tell us that these times called for, a solemn fast, and the king would hand over his throne to a substitute until the danger passed. At least once when there was a total solar eclipse, the Assyrians cried, “Nineveh shall be overthrown!” This has dual meaning of, “Nineveh shall be made to repent!”).#14

We can’t prove the hypothesis that Jonah showed up in Nineveh for the 763 BC eclipse, but this does not mean that this solar eclipse did not help produce the desired results of Nineveh’s repentance recorded in the Biblical account.
God miraculously brought Jonah to preach his message at exactly the right time for the people of Nineveh to listen to him. The Assyrian nation was weak and in chaos in the decade around 760 BC. They already had one earthquake (a sign of divine wrath). There is a possibility that Amos also refers to this earth-quake [Amos 1:1] since Amos was a contemporary of Jonah. There was a 7-year famine from 765-758 BC. While the Assyrians were losing battles and land  to their enemies, there was internal strife and domestic riots. With all the unrest they were experiencing, they seemed primed to believe Jonah and his warning.

With the events from 765 BC- a revolt and eclipse in 763 and then revolts in the following four years would only confirm in the mind of the Assyrians that they were under divine displeasure. It would fit the spiritual timeline that the “year of peace” in 758 and a lack of rebellions and plagues in the next 11 years were a consequence of God’s mercy because of the repentance of the Nineveh. If so, this could date Jonah’s appearance at Nineveh to 759 or 758 BC.

The repentance of an entire pagan city the size of Nineveh would be a greater miracle than for Jonah to survive getting swallowed by a fish. Yes, such an experience was fatal for Jonah, but this was part of the miracle, which was completed over 700 years later when Jesus cited Jonah as a sign comparable to his own resurrection. If we believe the Bible’s account of Jonah’s survival inside the fish, then a greater miracle of the repentance of the entire pagan city of Nineveh is possible also, since they are part of the same miraculous narrative.

I’m thankful for Jon Nessle’s email as the impetus for this month’s blog, and pertinent questions it sparked regarding Jonah and this eclipse. As the Lord Jesus Christ is the mediator of our own repentance, I invite those who would like to take part in commenting on this study for group discussion.

God Bless!

Rene’

Footnotes

1. Strong’s Concordance, [H7585-sheol], James Strong
2. Read more at https://globalrumblings.blogspot.com/2016/11/the-sign-of-jonah-and-binding-of.html#JF4HXT0ur7boJ0rM.99
3. Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses [Espenak & Meeus]
4. [http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEsearch/SEsearchmap.php?Ecl=-07620615.]
5. [https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhelp/calendar.html]
6. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Edwin R. Thiele
7. THE TYNDALE BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY LECTURE, 1977
JONAH 1 S NINEVEH By Donald J. Wiseman 1979: 44
8. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/biblical-chronologies/4517-how-lunar-and-solar-eclipses-shed-light-on-biblical-events
9. Figures of Speech used in the Bible, ppg. 307, 317. E.W. Bullinger
10. Strong’s Concordance, [H3001-yabesh], James Strong
11. Figures of Speech used in the Bible, pg. 495, E.W. Bullinger
12. IBID, [p.861]
13. (http://www.tyndalehouse.com/TynBul/Library/TynBull_1979_30_02_Wiseman_JonahsNineveh.pdf)
14. THE TYNDALE BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY LECTURE, 1977
JONAH 1 S NINEVEH By Donald J. Wiseman 1979: 44

 

 

Synopsis of the Celestial Prelude Part 2.

Birth of Jesus Christ
Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ

Synopsis of the Celestial Prelude Part 2.
Jesus Christ the Chief Cornerstone

As a brief review of the previous session, the Rev. 12:1 configuration of the sun and moon in the constellation Virgo was observed in Jerusalem between sunset and moonset, during evening twilight in the 20 days that the Sun was in Virgo, from Aug. 27th to Sept. 15th, 3BC. On Sept. 11, 3 BC, sunset occurred at 6:18 P.M. and moonset at 7:39 P.M. According to Rev. 12, it was during this 81-minute period that Jesus Christ was born and took his first breath of life to become a living soul. This new day, the first day of the new month of Tishri 1, 3BC, was marked by sighting of the New Moon, the sliver of the Crescent Moon marking the birth of the Son of God, and 2nd Adam, Jesus Christ. The description in Revelation 12:1 provides a precise astronomical record of this evening of September 11th, 3 B.C. We also reviewed the material on The Summary of the Celestial Prelude. It will benefit the reader to check the details of these teaching notes, as they have been expanded to fill in certain aspects and features of the original teaching from Rev. Nessle’s class on 12-12-23.

Tishri 1 was also the anniversary of Creation, but even more-so the renewal of Creation, foreshadowing the Return of the Lord when the waiting of the earnest expectation of creation will be fulfilled, as the manifestation of the sons of God is realized, and the whole of creation groans and travails in pain together, even as the Saints await the redemption of our bodies, [Rom. 8:18-23]. This also aligns with the truth that Tishri 1 was the first day of the New Year-the day of Trumpets and the inception of the Jewish civil Year, from the times of Moses back to Noah and prior. Gen. 8:13 tells us Noah turned 600 years old on this day, also when he first found the dry land to reappear. This shows us on the Patriarch Noah’s birthday, where God was able to restart the human race afresh in Noah’s family, even as our planet Earth was reborn after the cleansing flood removed the evil violence [hamas-H2555; Gen. 6:11], of that generation off the face of the earth.

Revelation 12:2 tells us the woman was in labor, near birth. Since there is only one of the 12 constellations on the ecliptic that is a woman, we know these signs took place in Virgo, the virgin. Rev. 12:3-4 reveal that the Enemy was cast out of heaven with his plan to kill the child as soon as he was born. In v. 4-5 the woman completes her labor, birthing the Christ-child, Jesus, providing clear acceptance  of this child as the promised seed Jesus-the Christ, and Messiah.

Jesus Christ was born on Wednesday, September 11, 3 B.C., between 6:18 and 7:39 P.M., Jerusalem time. On this day, the new moon first became visible in the western sky shortly after sunset, on the 1st day of a new month. This singular day in history, saw the star Spica in Virgo in the process of setting between the Sun and Moon. #1

Since Jesus was born on Tishri 1, 3 BC between sunset starting @ 6:15-6:18 P.M. and moonset @ 7:39 -7:45 P.M. These setting times are from Dr. Ernest Martin, in his book “The Star that Astonished the World” #2 and the book “Jesus Christ our Promised Seed,” #3 by V.P. Wierwille. Together they provide a range of times we are showing. We should also notice that Spica, would have set mere minutes after sunset on Sept. 11th. The star Spica in Virgo-teaches “Branchprophecies; in [Isa. 4:2, Jer. 23:5, Zech. 3:8, 6:12], embodied in Christ in the 4 Gospels as King in Matthew, Son of Man in Luke, Servant in Mark, and Son of God in John. We find the star Spica in Virgo’s hand, as the first a bunch of harvested wheat. The setting time of the star Spica was 17 min. after sunset, which I believe sets the time parameters for Christ’s birth-down to the minute, based on lunar sighting conditions of the first sliver of the Crescent Moon, marking the start of the new month of Tishri, at the equinox of this historic evening. This puts Jesus’ birth time range related to Spica’s setting time @ 6:32-6:35 PM, 17 minutes after sunset.

Fig. 1. “The “Great wonder” of Rev. 12:1 Sunset, 6:18 P.M., Sept. 11, 3 BC. #4

Virgo Clothed with the Sun on 9-11-3BC

The diagram shows the sun half-way set. The sun is on the ecliptic, the dotted line, and the solid line is the celestial equator, which is directly overhead at the earth’s equator. At this point, the first thin crescent of the moon appears, at Virgo’s feet, marking the first of the new month, Tishri. #4a

In this graphic we find the exact azimuth of Spica/Al Zemach @ 90 degrees East on the Celestial Equator, or due East/West @ the Fall Equinox position. This is key due to its alignment with the Cardinal points of the compass N,S,
E,W. As key aspects of the Planisphere, built upon the Ecliptic and celestial Equator, they encompass the 48 signs of the ancient Mazzaroth, including the 12 signs of the ecliptic with their 36 decans. Even as the star Spica/Al Zemach represents how Christ embodies the four Gospels @ the four quarters of the heavens, as the four chapters of the Celestial Gospel, so Christ embodies all Creation as the missing Chief Cornerstone that fits atop the Great Pyramid, uniting its 4 triangular sides as the most accurately oriented structure to these cardinal points of the ecliptic in history, built as an exact model of the northern hemisphere of our planet, on the dimensions of 1 to 43,200, from pole to the equator.

The diagram in the imbedded link for Figure 2 below provides a view and way to conceptualize how Christ as the missing capstone & “chief cornerstone” not only embodies how he encapsulates the entire Great Pyramid, but as a model of the whole, unifies & sits atop the body of the Pyramid bringing together its 4 triangular sides at its apex. [https://fb.watch/piRp51-qjN/]

This embodies how earth’s northern Hemisphere, encapsulates the Great Pyramid that is geometrically mirrored in the heavens, its capstone symbolic of the terrestrial North Pole, projected to the Celestial North Polar star, as a 3D map of both our planet and the heavens. Here the righteous Son/ Sun [Mal. 4:2] symbolizes an ancient knowledge of a Sun-centered Solar System, millennia prior to the “Copernican Revolution,” also witnessed in how the central candle enlightens the entire Hebrew Menorah, [Rev. 1:20].

Jupiter Crowning Regulus
Fig. 3 Jupiter Crowning Regulus in 3-2 BC. #5

The Rev. 12 sign was not the only astronomical event on September 11, 3 B.C. From sunset in the evening of Wednesday, September 11 to sunset of the next day-the 12th, the first of 3 Jupiter-Regulus conjunctions would have been visible to the Magi, as Jupiter could be seen approaching Regulus in the pre-dawn light of Sept. 12th. At this time the king planetJupiter was visible in approach of the king star-Regulus and brightest star on the ecliptic, in the sign Leo, the Lion of Judah, as it was from Judah’s seed that the promised seed and Messiah, appeared.

These four-fold truths related to the Star Spica/Al-Zemach are established in our realization that the King star Regulus is not just a single star but embodies 4 stars in the sky. Although appearing as a single star, Regulus is actually a quad-ruple star system [a.] composed of four stars that are organized into two pairs. The spectroscopic binary [b.] Regulus A is a blue-white main-sequence [c.] star and its companion, which has not yet been directly observed, but is probably a white dwarf. [d.] This is evident when viewed through a smaller telescope- with a minimal 50x magnification, Regulus is visible as two objects separated by 177 arcseconds; [177 arcseconds].#[e.] The Brighter of the two is called Regulus A, and the fainter-Regulus B. A cooler “orange” dwarf star [dwarf star]-[f.] Regulus B has a mass equal to 80% of our Sun’s, but only half as bright, and a surface temp. of 4,885 kelvin, [8,333 F or 4612 C], shining at [magnitude 8.1]. [g.] [B: a spectral classification of K2 VM4 V.] [h. h.a]

Regulus B, also has its own companion called Regulus C, but @ a mag. of 13.5, it’s only visible with powerful telescopes. With only 1/3 the mass of our Sun, the red dwarf star-Regulus C [red dwarf ] [i.] is bound by gravity to Regulus B as a gravitational partner called Regulus BC. The last measurements taken between 1867 and 1943 showed distances ranging from 4.0 to 2.5 arcseconds, but no new measurements are available. The fourth star in the Regulus system hasn’t been directly resolved by imaging, but its presence was revealed by spectroscopic analysis of Regulus A. [spectroscopic analysis]. [j.] Astronomers think this may be a close orbiting white dwarf [white dwarf] [k.] star and spectroscopic partner. There is a star known as Regulus D, but it is not linked to Regulus A. Instead, it points out a 12th mag. star located 212 arcseconds from the Regulus system. For decades people believed this star to be a companion of Regulus, but recent studies from the Gaia Satellite [Gaia satellite] [l.] show this to be a background star unrelated to the Regulus system. Thus, the 4fold Biblical symbolism of the star Spica/Al-Zemach carries through to the star Regulus in Leo, the Lion of Judah, visible to the Magi on the same night they saw the Star of Bethlehem. This also provides added linkage between the Bethlehem star in Virgo, and the 1st Jupiter-Regulus conjunction in Leo the Lion, as witnessed by the Celestial Sphinx signs. This also brings to mind the The Great Pyramid’s alignment with the King star Regulus on the feast of Trumpets-Sept. 20th, 2017 as seen in the graphic below, according the Christ angle of the ascending/descending passages. As this took place, the Great Pyramid’s apex alignment with the star Al Nitak, the 1st 3 of Orion’s belt stars, linking the Pyramid’s chief cornerstone to the belt of the “wounded one,” relating again to Gen. 3:15.

Figure 4.  Great Pyramid Regulus-Venus and Apex-Al Nitak alignments.

The Great Pyramid embodies the Christ-centered squared-circle geometry as seen in the Pyramid’s cap-stone. In Scripture, the words; “sun,” “headstone,” and “cornerstone” all share the same Hebrew gematria value of 53. In Greek the word “Son” shares this number value, of 530, tells us the Pyramid’s top-stone, embodied in the Lord Jesus Christ, is “the Saviour” [432] and “foundation” [432] of “all things” [432] as a “great sign” [432symbolizing the light of the Sun [Ps. 19:4], whose radius is [432,000 miles], or half the Sun’s diameter; [864,000 mi.] matches the “cornerstone” [864], “the word of the Lord from Jerusalem” [864] in [Mic. 4:2]. #m  In Figure 4 above we find the ascending and descending passages of the Great Pyramids two primary interior passageways-dotted red line. They appear linked to the Doctrine of the Two Ways, one going up to the King’s Chamber, and the other down to the pit. It also features the missing 5th, cornerstone-the central capstone, who is Christ as the Chief Cornerstone, the head-stone at the Pyramid’s apex unifying the cornerstones of it’s base, “the stone that the builder’s rejected,” (Ps. 118: 21-23).

Several ancient cultures designated four bright stars in the zodiac as the “four corners of the earth” or the “four royal stars.” At the time the constellations were drawn by Shem, these four stars were near the sun’s location in the sky on the first day of autumn, winter, spring and summer, considered as 4 of the most important locations in the sky. These four stars were well known at the four corners of the ecliptic, the first being the bright red star, Antares that anciently marked the autumnal equinox, where the sun appears on the first day of autumn. The next star Fomalhaut, was also a bright star, marking winter. This is followed by Aldebaran, another very bright red star located 180.0° opposite on the ecliptic from Antares, precisely marking the Spring Equinox when Antares marked the Autumn. Finally, the bright star Regulus, located almost exactly on the ecliptic, marked summer. Regulus, was “the Prince,” and traditional leader of these four royal stars.[n]

Each of these four royal stars was in one constellation of the 12 Mazzaroth signs on the ecliptic. Antares is found in the heart of the Scorpion (Scorpius). In Aquarius-Fomalhaut is located at the end of the waters being poured out by the Water Bearer. Aldebaran is located at the eye of the Bull (Taurus). Finally, Regulus is located in the heart of the Lion (Leo), the king of the royal stars. These are called the four cornerstone constellations not only as they form the square base of the Great Pyramid, when mirrored in the sky they form the corners of a great square in the ecliptic, as the basis of the idea of ‘squaring the circle,’ or ‘cubing the sphere’ as they also embody a foundation to under-stand the Gospel in the Stars.

Two of these ‘royal stars’ intersect in two of these constellations. Antares is not only the heart of the Scorpion, but also is found under heel of the Serpent-Bearer (Ophiuchus), [o] who is encircled by a great serpent (Serpens) and who is crushing the head and heart of the Scorpion-Antares. The second pair is the bright star of the Southern fishFomalhaut-not only in the stream of Aquarius, but also in the Head of the Southern Fish (Piscis Australis).[p] 

This great fish is pictured drinking in the “stream of living waters” from Aquarius, but these are not the only star names shared in different signs. Also we find the star namedSaiph,” meaning “bruised” [Gen 3:15] in the heel of Ophiuchus at one end of the Planisphere axis, matched at the other end with a star of the same name in Orion’s foot, as it crushes the serpent enemy at both ends of this axis.

In the case of the Scorpion/Serpent pair, there is a third constellation closely linked to them-the Eagle (Aquila), located near the serpent’s tail. The Eagle typifies the enemy of the serpent and is often shown in flight with the Serpent in its claws, even as the Serpent Bearer crushes Scorpius underfoot.

i. Four Faces of the Cherubim. Both Ezekiel and John the Revelator describe creatures which correspond to the four cornerstone constellations. Ezekiel describes creatures with four faces: the face of a lion, of an ox, of a man and  an eagle, later reveals them as a special class of angel-Cherubim (Ezek. 1:10, 10:14, 20-22). The first three of those forms correspond to the Lion, the Bull, and the Water Bearer constellations. The 4th corresponds to the Eagle, the decan often substituted for the serpent/scorpion when symbolizing the celestial aspect of the fourth cornerstone. This relates to the same substitution of the Tribe of Dan-called a serpent by the way, as they were the first tribe to introduce idolatry to the other tribes of Israel.

John the Revelator also describes four creatures, each of which is found on one side of the throne of God. One was like a lion, one like a calf, one like a man, and one like a flying eagle (Rev. 4:7). Here we see the same 4 lifeforms in correspondence to the 4 constellations, but in the reverse order as they are found on the ecliptic. This may not only put the leader first, but also have ramifications for the reverse order of ecliptic signs relative to precession.

ii. Four Principal Tribes of Israel. Jacob (Israel) had 12 sons, and each of them is linked in God’s Word with one of the 12 constellations of the zodiac[q] Hebrew scholars have expressed uncertainty of the correspondence of all twelve, but the four references to the royal constellations are clear from Scripture. They are the four principal tribes: Reuben, Judah, Dan, and Joseph.

Figure 5. Aquarius and the Southern Fish. [r.] 

The Message in the Stars - Aquarius - Berean Insights

The Water Bearer pours out a river into the Southern Fish.

Each of those four tribes is associated with one of the royal constellations in the blessing given them by Jacob or Moses. Reuben was told he is “unstable as water,” alluding to the Water Bearer. The name Reuben, means “Behold a son,” also ties him to the Water Bearer, among the zodiac signs, having the figure of a man. He is also mentioned as being over the “excellency of power” (Gen. 49:3-4)

Judah is a lion’s whelp” (Gen. 49:9) ties him to the Lion. Moreover, John refers to Christ as “the lion of the tribe of Judah” (Rev. 5:5), establishing the linkage of Judah to the lion. The Lion represents the King, and Judah began the royal lineage through which the Davidic line of kings came. The name Judah means “praised,” suggesting that this line of kings in the Christ-Line through him (especially Christ) would be praised.

Dan shall be a serpent…that bites the horse heels” (Gen. 49:17), which parallels the symbolism of the Scorpion/Serpent, depicted stinging the Serpent Bearer in the heel. The name Dan means “judge” and the serpent symbolizes the wisdom of a judge. The serpent in Eden was acknowledged as  being one of the wisest of his creatures. For example, the Lord has admonished his servants to be “wise as serpents and harmless as doves.” The kind of wisdom referred to especially refers to that of being a good judge. Antares, the bright star in the scorpion, found at the heart, acknowledged as the seat of wisdom. For example, the Lord put wisdom into the heart of King Solomon so that he could judge his people wisely (2 Chron. 1:11-12, 1 Kings 10:24; cp, Exo. 26:2, Ecc. 8:5, Job 38:36).

Finally, Joseph is compared to a wild ox, with Joseph’s son’s Ephraim and Manasseh compared to its two horns (Deut. 33:17). The Hebrew word refers to an extinct species of wild ox which has two long forward pointing horns, as seen in the sign of Taurus the Bull. The bright star in the Bull represents its eye, which is the symbol of a seer (one who “sees”). Joseph was a great seer, so the Bull was appropriate for his sign. The name Joseph means “Jehovah has added,” probably referring to his multitude of descendants. Thus, each of the four principal tribes of Israel is explicitly correlated in the blessings of Jacob to one of the four cornerstone constellations.

iii. Balaam’s Prophecy. The same imagery was repeated in the prophecy of Balaam about the destiny of Israel. He mentions that Israel shall pour water out of his buckets” (Reuben/Water Bearer), “he lay down as a lion” (Judah/ Lion) and he hasthe strength of an unicorn” (Joseph/Bull), and shall “break their bones” as does either an eagle or constrictor serpent (Dan; Num. 24:7-9). The fact that again all four figures correspond to the cornerstone symbolism indicates that this prophecy refers to the constellations associated with these tribes.

iv. Banners and Directions. Each of 12 tribes of Israel had a flag or banner with its sign. The Hebrew word for “sign” is translated “ensign” in the KJV Bible (Num. 2:2), but Hebrew commentators make it clear that the signs also refer to zodiac constellations. According to tradition, the figure of a man was found on Reuben’s banner, a lion on Judah’s, a serpent on Dan’s, and a bull on Joseph’s (Son’ Ephraim, who took his place). Their camp, in the wilderness reflected the  four banners facing these four directions: Judah facing East, Reuben facing South, Ephraim facing West, and Dan facing North, (Num 2:3,10,18,25).

v. Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength. The four cornerstone constellations also reflect 4D mankind in the symbolic four aspects of living souls: the emotional, spiritual, mental and physical. An example where the Lord seems to notice  these categories is when he tells us to serve him with all our “heart, soul, mind and strength” (Mk. 12:13). Thus “heart, soul, mind and strength” refers to human emotional, spiritual, mental, and physical aspects. Note that again these four align with the same order as the four cornerstone constellations. We also find evidence of this pattern in the four types of human personalities.

vi. Elements. The Lord also uses the symbols of fire, wind, water, and earth to represent these four aspects of living creatures. For example, he stated that “ye were born into the world by water, and blood, and the spirit, and so became of dust a living soul…” [Earth, wind, fire, water]

vii. Four Hebrew Tabernacle Colors. The Lord commanded Moses to use four colors of cloth repeated throughout the tabernacle, especially for embroidering images of the cherubim. They were blue, purple, scarlet, and linen (white), nearly always stated in that order (Ex. 26:31, 36; 27:16; 28:5-15). Those are the same as the four colors of the cherubim. 

 viii. Colors. The four elements are also represented by four colors. Red seen in fire, blood, and emotions. White represents the spiritual, just as white clothing symbolizes purity used for baptisms and sacred ceremonyPurple represents royalty as seen in Leo the Lion of the tribe of Judah. The water is blue symbolizing Peace and the spirit. These colors are also found in the Hebrew Tabernacle repeated throughout, especially in representation of the cherubim. [Ex. 26:31, 36, 27:16, 28:5-15]

A strong indicator of these four aspects in the stars is the placement of each of the royal stars sign. Regulus is located at the heart of the Lion and the color associated with Judah/East/Lion is red. The heart is considered the center of the emotions and red is the color of blood/fire, the element linked  with the emotions. Thus the red lion of Judah is linked to the emotions. Red is linked to Adam the first man/servant of God in the gospel of Mark that embodies the emotional aspect of mankind.

The ancient Greeks described Taurus as a snow-white bull. Aldebaran, the first magnitude star is located at the eye of the Bull. The eye is symbolic of a seer, as was Joseph of Egypt, associated with the Bull. Thus, the Bull is symbolic of spiritual strength, and especially the gift ministry of being a Prophet/Seer.

Blue is symbolic of peaceful tranquility, that goes with the wisdom of a good judge. When applied with a gift ministry it is the wisdom that is from above, which is first pure, peaceable and gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits [Gal. 5:22] as part of the fruits of righteousness, sown in Peace of them that make peace. This is how we can emulate the Prince of Peace, to promote true and genuine peace and Justice.

Fomalhaut is located in the head of the Southern Fish. This aligns with the mental powers. The color that is associated with this direction may vary: it can be blue, representing water. As we utilize the colors of the Tabernacle,  their scriptural basis provides us the solid foundation of God’s Word to draw our conclusions from, and avoid speculation.

Antares is located at the heart of the Scorpion. The heart is the seat of wisdom, and the scorpion/serpent symbolizes wisdom. The heart/chest can also symbolize physical/emotional strength.

Thus, the placement of all four of the royal stars in the cornerstone signs is consistent with the symbolism of emotional, spiritual, mental and physical aspects of all living souls. Note also that spiritual and physical aspects are opposite each other in the circle (white opposite purple), as are the mental and emotional (blue opposite red), also found in the Yin/Yang symbol.

It is Christ as the Crown and Apex, firstborn of all Creation, the Second Adam, who embodies the fullness of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 28:16], who completes the superstructure of both the physical [in Jerusalem] and spiritual Temples– [spiritual body] of his churches in the Bride of Israel and the NT Church of the Believer’s in Christendom, [Eph. 2:18-22]. In this way, the light of heaven is shed on the earth in Christ, the Son/Sun of righteousness [Ps. 19, Mal. 4:2] who rules over all Creation as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. [Gen. 1:14-17]. We also find this pattern of the four points of the compass in star & planet signs marking the birth of Christ.

Plate 1. The Great Pyramid and the Squared Circle. [#s]

The pattern of eastern access to the Temple and Tabernacle is also found in the order of the celestial signs surrounding the birth of Christ. We find this in the pattern of the 3 Jupiter-Venus Conjunctions, marking Christ’s birth that occurred from 3 to 1 BC. The first Conjunction was in the final degree of Cancer, near its zero line border with Leo. The second was fully in Leo, while the third was in Virgo. These three signs represent the eastern quarter of the zodiac of Israel, the heavenly image of the eastern side of the wilderness camp of the Israelites, the entrance or Way to the Door of the holy place (the truth) in the Hebrew Tabernacle. In Genesis 3:24, after God rejected Adam and Eve from Paradise, He protected the Way of the Tree of Life on the east of Eden, with the Cherubim’s fiery sword, until the redeemer could come to reactivate the way of salvation and eternal life with God, for humanity. This door ultimately led to the altar of the holy of holies, (the Life) in the inner heart of God’s temple- Sanctuary, containing the Ark of the Covenant. A temporal progression of these conjunctions perfectly matches the divine pattern of Israel’s tribal arrangement on the eastern side of the TabernacleJudah/Leo was due east of the entrance to the holy of the holies, via the holy place, centrally located between the other two eastern tribes of Issachar/Cancer and Zebulon/Virgo. This eastern door to the Tabernacle represents the way, the truth, and the life, of John 14:6, which is embodied in Jesus Christ as the light of the world, and the door of the sheep, the Good Shepherd [Jn.10], the true way which leads unto life.

The truths of Jesus as the Shepherd are vividly seen in 3 Psalms 2223 and 24, showing the sufferings and glory of the Lord. As Prophet, the Good Shepherd gave his life not only for the sheep, but for the safe-keeping of all people who would come unto him [John 10:11]. As the High Priest and the Great Shepherd, he is the first, last and only door, the alpha and omega, providing the way of access via his resurrection [Heb. 13:20] unto life, into the genuine spiritual fellowship with our Heavenly Father. As the King and Chief Shepherd, his return exhibits his final glory, coming as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, [I Pet. 5:4, Rev. 19:16].

Thus, like the eastern shepherd, Jesus Christ embodies Jehovah-Nissi: the redemptive name for God protecting His people, [Ps. 23:1].

The Door, or gate giving access to the holiest of all was covered by a veil in both the Temple & Tabernacle. The veil of the Tabernacle, which hung on four pillars, separated the holy of the holies, the central point of God’s presence among His people, from the holy place. Woven into the fabric of this linen veil, Cherubim were depicted, as a special class of angels who are always prominent in God’s throne-room. They are uniquely pictured as having four faces that correspond to the “four royal signs” of the zodiac, ruling the four-corners or celestial pillars of heaven, previously seen in Numbers 24:7-9.

Plate 2.The Molten Sea of the OT Jerusalem Temple. # [t.]
Stonehenge 27

In I Kings, the design record of the ten brazen bases of the smaller Brass Lavers, provide a strong clue that links the Cherubim with these four Cardinal Directions.

I Kings 7:25-30
25It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east: and the sea was set above upon them, and all their hinder parts were inward. 26And it was an hand breadth thick, and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies: it contained two thousand baths. 27And he made ten bases of brass; four cubits was the length of one base, and four cubits the breadth thereof, and three cubits the height of it. 28And the work of the bases was on this manner: they had borders, and the borders were between the ledges: 29And on the borders that were between the ledges were lions, oxen, and cherubims: and upon the ledges there was a base above: and beneath the lions and oxen were certain additions made of thin work. 30And every base had four brazen wheels, and plates of brass: and the four corners thereof had undersetters: under the laver were under-setters molten, at the side of every addition. Verse 29 above clearly associates the Cherubim with the lions (Leo  and the oxen (Taurus), in the design of the ten brass bases. This link is fully developed in Ezekiel’s vision at the River Chebar, which we see below. Exodus 36 gives us details of the colors used in the veil of the Tabernacle depicting the Cherubim. Let’s consider some of this color symbolism in the services of the Tabernacle and Temple.

Exodus 36:35-36 And he made a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with Cherubims made he it of cunning work. And he made there-unto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.

The veil hung from four pillars, representing the terrestrial number, and the earth’s orientation to the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon. The symbol of the number four is prominent in the imagery above, not only in the four pillars holding the Tabernacle’s veil, but also in the four Tabernacle colors shown in the veil. The four colors are blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen. Blue represents peace showing us God’s presence, as seen in the Son of God as the Prince of Peace. Purple represents royalty, as seen in Christ the King of Kings. Scarlet or Red represents blood, and is seen in the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, the high priest offering the perfect sin offering of his own life for our redemption. The linen was white, as symbols of the purity & righteousness of the Servant of God. Thus, the four colors of the Tabernacle all embody the four-fold ministry of Jesus Christ as the chief cornerstone in the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, showing his dominion over all Creation. As we’ve seen, these four pillars correspond to the four Cardinal Directions, named the equinox and Solstice seen on the ecliptic and Equator as the four-corners of the heavens. These four cardinal points correspond to the tribes, four royal signs and colors as follows:

Eagle/Aquila [replacing Scorpius below]
North/Scorpion/Scorpius/Dan/White (omitted in Num. 24, & Ps. 75:3ff)
East/Lion/Leo/Judah/Purple. (Numbers 24:9)
South/Man/Aquarius/Reuben/Blue. (Numbers 24:7)
West/Bull/Taurus/Ephraim & Manasseh/Red (Numbers 24:8)

The vision of Ezekiel at the river Chebar describes these living creatures, specifically their four faces, matching the signs of the four Cardinal Directions of the heavens. As we have noted regarding the North, it was omitted for a number of reasons. In the North we find the face of the sign Aquila the Eagle [Ezek.1:10], replacing that of his natural born enemy, the serpent-Dan/Scorpion, as is evident in the triple sign of the man Ophiuchus, as he wrestles Serpens the serpent, while stamping out the light of the Antares red-star, in the heart of Scorpius the scorpionEzekiel’s vision is recorded below.

Ezekiel 1:3-11
The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him. 4And I looked, and behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire in-folding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the color of amber, out of the midst of the fire5Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man6And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings7And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the color of burnished brass. 8And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings9Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 10As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.11 Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies.

The matching of the faces of these four living creatures with the four signs at the cardinal points in Numbers 24, is worth a closer look. First, this correlation between the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon seems an obvious celestial reference, supported by the celestial wheels within wheels connected with these Cherubim, [Ezek. 1:16, 20-22, 10:1-22]. These wheels relate to the celestial structure of the ecliptic and the Equator, as one wheel is pictured within the other, and the points where they cross are the equinoxes. One Hebrew word for “wheel” in Ezekiel, [10:2 & 10] is galgal [*H1534], a variation of Gilgal [*H1536], the “Hill of God,” [I Sam. 10:5] where Joshua set up an altar of twelve stones [Josh 4], one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word galgal is also the root origin of our wordGalaxy,” showing a galactic application of these wheels even into the modern day. Similar to the stellar reference of the 12 precious stones of the High Priest’s breastplate, as symbols of the twelve signs of the zodiac, Joshua’s altar marked their entry into the promised land, which was first deeded to Abraham [Gen. 13:14-15]. God marked the end of the Israel’s sufferings in the wilderness even as He had marked their exit from Egypt, with a miracle of parting of the waters, both of the Red Sea and of the Jordan River. He also marked the beginning of Israel’s reign of kings both in the anointing of Saul, along with the first Passover in the promised land at GilgalJoshua 5:9-10 has a figurative portrait of this initial Passover, as these “wheels of God’s justice” rolled over the heathen that stood in Israel’s way. Thus, when we view the two phases of the return of the promised seed, first in his sufferings second in his glory, we can see the following division along the lines of Jesus’ ministry as seen in the four gospels:

Sufferings

He came as a man/Son of Man/Luke/Aquarius
He sacrificed his life/Servant/MarkEagle for Scorpion

Glory

The Son coming in judgment/Son of God/John/Taurus
The Lion-king of Judah rending his prey/King/Matthew/Leo

As symbolic references to the four quarters of heaven, the 4 unified faces of these living creatures represent a composite of the celestial narrative, witnessing to the return of the promised redeemer, and his judgment on the assembly of the wicked. The 22nd Psalm reveals more details of this evident celestial pattern, in the context of the Lord’s sacrifice, in Golgotha’s foreboding shadows. This is the record of the assembly of the wicked passing their depraved judgment on the Lord, as they orchestrated the events that surrounded Jesus’ crucifixion. But as his immanent return speeds towards us, the mighty conquering judge will execute his righteous verdict with everlasting consequences for the evil ones.

Psalm 22:11-23
11 Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help.
12 Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.
13 They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion.
14 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels.
15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death.
16 For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
17 I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.
18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
19 But be not thou far from me, O LORD: O my strength, haste thee to help me.
20 Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog.
21 Save me from the lion’s mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns. [reem]
22 I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

In this Psalm, the wicked natures of those who brought about Jesus’ crucifixion are discernible in these obscene caricatures of the four winds of the host of heaven. These dark spectre’s of the Cherubim rejoiced in the Lord’s demise and death as they encircled him like dogs, ravening lions and gaping bulls, embodying the idol masks of Astrology. This was the peak of the power of this wicked assembly, but their time is past and their doom is sure. As verse 14 above tells us: Christ was “poured out like water,” which depicts him in this celestial context as the man of Aquarius, who pours the living waters of the gift of holy spirit into the saints. This also agrees with aspects of the common Hallel, as the last words of Psalm 118 rang throughout the Temple, during the Feast of Tabernacles in the last days of Christ’s ministry. We find this Biblical record in John 7.

John 7:37-44
37In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink38He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

39(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.40Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, of
a truth this is the Prophet. 41 Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee42 Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was43So there was a division among the people because of him. 44And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.

It is Christ as the Crown and Apex, firstborn of all Creation, the Second Adam, who embodies the fullness of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 28:16], who completes the superstructure of both the physical [in Jerusalem] and spiritual Temples-body [spiritual body] of his churches in the Bride of Israel and the NT Church of the Believer’s in Christendom, [1Cor. 3Eph. 2:18-22]. In this way, the light of heaven is shed on the earth in Christ, the Son/Sun of righteousness [Ps. 19] who rules over all Creation as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. [Gen. 1:14-17]

I trust this will help with further insight into the celestial signs that marked the birth of Christ and how, as Rev. Jon Nessle has taught, they are the best scientific evidence for the truth of God and His word in existence.

Happy New Year and a Joyous 2024,
In Christ
,
Agape’

Rene’

Footnotes

1. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, VP Wierwille, p.
2. “The Star that Astonished the World” Dr. Ernest Martin, p.
3. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, VP Wierwille, p. 70
4. IBID, Figure 1, Picture credit, p. 71.
4a. IBID.
5. IBID, Figure 2 picture credit, p. 61
a. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Star System
b. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Binary Star
c. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/main sequence
d. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/White dwarf
e. earthsky.org/…sky-measurements-degrees-arc-minutes-arc-seconds
f. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Dwarf star
g. earthsky.org/…s/what-is-stellar-magnitude
h. earthsky.org/…s/stellar Classification
h.1. earthsky.org/…stellar Classification
h.2. IBID
i. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/star/Red Dwarf
j. atnf.ciro.au/…/astrophysics/binary types
k. earthsky.org/…/white-dwarfs-are-the-cores-of-dead-stars
l. sci.esa.int/web/gaia
m. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 96-101, Bonnie Gaunt.
n. johnpratt.com/…lds/meridian/2001/4corners
o. IBID
p. IBID
q. IBID [https://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2001/4corners.html]
r. Figure 5 Picture credit; Witness of the Stars, p. 84, E.W. Bullinger.
s. Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid, p. 96-101, Bonnie Gaunt.
t. [pinterest.com]

 

Cuneiform Tablets, the Magi and the Star of Bethlehem

Cuneiform Tablets, the Magi, and the Star of Bethlehem

The August Blog of 2023 builds upon the last couple of articles we have posted, as it expands on Daniel’s use of the Babylonian Star Dairies as a tool to teach the Magi about the celestial signs in line with the Biblical Messianic Prophecies that would predict the birth of Christ. God did not leave Himself without witness of His only begotten Son-Jesus Christ, not only in Scripture but also in the Gospel of the Stars even as His promises to Abraham linked to the Celestial Gospels. God’s master-plan of redemption was known to mankind long before it was written in human script, even as the Messiah-the Lion of the tribe of JudahAbraham’s grandson, was prophesied in Leo, [Gen. 15:5, 49:8-10]. This month’s study reveals an ancient Babylonian Cuneiform tablet that appeared in the period of Daniel’s leadership in the royal courts over the Magi in Babylon and Persia. We will review some of the traits of what I have termed the Celestial Prelude, as the celestial signs that led up to the birth of Christ, which allowed the Magi to recognize and correctly identify the stars of the Messiah’s birth.

God’s plan to rescue humanity is embodied in Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and his birth was connected with and prophesied in the starsThe Star Gospel as found in the Old Testament, or for Judaism in the Tanakh, long foretold his birth, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension. Following the rise of ancient Babylon, the forces of king Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, the southern kingdom of Israel in 604 BC, and led most of its key people in captivity to BabylonAmong the exiles was a group of gifted and intelligent young men with their leader named Daniel. After distinguishing himself by first accurately revealing king Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and then interpreting it for him, he was rewarded with a high seat in Babylon’s royal court, that included key governmental authority, where he was made chief over all the magicianssoothsayersand wise men of Babylon. This put Daniel and his friends in key positions to influence many royal decrees that descended, not only from Nebuchadnezzar, but many of the subsequent Kings including Cyrus, during their lifetimes. As we have seen, the Babylonians were already renown in history for their study of the stars both from a perspective of science and symbolism. With the rise of Daniel and his team, their view of Scripture and Messianic prophecy influenced the royal court, regarding the coming Christ. Having the Babylonian Star Diaries, the cuneiform clay tablets at his disposal, provided valuable resources for his work in identifying and accurately teaching the Magi the celestial signs to look for, that led to the birth of Christ.

Figure 1. Old Persian cuneiform syllabary From the Tomb of Darius. 
(circa 500 BC)

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars not only enlightened his view of the OT Prophecies of Christ, but also provided the special insight needed to teach these key truths to the Zoroastrian Magi, whose monotheistic religion also influenced King Cyrus, as one of the most enlightened leaders in history. Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars was closer to the Bible Patriarchs like Noah, since it was a throwback to the initial revelation of what was first given, later corrupted in the practices of astrology and divinationrooted and further developed in Babylon. As in modern times, astrologers cast their horoscopes, while many believe that the stars fatalistically control one’s destiny. But Daniel, preserved the Tanakh, and developed his own order of scholar-disciples committed to his teaching, based on the truth of Scripturenot to include astrology or other kinds of divination, as they were strictly forbidden in the Hebrew Scriptures. Daniel spent all his adult life in Babylon and later in Persia as a high official of the kings he served, while never wavering from his true service for the One true God. When the Prophet Daniel was carried off in captivity to Babylon, it was the result of one of 27 sieges of Jerusalem in Israel, the first destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, who burnt the Temple in 587-586 BC, [2 Chron. 36:17-20], the 2nd in 69-70 AD, by Titus’ of Rome who also burnt the Temple.

In a recent study by John Wee, he provides examples of the “five major scholarly disciplines in the Assyrian Court” that provide insight into the scene that confronted Daniel in the Courts of Babylon and Persia, in his oversight of the professional court astronomers and Magi.

Scribal Learning, Commentaries, and the Lamentation Priest

The profession and its texts become more illuminated from the late Neo-Assyrian period, especially during the reigns of Esarhaddon (680–669 BC) and his son Assurbanipal (668–c. 627 BC), two monarchs who displayed particular interest in cuneiform scholarship and in celestial and other kinds of divinatory lore. Assurbanipal boasted that he “wrote on tablets the wisdom of the god Ea, the Lamentation arts,” and compiled a catalog (4R 53) listing individual liturgies ascribed to Lamentation priests. As one of the five major scholarly disciplines in the Assyrian court, the kalû (“lamentation priest”) stood along-side the āšipu (“magician / exorcist”), bārû (“haruspex /diviner”), ṭupšarru or ṭupšar Enūma Anu Enlil (“scribe /astronomer”), and asû (“physician”). Compound terms such as kalûtu or āšipūtu designated the “arts” or expertise of each profession, denoting not merely skills or proficiencies in the abstract, but also cuneiform text corpora associated with the profession. Different professions operated in ways that complemented each other. Chief kalûs like Urad-Ea and his son and successor Nabû-zēru-iddina belonged to the Assyrian king’s inner circle, and regularly wrote letters to the king concerning festival observances and kettle-drum performances before planets & gods. Other occasions, however, called for their participation in joint rites with the cooperation of court magicians. One Lamentation priest of some stature was Marduk-šāpik-zēriwho, even when (temporarily?) out of favor with the king, was influential enough to gather various professionals and apprentices under his auspices, including magicians, haruspices, physicians, astronomers, and other Lamentation priests (SAA 10, 160 obv. 47 – rev. 37). The details of his educational credentials are worth citing at length:” #1

In the reference from John Wee below we find these priests were groomed in families as they learned the “arts” of their profession from their fathers in service to the King, that included being well “read” (šitassû) in “the arts of the magician and of the astronomer” or the astronomical omen series Enūma Anu Enlil. Enlil, … I have observed the stars of the sky. I have read Šummaizbu, [Kataduqqû], Alamdimmû, Nigdimdimmû, […], Šummaālu. I learned … Under the protection of the king my lord, I have fulfilledand … I am competent in my father’s duty”. The list of achievements is impressive, including ritual performance and recitation, observances of “healthy (and) sick flesh” that may be medical in nature, and various text series on astronomical omens (Enūma Anu Enlil), omens from birth anomalies (Šumma izbu, or abbr. Izbu), omens from human physiognomy (Alamdimmû, etc.) and speech (Kataduqqû), and omens from various terrestrial experiences and encounters (Šumma ālu, or abbr. Ālu). The juxtaposition of professional arts and text series, which we see in Marduk-šāpik-zēri’s résumé, occurs also in a catalog (K 2248) from Assurbanipal’s famous library at Nineveh: “[The arts of the magician], the arts of the lamentation priest, Enūma Anu Enlil, Alamdimmû, Šumma izbu (written Sa-gig, Katadugga, Lugal-e (the myth of Ninurta’s Exploits) and An-gim dím-ma (the myth of Ninurta’s Return to Nippur). These are from the mouth of the god Ea.” #2

These Astronomer-Priests needed also to be experts in the arts of celestial calculation related to planetary movements mapped and recorded in celestial time and space resulting from their direct observation. It is reasonable that Daniel and his friends were trained in some of these skills prior to the Babylonian Captivity, and brought some of this training to the courts of Babylon from Israel. For Lamentation priests, in particular, their responsibility for rituals before planets imply existing concerns for maps of celestial time and space, and suggested motivations for developing or at least keeping up to date with astronomical ideas and methods.

Illustrating the value put on celestial prediction, Lamentation priests of the Ebabbar temple in the Neo-Babylonian city of Larsa performed a kettledrum ritual in anticipation of a lunar eclipse, which was likely based on knowledge of the Saros cycle, but which ended up actually not happening due to cumulative errors in calculation. Beaulieu (2000,12f.) has noted that, among cuneiform tablets owned or copied by descendants of Sîn-lēqi-unninni, “the largest group consists of astronomical texts,” “the second group consists of copies of rituals which were performed by the kalû priests,” …” Indeed, Lamentation priests (kalûs) of the Sîn-lēqi-unninni family and magicians (āšipus) of the Ekur-zākir family appear to account for all astronomical tablets from Seleucid Uruk, and individuals from both groups were sometimes designated ṭupšar Enūma Anu Enlil (“astronomer”). In contrast to the distinct office of “astronomer” in the late Neo-Assyrian court, the titleastronomer” became employed in much more restricted contexts in the Achaemenid and Seleucid periods, with magicians and especially Lamentation priests engaged in astronomical scholarship and occasionally adopting the title itself. The expanded roles of lamentation priest and magician could be attributed to professional ties to Babylonian temples and temple institutions, which grew in importance as patrons of traditional cuneiform scholarship under Persian and Hellenistic rule.” #3 Daniel’s influence however, would have included an emphasis in the astronomical arts and studies in reading and interpreting the actual stars and their movements for the genuine Magi, as opposed to the astrological rituals linked to observances of “cultic magic.” 

The importance of the acquisition of Cuneiform texts by these scribes was one of their duties to expand the holdings of the king’s libraries, which kept the scribes busy amongst all their other scribal obligations. “In yet another letter sent to the city of Borsippa, the king listed in detail specific titles of cuneiform works to be acquired, demanding that his scholars seek out “rare tablets that are known to you, but are not in Assyria.” As these letters suggest, the king’s agents were expected to be broadly versed in cuneiform scholarship, so as to be competent enough to recognize new or innovative compositions, to accurately copy tablets of different genres, and to categorize them according to the needs of the library. Assyrian library records, for example, show that “two (exemplars) of kalûtu” were in fact donated not by a Lamentation priest, but by one “Arrabu the magician.” This and other frequent dissonances between texts and professions led Parpola (1983, 8f.) to conclude that “the texts listed for them [i.e., the different tablet contributors] do not represent their entire private libraries but rather only that part of it which they did not need in their professional work.” In fact, the ownership (and donation) of kalûtu tablets by Arrabu the magician seems merely reflective of the way professional boundaries mapped uneasily onto the boundaries of text ownership and expertise.”#4

In this light it is logical that Daniel would have had his priest-team looking out for any cuneiform texts that would fit the traits of the Messianic prophecies of the coming Hebrew Savior-King, and that these scribes were expert enough to read these texts and identify the Messianic traits that fit the caseDaniel’s responsibilities would have included the oversight and pairing of Kings with Scholar-scribes, where he could not only steer his research in a direction that would advance the cause of the genuine Magi, but also maximize relations between his team and the ruling monarch.

A sense of the kinds of tablets owned and copied by Lamentation priests may be obtained from the excavated library in the south-east gate-building (area Le XVI3) of the Bīt rēš, the temple of the god Anu in Seleucid Uruk. The 170 or so cuneiform tablets of this library date to 192–162 BC and belonged to Anu-bēlšunu and his family of kalûs who claimed descent from Sîn-lēqi-unninni. “Also from this library is the famousList of Kings and Sages/Scholars” (BagM Beih. 2, 89) that pairs kings with sages (apkallu) or scholars (ummânu) in (mostly) one-to-one fashion, implying that scholars in later times were the intellectual successors of the antediluvian sages. Astronomical texts here include omens and commentaries on the series Enūma Anu Enlil (BagM Beih. 2, 76. 80), other celestial omens (BagM Beih. 2, 75), horoscopes (BagMBeih. 2, 81–82 and 106; NCBT 1231), an astronomical almanac (BagM Beih. 2, 83), a Calendar Text (BagMBeih. 2, 79; Wee 2016b, esp. 182), a GDBT-type text (BagMBeih. 2, 78), as well as various planetary texts, ephemerides, diaries, and other records on the positions of celestial bodies.”#5 The records we are sourcing of Babylonian star diaries and cuneiform texts, fall in the 400-year period, part of when Daniel’s oversight of the Royal Court Magi in the Babylonian and Persian empires, occurred from mid-6th century BC to the mid-2nd century BC. This would have encompassed not only Daniel’s entire adult life, but also the key Magi mentored and influenced by him for centuries.

In the reference from Rochberg below, we find the ancient idea of a Gospel in the Stars, or constellations were “Heavenly Writing” millennia in advance of Rolleston, was not only basic content in Cuneiform Tablets, but also functioned as a kind of “Rosetta Stonelexicon in translating the dead language of Sumerian into Akkadian used in Babylon.

The first of these Mesopotamian astronomical precepts is found in texts stating that the starry sky depicted [sitirti samami, sitir same, or sitir burume], “heavenly writing“—literally a hallowed cuneiform text inscribed by the star-gods themselves, (CAD 17/pt.3, p. 144; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 64, 163, 294, 299; Rochberg-Halton, 1988, p. 15 n. 54; von Soden, 1981, III, 1253, sitru, lexical section). This accords with the title of the Babylonian astrologer: tupsarru, “writer, scribe,”—an expert who read the sacred writing” of the celestial sky for signs of future earthly events to be avoided or exploited (Brown D., 2000, pp. 33-36; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 41, 45, 71, 219; CAD 19, pp. 152-153, tupsarru). The concept is summarized by Francesca Rochberg, “The metaphor may be interpreted to express the idea that a written message was encoded in the sky, and that the message was a form of communication from the gods#6

Hence, Babylonian Astronomers/astrologers were adroit grammarians proficient at reading and writing in the highly complex cuneiform writing system; a task that included mastery of their spoken tongue, Akkadian, as well as proficiency in the reading and writing of Sumerian, which was the “deadlanguage of the southern Mesopotamian people from whom the Akkadian-speaking Babylonians adopted the cuneiform script. Babylonian astrologersknowledge of Sumerian is visible in their study of the Sumerian-Akkadiandictionaries,” a point evinced by the list of texts edited by astrologers serving the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon (Lambert, 1976, pp. 313-318; Rochberg, 2004, p. 211). The circa 1800-1600 BC Sumerian-Akkadiandictionarieslisted a Sumerian logogram beside its Akkadian meaning; a Sumerian logogram consisting of a cuneiform sign or sign grouping for a Sumerian word, which was then used to represent an Akkadian word with the equivalent meaning (Huehnergard, 1997, pp. 107-111). Pertinent to the current article is that these Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries were an essential resource to the astrologer (Lambert, 1976, pp. 313-318; Rochberg, 2004, pp. 209-236). And Mesopotamian and Hellenic scholars were translating these Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries into Greek in the late first century AD, a time contemporaneous with the writing of the Gospels (Geller, 1997, pp. 6495; Sollberger, 1962, pp. 63-72). The Sumerian-Akkadian dictionaries illustrate that the cuneiform writing system was predisposed to an astounding level of polysemy, i.e., multiple meanings on a word or phrase. The latter point exemplified in the Sumerian logogram MUL, which meant “star” in Sumerian and represented the Akkadian word kakkabu, “star” (CAD 8, p. 45, kakkabu). Yet MUL also functioned as the logogram for the Akkadian nouns sitirtu, “inscription” and sitru, writing” (CAD 17, pt.3, p. 144, sitirtu, b; CAD 17, pt.3, 144, sitru), as well as the verb nabatu, “to shine brightly” (CAD 11, pt.1, p. 22, nabatu). MUL could also be read MULU, which represented the Akkadian word mulmullu, “arrow” (CAD 10, pt.2, 190-191, mulmullu). #7

This reveals root of the Sumerian concept of “Heavenly writing” with the example of the Sumerian logogram MUL [from the Cuneiform astronomical compendiumMUL.APIN text] translated not only to the Akkadian word for “star,” but also to the logogram for the Akkadian nouns sitirtu, “inscription” and “writing.” This idea that one of the oldest writing systems on the planet was an embodiment of a star-book or Gospel in the stars, is a powerful concept first utilized by the God of Noah and Abraham, prior to the Scriptures being recorded in Hebrew. As these ideas were applied to a cultural Calendar, where the people lived by them, it served as a means to honor either the true God or idols. An example of this is found in heliacal rising stars.

The calendrical significance of heliacally rising stars also fits better with descriptions such as “a constellation exceeding (the limits) of its month” (EBC obv. 5–6) immediately following in §B1. This emphasis on the heliacal rising of stars is also evident in the Gospel of Matt. 2:1-2 where the words “in the rising” in the Greek are “en te anatole” referring to the rising of a star just prior to sunrise, that the Magi had observed as they prepared to depart on their journey to Jerusalem. The star was visible until it was lost in the brightness of the sun. The “star” they observed was the king planetJupiter which we will see in reference to the Cuneiform tablet [LBAT-1601] below, became critical in meaning when it went into retrograde motion. We find an example of this in the Izbu Cunieform tablet below;

B1 Title of Izbu Tablet I (EBC obv. 5–7)

“At its heliacal rising or first visibility, a star is just emerging from the sun’s glare and is still relatively close to the sun, so dates for the first visibilities of stars served as estimates of the sun’s position on the star map during the course of a year. In this way, constellations could be assigned to certain ideal months. Due to delays or errors in intercalation, for example, months reckoned in practice could deviate noticeably from these ideal months, so that constellations appeared to exceed the limits of their expected months. Something similar happens later in LBAT 1601 (obv. 15 H–16H), where an appendix to Sa-gig tablet II (§C2α) does not actually address the incipit-title of Sa-gig tablet II (§C2) but one of its later entries. These instances alert us to the fact that, though the commentator was primarily concerned with incipit-titles, he was also cognizant of other contents of these works, exemplars of which (not only the titles) were available for his consultation. Described in this section is a planet at a point where it appears to be momentarily stationary, either when it first pops up after a period of invisibility, or when it switches from direct motion to retrograde motion or vice versa (innemid) in its movements east and west, or when it arrives at a maximum latitude in its movements north and south. The second of these phenomena, when a planet is reaching a stationary point and about to change its direction along an east-west axis, was expressed by the N stem of the verb emēdu (logogram), which very literally indicates the “meeting” or “joining together” of a planet and a fixed point in celestial space. Although this terminology is normally reserved for stationary points, the commentator extended the idea to planetary positions of first visibility and maximum latitude as well, when the planet appears stationary for a moment.”The context of these comments related to planetary retrograde motion gains importance in light of the subject matter of Izbu Tablet II below. 

§B3 Incipit-Title of Izbu Tablet II
(LBAT 1601 obv. 3 H–5H // EBC  obv. 12–13)

What “begins with the lion” here is not temporal but textual, referring to the incipit-title and teratological entry at the very beginning of Šumma izbu tablet II: “If a woman gives birth, and (the child) has a lion’s head, there will be a harsh king in the land.”

Aligned with the notion that the stars were a “heavenly writing” (šiṭir šamê /šiṭirtišamāmī ), this Izbu omen likely became activated when a planet lit up the relevant scene in the night sky. The lion was of course represented by the Lion (Leo) constellation, which lies a little west of Erua (identified as γ Comae Berenices). According to an Achaemenid or Seleucid List of Stars and Deities from Borsippa, “Erua (is called) Creatress of semen” (5R 46 no. 1: 46), reflecting a medical tradition that women too contributed seed in reproduction, perhaps modeled after how the primeval waters Apsû and Tiamat mingled their fluids as the first act of the Babylonian Creation Myth (Enūma elišh I, 3–5). In any case, the epithetCreatress of semenarose out of similarities between the nameErua” and a.ri.a (the logographic mul mul ku6 (K 42, line 22) in ACh Ištar no. 6. ma In-nu ina -ši Izbu II 1 (Leichty 1970, 45; De Zorzi 2011, 274; 2014, 393). Mul=ba-na-at ri-ḫu-tum 5R 46 no. 1: 46; Wee (2016a, 162f.).  Stol (2000, 7–8). #9

250  John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest writing for “semen”). As portrayed in the sky, Mother Erua right beside the Lion constellation evoked the image of a child born with a lion’s head.

This amounts to historical evidence not only of the Babylonian knowledge of The Star Gospel –“heavenly writing” 2500 years+ before Rolleston, but also this “Izbu tablet omen” refers to many points in line with Biblical Messianic Prophecies starting in Gen. 3:15 the first prophecy of the Promised seed in the Bible. As the tablet notes indicate, the Child with a lion’s head is an astronomical reference to Leo, and the celestial signs that would mark his birth. This also agrees with another prophecy of Leo in Gen. 49:8-10 that details the astronomical elements of the Jupiter-Regulus triple conjunction in 3-2 BC, as the king planet Jupiter [sceptre in Num. 24:17united with Regulus, the king star in the Lion’s heart. This embodies the King planetlighting up the relevant scene in the night sky.” Even if this prophecy was couched in an astrological context, the true Magi would have known how to interpret it correctly in line with Messianic prophecy. It was also a contingent statement, where the Magi were instructed to look for Jupiter in Leo as the relevant scene in the sky to be watchful for. [see traits of the Celestial Prelude] that the Magi would have gathered in their observation of the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn. The statement that “there would be a harsh king in the land” refers to a Messianic prophecy of a king who will rule with a rod of iron, [Ps. 2:6-9, Num. 24:17]. The reference to Erua (identified as γ Comae Berenices) not only refers to the Coma Supernova as the General sign of the Celestial Prelude, marking the general timeframe of Christ’s birth, but also recalls the original star picture Virgo’s decan, of the woman with her child in her lap; [Fig. 2] prior to the corruption of this decan star picture in the Seleucid List of Stars, into the picture of a woman’s wig in Coma Berenice’s. Another aspect of this is Erua’s/Coma’s title of the “Creatress of semen” as an indirect reference to the woman’s seed in Gen. 3:15, describing by the truth that God Created the seed that produced Jesus in Mary’s fallopian tubes so that Jesus would carry the innocent blood as a perfect sacrifice for all mankind, separate and distinct from the first Adam’s corrupted and sinful bloodline carried by Eve, as an astrological view of this unique event that had never occurred in previous secular history, before or since.

Figure 2. Coma Decan in the Dendera Zodiac  #10
Image result for Decan Coma

As this Coma decan of Figure 2 above comes from the ancient Dendera Zodiac, we should also recall that Axis E of this renowned zodiac represents a prophecy of the appearance of Coma’s Child, whose Axis E intersects the fish of Pisces as it extends across the circular zodiac. This tells us that the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn marked the opening of the new precessional age of Pisces, as it closed out the previous Age of Aries the Ram. [See our Dendera Zodiac Poster in the right margin of this blog page]

Figure 3. Axis E on the Dendera Zodiac. #11

Following the triple Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 7 BC was a unique triangular massing of planets. The great German astronomer Johannes Kepler referred to the Feb. 25th, 6BC triangular massing of planets; Jupiter, Saturn and Mars, as the “decisive Conjunction of 6 BC that opened our precessional age of Pisces.” As we have noted, Kepler also advanced the idea that the Magi were guided to Judea by the appearance of this series of Conjunctions.

E.W. Bullinger uncovers below, the popular belief regarding this general sign of the [Celestial Prelude] that was prevalent in and before the first century BC“a traditional prophecy well known in the East, carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star would appear in this sign [Coma] when he whom it foretold, would be born.” 2 This tradition was at least partially based on Balaam’s declaration in Numbers 24, meaning that Balaam’s prophecy holds, for our purposes, minimally a twofold import.

Numbers 24:17 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

 First, Balaam’s revelation refers to the advent of Christ the King, the ascendant bright and Morning Star, who came forth out of Jacob’s genealogical line. This genealogy was marked astronomically by the similarity in the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions surrounding both the births of Abram, Moses and Christ. Secondly, there is a celestial double meaning in the phrase: Star out of Jacob, with bearings on both the general and Specific aspects of our Celestial Prelude. The new star, or supernova in the head of the infant in Coma, visible to the naked eye for over 275 years, was the general sign, the Star out of Jacob, that prepared the Magi to watch for the aspects of the specific signs of the Celestial Prelude, which included the Jupiter-Saturn triple unions of 7 BC in Pisces. We find this second aspect of Balaam’s prophecy relating to the scepter as symbolic of the reign of the king planet; Jupiter. As we progress in our study it will become plain that Jupiter the king planet was the star that the Magi referred to as “his Star” in Matt. 2:2. The Magi had noted the triple Conjunction of signs in 7 BC, involving Jupiter and Saturn, that gave them a blueprint for the Jupiter-Regulus triple union marking the birth of Christ, starting in 3 BC. An early sign in August ofBC motivated them to begin their caravan to Jerusalem.

C2 Incipit-Title of Sa-gig Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 12 H)

The line begins with a citation of the incipit-title of Sa-gig tablet II. What appear to be dates (Month 10 Day 7 ~Month 1 Day 1) actually indicate the incipit-title of the Calendar Text series 10. 7. 11, which identifies the initial position of a virtual moon at Capricorn (sign 10)on Month 1 Day 1 of an ideal calendar. The use of Babylonian month names like (iti) (lit. “Ṭebētu,” 10th month) for zodiacal signs of the same number (i.e., Capricorn, the 10th sign) was not unusual in Calendar Texts, where an ideal year of 360 days was mapped exactly onto the sun’s ecliptic of 360°, so that each month begins with the sun’s movement into a new zodiacal sign, and the 30 days of a month correspond to the 30° of a zodiacal sign.” #12 Here we find an example of how the 12 signs of the zodiac matched their alignment in the astrology of the 12 months of their Babylonian calendar, with the 360-day year matched the 360° zodiac, depicting the Babylonian base 60” hallmark of their number system, still in use in modern times. I submit that a combination of these celestial signs pointed out in the Cuneiform Tablet [LBAT 1601] with the chart on the Characteristics of Celestial Prelude below, gave the Magi all they needed in astronomical information to lead them to Christ’s birth.

The Celestial Prelude and the Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ

In the early 2000’s when I first posted my studies on the Celestial Prelude of the Birth of Christ on [www.try-god.com], my proposal that the General Sign of the Celestial Prelude was the Coma Supernova that marked the general timeframe when the Magi should be aware and cognizant of the period leading up to the birth of Christ. The period was highlighted by the explosion and continued naked-eye visibility of the Coma Supernova, that was first reported in historical records around 134-128 BC. This was the inception of the time when the Magi would be looking for a triple planetary union with Jupiter in Leo. The precursor to this was the specific signs of the Celestial Prelude in the 7 BC triple union of Jupiter-Saturn in Pisces, the primary key that set the precedent for the actual Triple conjunction of JupiterRegulus in Leo, [see the Traits of the Celestial Prelude below.]

In previous blogs on the Coma Supernova marking the Birth of Christ as the General Sign of The Celestial Prelude, it was visible to the naked eye for a period perhaps of 275 years, as we documented in the blogs of the Celestial Prelude. The Second part of these heavenly signs that allowed the Magi to recognize the celestial markers of the birth of Jesus Christ as the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude, revolve around the triple conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC, that gave the Magi the stellar keys to breaking the code that sent them on their 800-mile journey to Jerusalem and Bethlehem to pay homage to the young king of kings. The separation of the General and Specific signs of the Celestial Prelude helped to untangle much of the confusion that has plagued this topic of study for millennia. Our realization that the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunction of 7 BC, was the primary precursor that set the pattern and stage for the actual signs of Christ’s birthremoved added confusion from this topical study. With this fresh perspective of this triple union of Jupiter-Saturn, we can point out the precise details and aspects of the celestial signs marking the birth of Christ. This is a major departure from previous astronomical proposals for the “Star of Bethlehem,” including birth timing that align with the Hebrew Holy days of their calendar. With our updated view of the triple planetary unions of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces, in 7 BC, in the proper historical context of this series of planetary unions that has been taken for Jesus’ actual time of birth by some, and also accepted as just too early to mark his birth by others, adjusts the vague and fuzzy details into clear focus. The debate between these two major camps that continues today, can finally be solved. This study will show, that the details of this celestial pageantry can even mark the very moments of the birth of the infant Jesus, with our recognition of the impact of these signs on the Magi in their search of Scripture for the revelation of the promised seed, in Rev. 12. How did the Magi know what to look for in this search? The entrance of the Babylonian Cuneiform Tablets referenced above, adds another element that fits the historical narrative of how the Prophet Daniel would have provided the best advice and clues for the Magi in their intrepid search for the only Begotten Son of God, that was so richly rewarded. The star trail that the heavenly Father left for Daniel and the Magi, leaving no stone unturned, allowed these notable priests to separate the stardust from the golden gifts that they delivered to Joseph, Mary & Jesus. The signs God left for them- a series of celestial clues for those with eyes to see and ears to hear, made provision so they wouldn’t miss this momentous occasion. This is precisely the proposal of this study that herein lies the true significance of these rare unions of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces in 7BC. Based on the details of this specific set of preliminary signs, the Magi were alerted to a series of planetary unions and heavenly signs announcing the actual birth of Christ.

The Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude of 7 BC to 5 BC  

Dates BC Conjunction of Planets Constellation
May 27th, 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Sept. 15th, 7 Jupiter, Saturn; [ring cycle], Sun & Earth aligned. Pisces
Oct. 5th, 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Dec. 1st , 7 Jupiter-Saturn Pisces
Feb. 25th 6 Triangular massing of Jupiter, Saturn & Mars Pisces
Mar. 5th , 6 Jupiter-Mars Pisces
April 15-20, 6 Lunar occultations   Series
Mar. 23rd, 5 Total Lunar Eclipse Virgo
Sept. 15th, 5 Total Lunar Eclipse Pisces

This series of planetary Conjunctions involving Jupiter certainly drew the focus of the Magi to the king planet, which they recognized as “his star.” They would have noted Jupiter’s triple planetary union with Saturn, and they knew that this union was caused by Jupiter’s retrograde motion. The Magi would have noted these triple unions involving Jupiter in both 7-5 and 3-2 BC. Therefore, the Magi would have been watchful not only of Jupiter’s motion, but vigilant also for a triple union associated with its motion. Perhaps we can begin to see the wisdom of the Heavenly Father’s choice of stellar signs, which make up this celestial epistle of introduction, for the Magi to mark the signs surrounding Jesusbirth. These clues alone would have provided the Magi much on their way to finding the Messiah, but God had a lot more in store, as the Jupiter-Saturn triple unions chased, the 6 BC massing of planets with Mars, after which followed a key Conjunction including Mars. Finally, on the heels of this Conjunction involving Mars, in the next month came a remarkable series of lunar occultations, followed by two total lunar eclipses in 5 BC. These preliminary signs not only provided the Magi with the blueprints they would need to recognize the celestial signs identifying the time frame of the birth of Christ in 3-2 BC, but they even set the pattern of Total Blood Moon Lunar eclipses, marking the victorious return of Christ. The fact that the signs of this dress rehearsal unfolded over a period in excess of two years was also a clue of what to expect, when the curtain actually arose on the celestial pageantry of the birth of Christ. The period of exactly 2 years from Sept, 15th of 7 BC to Sept. 15th of 5 BC as seen in the chart above, set the stage for two Jupiter-Venus Conjunctions bracketing the heavenly signs marking the actual birth of Christ between Aug31st, 3BC and Aug. 21st of 1 BC, we can see how the Magi would recognize these specific markers leading them to the promised seed-Jesus Christ. Also, the fact that these signs almost all occur in Pisces, is interesting due in part to an ancient eastern tradition, that the influence of the sign of Piscesthe fishes presided over the land surrounding and including Israel. Others believed that Pisces symbolized the House of Jacob, and with the obvious presence of the King planet Jupiter, would spell out why the Magi came to Jerusalem looking for the King of Israel. This relationship of Jupiter-Saturn heavenly signs linked to Israel stretched back in history even to include the births of Abraham and Moses. In the following reference to Jupiter-Saturn unions related to the birth of Moses, R.H. Allen has probably isolated the quote from Abrabanel referenced by Kepler;

“The Rabbis held a tradition, recorded by Abrabanel in the 15th Century, that a similar Conjunction took place three years previous to the birth of Mosesand they anticipated another at their Messiah’s advent.”13 

Figure 4. May 27th, 7 BC Jupiter and Saturn in Conjunction in Pisces, with the Sun and Mercury in GeminiVenus in CancerMars in Virgo and Moon in Pisces. 14

In this first preliminary sign we find Jupiter the scepter and King planet in Conjunction with Saturn, symbolic of Satan, in Pisces near dawn in the eastern sky, as a result of Jupiter’s proper motion.

birth of jesus

The first thing to notice about the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude from 7-5 BC, is that this first Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn shows the authority of the scepter of God’s kingdom resident with Saturn-Lucifer in his first estate as the Angel of light. He was set apart and alone in his authority from the celestial signs that follow, outside of the clearly marked two-year period from Sept. 15th 7BC to September 15th 5BC, containing the rest of these specific preliminary signs.

Its purpose is to mark the first estate of Lucifer as the original bright and Morning Star, second only to God the Creator, in the 1st heaven and earthhead over all the angels as the angel of light, prior to the Creation of Man in the Garden of Eden. Let’s take some time to digress here and set the background of Lucifer’s history according to the accuracy of God’s Word written in the stars, and in Scripture. This first sign refers to Lucifer in his original estate as the “star of the morning” as Isaiah 14 tells us:

Isaiah 14:12

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

draco

The demise of Lucifer is indicated in the astronomical mechanism known as the precession of the poles, with the star Thuban: alpha draconis, the brightest star in Draco the dragon, as the original pole star. The precession of the poles indicates Lucifer’s demise, because the pole star has moved from Draco and now resides near Polaris, or Al Ruccaba of the little flock” in Ursa Minor. The pole star between the feet of the crowned king Cepheus, depicts Jesus Christ in at least two ways. First, as the prominent king, and new Chief Cornerstone, since Cepheus is the crowned king, even as Regulus the king star, is between the feet of Leo, the Lion king of Judah; [Gen.49:8-10]. Cepheus also means “the branch” and is depicted as a king holding a branch/sceptre at the north pole, [Jer. 23:5, 33:15]. Secondly, and with spiritual foreshadowing, he is the head of his spiritual body, the Church. God put all things under Christ’s feet, indicating his seven-fold lordship over all Creation; [Eph. 1:20-23]. The exception to this, of course is God Himself, Who Christ ultimately subjects himself to [I Cor. 15:27-28], avoiding the pitfall of Lucifer’s egomaniacal demise. The Decan of Cepheus depicts the Royal king and redeemer coming quickly to rule, enthroned in the highest, at the northern polar reaches of the heavens. With his scepter in hand and the Northern Pole Star symbolizing all things in Creation under his feet, as seen in the capstone of the Great Pyramid, we have powerful imagery of the Authority and Dominion of the King of Kings. As the principles of Biblical Astronomy tell us, the star names relating the Biblical narrative of each constellation they appear in, relate the info. Their description of the promised seed in each constellation and decan of the Mazzaroth, as it aligns with how those star names are used in Scripturesets the standard.  There are 19 main stars in Cepheus, 3 of which we focus on here.

Zech. 6:12-13 “Thus speaks the Lord of Hosts, saying behold the man whose name is the Branch; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the Temple of the Lord.” v. 13 “Even he shall build the Temple of the Lord; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne; and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”

Here we see the promised seed of the woman clothed in the celestial royalty of absolute dominion over all Creation, corresponds to the “Branch;” the holy scion of God in light of the branch prophecies in God’s Word. As the only Crowned star picture in the heavens, the name “Cepheus” in the Dendera Zodiac, is known in ancient Egypt as Pe-Ku-hor; meaning “one coming to rule-” a consistent theme of the star names below. The 3 primary stars of Cepheus are as follows;

1. Al Deramin-he who comes quickly from the right Arm or Hand of the Father-The Hand of Blessing.
2. Al Phirk-signifying the Redeemer of the stars of his flocks [Ursa Minor and Major].
3. Al Rai-The Shepherd who bruises or breaks
. [Ps. 23; and the 7 Redemptive Names of God embodied in the Shepherd.]

Figure 5a. Cepheus Decan15

A8894510-F71A-41C7-B134-7371581E9B26

Thus, we have the Redeeming Shepherd coming quickly from the right hand of God who bruises or breaks, to redeem his flocks. An interesting note regarding these 3 primary stars at the North Celestial Pole, as the Pole star recedes according to the Precession of the Poles, each of these 3 brightest stars in Cepheus will inherit the title and function of Pole star, currently occupied by Polaris-[Al Ruccaba] of Usra Minor. Starting around 4000 AD in 1500-year intervals, these primary stars of Cepheus will occupy the coveted Northern Pole Position;”

1st  Al Deramin
2nd Al Phirk
3rd Al Rai

Cepheus as the third and final decan of the sign, “Pisces,” He is the crowned and bearded King arrayed in his royal robes, seated as if on a throne where he holds a scepter raised in his left hand stretched out to Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia is a decan constellation belonging to the next primary constellation group of “Aries, the Ram.” Jon Nessle taught us the record in his recent 8/15/23 session 1b of Chapter 5 in the OT History class, on how the King of Persia-Darius I extended his golden scepter to his Queen Esther, [Esth. 5:1-3] when she entered the royal court uninvited, resulting in saving the Jews in his kingdom, from Haman’s evil plan of genocide against Israel. With a futuristic viewCassiopeia also can represent the bride of Christ, delivered by him. Even as king Darius I saved all Israel with his extended scepter, so Christ has saved all his church. Cepheus has his foot literally planted atop the Northern Pole Star; “Al Ruccaba” as pictured in a time-lapse photo below, depicting how all the stars revolve around the King of Kings. [I Cor. 15:24-28].


Stars orbit polaris

These signs and constellations at the North Pole or circumpolar stars are reflective of the Royal Family since they never set. The ancients called them the imperishables. With the right foot of the King standing over the penned and guarded sheep of Ursa Minor, we can see Jesus the Shepherd protecting his flock of the “little dipper” from his enemies, that will be trodden underfoot.

Figure 5b. Cepheus Decan16

43B0547C-C993-458A-9C2E-5BC90774E8AE

Even in this veiled mythology we can see the light of the narrative of the returning Shepherd-redeemer shining through to deliver his flocks. Bullinger refers to this precession of the North pole and Al Ruccaba specifically as follows:

Although the star does not revolve like the others, the central point in the heavens is very slowly but steadily moving. When these constellations were formed the Dragon possessed this important point, and the star alpha, in Draco, marked this central point. But by its gradual recession, that point is sufficiently near this star Ruccaba, in the Lesser Sheepfold, (Ursa Minor) for it to be what is called “the Polar Star.” But how could it have been known five or six thousand years ago? How could it have been known when it received its name, which means the turned or ridden on? That it was known is clear: so likewise was it made known in the written Word that the original blessing included not merely the multiplication of the seed of the faithful Abraham, but it was then added, “And thy seed shall possess the gate of thy enemies,” [Gen. 22:17]. 17

This is an obvious indicator of the accuracy of these God-inspired star names [Ps. 147:4], dating back to antiquity, showing divine insight inherent in the heavens from earliest times. This establishes a previous point that the purpose of God’s Revelatory Astronomy stands in juxtaposition to the evolutionary theories governing modern scientific Astronomy or the idolatry of astrology. Bullinger’s reference also shows the witness of the stars in concert with that of the Scriptures, and how the individual words in Scripture link to star names as a consistent testimony throughout this study, and a primary theme of our blog and web-site.

This stellar transition of the pole star reflects an aspect of the transference of power from the fallen Morning star, who presided over ten categories of precious stones, representing angels [Ezek. 28:14], to the Risen Morning Star [Rev. 22:16], presiding over 12 categories of precious stones, representing the 12 tribes of Israel, the 12 signs of the zodiac, and later the 12 apostles at the foundations of the Age of Grace and the 12 foundations of New Jerusalem, [Rev. 21:10-21]. The following is a Summary of the Traits of the Celestial Prelude:

The summary below shows the specifics of the signs that led the Magi to the birth of Christ.

Characteristics of the Specific Signs of the Celestial Prelude

  • Jupiter was clearly marked as “his star.”
  • Jupiter was involved in a triple planetary Conjunction.
  • Jupiter was involved in a series of planetary conjunctions.
  • Jupiter’s retrograde motion would play a key role.
  • Jupiter’s triple union was followed by a massing of planets.
  • This massing of planets was followed by a Mars Conjunction.
  • The Jupiter-Mars Conjunction was followed by a series of lunar occultations, and 5BC total lunar eclipses.
  • This series of conjunctions would last about two years.
  • The annual twenty days when the Sun is in Virgo would be a key.
  • The September 15th alignment of Jupiter, Saturn the Earth and Sun in 7 BC that occurred in the evening at sunset, directed the Magi’s attention to the end of the 20-day period when Virgo was “clothed with the Sun.”
  • The second lunar eclipse on September 15th of 5 BC established that the Magi should be watchful of lunar activity during this time. This framed the 42 minute period between Sunset and Moonset on the only day of the year when Virgo “was clothed with the Sun and the moon under her feet.” [Rev. 12:1-5]
  • The September 15th Heliacal Rising of Jupiter and Saturn foreshadowed the Heliacal Setting of Spica, located between the setting Sun and Moon in Virgo, identifying a 30-minute period when the birth of Christ happened.

This important interlude and temporary detour into the symbolism of the first Jupiter-Saturn conjunction is required to fully grasp the significance of the spiritual war we are currently engaged in, whether we realize it or not. God has fully equipped us for victory with our panoply of spiritual weapons and armor, in Christ but we must dress and train ourselves in our renewed mind implements, if we are to be victorious, [Eph. 6:10-17]. Now we are ready to resume to our dialogue on the Babylonian Cuneiform Tablets as part of the “Esoteric Babylonian Commentary” (abbr. EBC) that represents an excerpt from a larger commentary tablet LBAT 1601, that is unusually wide in scope encompassing … medical diagnosis, cuneiform sign exercises, and magical incantations and rituals, which reinterpreted these diverse fields of knowledge in terms of astronomical phenomena. The topics selectively excerpted into EBC by a lamentation priest suggest a compartmentalization of textual expertise, consistent with professional purviews in the late 1st millennium BC. #18

Next we will look at an Appendix of the EBC below;

  • Qα Appendix to §Q (EBC rev. 4–5)

As was the case with §B2α, the appendix here belongs only to EBC, but not to LBAT 1601. The term âtu probably has the same sense that it had in §Q, referring primarily to the lexical tradition. The commentator’s aim was to ratify the conclusions reached in §Q and to relate the tripartite world of “mound, sea, and wind” to the great gods Anu, Ea, and EnlilAnu’s identity as the “primevalworld mountain rising out of watery origins certainly befitted his status as head of the Mesopotamian pantheon in late period Uruk. Some corroboration, is provided by tablet IX of the incantation series Sag-gig-ga-meš (“Headaches”): “The goddess Ištar, prior to whom (nam-an-na =ullânušša) none exists in tranquility (and) delight, allowed it (i.e., the headache) to come down from the mountain” (CT 17,22: 155–158). The expression nam-an stems from the idea that an (i.e., the god Anu) designated the “primeval” (ullânu). We are on much firmer ground with the other two major gods of the pantheon. “Ea refers to water” simply alludes to the subterranean waters of the Apsû as Ea’s domain. The epithet im-ḫur-saĝ for the god Enlil appears in the composition Enlil in the Ekur (Enlil A: 97), as well as in a bilingual passage where the epithet is left untranslated in Akkadian: “The great mountain, Enlil- im-ḫur-saĝ, whose peaks rival the heavens, whose foundations are laid in the pure Apsû” (4R 2  27 no. 2: 15–18).  To be sure, interruptive glosses such as im tu-ḫur-saĝ (“im-ḫur-saĝ – with the sign read as the logogram 15 ‘wind’”) are less common in commentaries, though there is a striking parallel in another commentary on the Babylonian Creation Myth: tu šá-a-ri, “the sign – read as the logogram 15 – (means) wind.” In view of the avowed plan for these commentaries, i.e., to bring diverse fields of knowledge under the umbrella of pan-astronomical hermeneutics, the singling out of Anu, Ea, and Enlil here most likely served astronomical purposes as well. Just as the entire cosmos was encapsulated in the basic sound patterns of cuneiform (§Q), components of this cosmos typified by the three great Mesopotamian gods were likewise inherent in the sky, since all celestial bodies traveled along three heavenly paths: the Path of Anu centered on the ecliptic, the Path of Ea to the south, and the Path of Enlil encompassing the circumpolar stars to the north. #19

We may prefer, instead, the following syntax: *im-ḫur-saĝ :im:šá-a-ru: šá-du-ú, “im-ḫur-saĝ, (with) the sign im meaning wind (and) the logogram meaning mountain.” Lambert (2013, 140: 20). The erroneous understanding d:d: ul-la-nu: d 40: mu-ú /-ṭú : d: šá-a-ri,“Girra = Anu = fire; from of old. Ea = water. Earth = the Nether-World mountain. Enlil = air” by Scurlock/Al-Rawi (2006, 371f.) has led to the astounding conclusion that these were “Mesopotamian equivalents for the four elements as conceived by Hellenistic philosophers.” #20

In the light, of “the entire cosmos was encapsulated in the basic sound patterns of cuneiform spoken words of the Creator in Gen. 1:1-2…some revealing parallels have been drawn between the Creation Epic of the Babylonian Cosmos and the Biblical Cosmos in Gen. 1, by Iurii Mosenkis, included below. This insight may help to see how these Biblical concepts were corrupted in Babylonian astrology.

Gen. 1:1-2
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was without shape (tōhū) and empty (bōhū), and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep (tehōm), but the Spirit (ah.) a [1] of God was moving (the root rh.f ‘to soar’ related to rh.m ‘to hatch’) over the surface of the water’ (Gen. 1:1–2). Let us interpret the key concepts of the passage.

Tōhū is akin to names of sea and sea monster[2]. Not only Tōhū but also the cognate Akkadian Tiamat ‘primeval water monster’ and Leviathanwater monster’ (mentioned in, Job 41) might be compared to the Egyptian constellation of the Crocodile (modern Draco).[3]

Bōhū as a cognate of Hebrew behēmōtearth monster,’ might be compared to the Egyptian constellation of Hippopotamus (Ursa Minor). [4] The Spirit of God (ah, a cognate of the Arabic legendary bird Ruhh name) can be related to the image of the Cygnus constellation (‘swan’ or simply ‘bird’ in ancient Greek astronomy). e [5]

Thus, three primordial beings in the Creation story (Tōhū, Bōhū, and Ruah) might be linked to the circumpolar (unsetting, ‘immortal’) constellations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Cygnus. Aforementioned Behemoth, Leviathan, and the monstrous bird Ziz of medieval legends might be other images of the same constellations.

On the other hand, three primordial beings of Chaos may symbolize three Babylonian zones of the heaven: tōhū may be referred to the zone of Enki-Ea the water god (the southern constellations), Bōhū may be linked to the zone of Anu the sky god (the constellations near the ecliptic), ruah refers to the zone of Enlil the air god (the imperishable northern constellations).

Behemoth’s sword (Job 40:19) and ‘the flame of a whirling sword’ which guarded the Paradise (Gen. 3:24) may be regarded as sword-shaped Cygnus or more likely as Boötes which also resembles the sword. The fall of the primordial serpent in the book of Revelation 12, may be related to such astronomical events as the exit of the North Celestial Pole from the constellation of Draco (after 2000 BC) and the moving of the constellation toward the horizon. [fall]

The throne of God (merkābāh) is a cognate of the star name of chariot (markab), in Pegasus’ decan, whereas the unsetting circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major is regarded as a chariot in ancient astronomy, [6].

Ursa Major might also appear in the image of menorah (the first description: Exodus 25:31-40) as ‘a lamp to burn continually’ (Ex. 27:20; Lev. 24:2-4). Hanuka (as the rite of altar renovation) and the burning of Hanukal Menorah may symbolize the winter location of Ursa Major in direct opposition to the rising constellation Ara (literally ‘altar’). [Rev. 1:20[7] 

[1] Hebrew ah. breath, soul, wind’, Ugaritic rh, rh. ‘id’ (О Балу, с. 413), cf. Sumerian EN.LILlord of wind’.

[2] Hebrew tehōm. ‘abyss’ or ‘ocean’ (Abb. 3:10; Ps. 42:8; night see: О Балу: Угаритские поэтические сказания, с. 358), Akkadian tâmtu sea’ and Tiamatsea monster as an embodiment of primordial chaos’ (slain by Marduk who was symbolized by Jupiter).

[3] The name of Leviathan is a cognate of Ugaritic Lotan or Lawtan (who fights Baal Hadad) and Greek (borrowed from Semitic) Ladon (Draco, according to Hyginus Astronomy); cf. also Biblical monsters Tannin (Gen. 1:21; Ps. 74:13, comments: О Балу, с. 157; the same word in Ex. 7:9 means ‘snake’, in Ez. 29:3crocodile’, in Is. 27:1sea creature’; Hebrew tannin means ‘snake’, ‘sea snake’, ‘sea beast’: О Балу, с. 363) and Rahab (Is. 51:9; Ps. 89:10), Ugaritic snake Tunnunu fighting Balu (О Балу, с. 19-20, 181–182). The division of the dragon in Babylonian cosmogonical myth means the creation of zodiac (this creation by Marduk after his victory over Tiamat is clearly described in the Babylonian epic). Draco is the primeval snake named Ophion in Orphism. However, some of these images might be influenced by the concept of Hydra constellation.

[4] Bōhū is traditionally compared to βάαυ as a primordial creature of Phoenician cosmogony (Philo of Alexandria). Crocodile (Draco) is depicted on the back of the Egyptian hippopotamus-goddess Taurt (Ursa Minor). Cf. bhmtw as the designation of еру beast-shaped constellation in Qumranб Text I. 4Q 186.1: Тексты Кумрана, СПб., 1996, вып. 2, с. 264.

[5] Arabic Roc like Indian Garuda (which captures elephants and rhinoceroses) may also be Cygnus near Ursa Minor (behemoth in Egyptian mythology). The word ah means ‘air’ and ‘wind’ in the Bible (Dobin, J., p. 215), and this word might be compared with Sumerian; En-lil, ‘god of wind’, as the lord of the northern sky; cf. also Eg. Shu, the god of air, and the first bird on the first hill (perhaps, the North Pole) in Egyptian cosmogony. [Bennu bird]

[6] Cf. also Cassiopeia constellation, associated with a throne in ancient Greek astronomy.

[7] Ursa Major is known also as the Minoan Double Axe in ancient Crete. #21

The last element we want to add for your consideration of the idea that the Cuneiform Tablets, were referred to as “heavenly writing.” and their possible link to the Gospel in the Stars. Evidence has surfaced that indicates that there are two celestial forms of history authentication related to Scripture. From Greece came the belief in katasterismos, i.e., that the constellations depicted tableaux of miraculous earthly events that had been transferred onto the stars. And from Mesopotamia came the belief that the constellations depicted divine, cuneiform writing” that imparted inviolable truth through wordplay encrypted in each star-god’s name or epithet. Originating from Mesopotamia was the astrological belief that the constellations depictedheavenly writingthat divulged unassailable truth through the medium of wordplay encrypted in the star-gods’ titles. Cuneiform literature confirms that Mesopotamian’s construed pun-based wisdom as a form of divine revelation, and recorded such findings in their religious mythologies as if they were historical facts. #22

The Hellenic tenet called katasterismos, or “placing among the stars,” proclaimed the forty-eight ancient constellations as a sacred record of historic events that had occurred on earth—each star-figure engaging in one or more of the preternatural feats that made it, like Jesus, immortal (Cancik, Schneider, 2005: 7, 33-34; Condos, 1997: passim). Moreover, Greek celestial mythology written seven centuries before Jesus’s birth attests that Orion had the ability to walk upon the sea. It will be shown that this supernatural power, which was reported as historical fact, appears to have been derived from astronomical observation. When Orion is plotted on a star-map his outstretched legs depict him striding away from celestial land and onto the astralSea” delineated by the eight, contiguous aquatic constellations consisting of the Dolphin, Goatfish, Southern Fish, Water-pourer, Sea Serpent, River, Twin-Fishes, and Ship; an act accentuated by the fact that his front foot, demarcated by the star Rigel (P Orionis), is also the first star (X Eridani) in the River constellation, Eridanus. #23

Figure 6a. The Star Rigel in Orion’s foot as the first star of the celestial river Eridanus. Fig. 6ab Eridanus Super-void. #24

EarthSky - A winding river of stars called Eridanus 🌌 Tonight, you'll need a very dark sky in order to see Eridanus the River. You won't see this one from the city,The Eridanus Supervoid up close shows galaxy superclusters flat-lined across its massive walls ...

When Matthew, Mark, and John inspected the place where Jesus had ascended, ouranos, “heaven, firmament,” they saw Orion in the act of walking upon the celestialSea” depicted by the eight, adjacent watery constellations; with wordplay in one of the cuneiform titles for Orion imparting the phrase “Walking upon the Sea.” Other puns in Orion’s cuneiform title yielded “Son of God” and “Anointed-One” – terms that accorded precisely with the evangelists’ conception of Jesus. We argue that these correlations compelled the Gospel authors to equate Orion with Jesus and ascribe the constellation’s astronomically based “sea walking” ability to him as well. Moreover, it will be shown that the setting of Jesus’s Sea-Walk miracle corresponds with the celestial landscape surrounding Orion; and that wordplays in Orion’s stellar Sea-Walking tableau correlate with the common themes found in the Gospels’ Sea-Walk narratives. #25

Seven-hundred years before the birth of Jesus the Greek astronomer-poet Hesiod wrote:

Orion … the son of Euryale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon, and that there was given him as a gift the power of walking upon the waves as though upon land” (Hesiod, 1977, pp. 70-71). Interestingly, this claim appears in the Astronomia, “Astronomy,” a text whose subject matter was astronomical in nature. The Greek mythographer Apollodorus reiterated this claim around 50 BC, “Poseidon bestowed on him [Orion] the power of striding across the sea.” #26

And decades before Jesus Sea-Walk miracle took place, the Roman astronomer-poet Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC-17 AD) wrote, “Orion … He had the ability of running over the waves as if on land. . .” (Grant, 1960, p. 221). How did Hesiod and later Greco-Roman astronomical writers conclude that Orion could walk upon the sea? The answer is intimated by Hesiod in the Astronomia. Shortly after proclaiming Orion’s miraculous sea-walking ability, the Earth-goddess sent up a giant Scorpion to pursue Orion and sting him dead. Zeus placed both Orion and Scorpius in the sky as a testimony to this monumental chase scene: as Scorpius rises in the east, Orion sets in the west; a celestial picture simulating the primordial chase undertaken by these two constellations. The simultaneous rising of Scorpius and setting Orion seen in Fig. 8 below, inspired the supernatural story of his deathreported as historical fact in Hesiod’s ‘Astronomia.’ Pertinent here is Hesiod accepted the supernatural, stellar chase scene portrayed in Scorpius-Orion as an event that had once taken place on earth because it was depicted in the heavenly realm of the constellations; the still-frame of Scorpiuschasing Orion, serving as the proof upon which this miracle was based. #27

Figure 6b. Ophiuchus viewed between and above Scorpio and Sagittarius. [public domain]

This section of the sky between Sagittarius and Scorpius, is also where Kepler’s Nova exploded onto the scene at Ophiuchus’ heel, at this truly critical juncture or crossroads in the heavens. This is where the ecliptic, that houses the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, [Ps. 19:4-6crosses the Galactic equator! It is highly fascinating that Kepler’s Nova exploded so close to the star Saiph; meaning the wounded one, as if to specifically mark it. The Planisphere axis intersects the star Saiph, in the LXX Greek meaning bruised,” located in Ophiuchus‘ heel, the same Greek word found in Gen. 3:15 for “bruised,” while Ophiuchus‘ other other leg is poised over the head of the Scorpionstriking his fatal blowcrushing the enemy-scorpionKepler’s Supernova marked the celestial inception point of this Planisphere Axis of the Heavens, in kindred harmony with the Jupiter-Saturn cycle of conjunctions, which over 1600 years previous, had qued the Magi to begin their trek to Jerusalem for the birth of Christ.

With what we have already documented in previous blogs concerning the Gen. 3:15 Planisphere Axis, this Planisphere Axis inter- sects a series of Stars, constellations and decans, telling a very specific story-of the prophecy of Gen. 3:15 which is still in the process of becoming history as Jesus has already fulfilled much of these star prophecies, sealing the dragon’s doom! The root and basis of all world mythology, not only spanning the Ecliptic and the Galactic Equator with the Celestial Gospel, also links the words of Scripture, to specific star names in reference to these prophecies of the Promised Seed Jesus Christ.

Figure 6cThe Ecliptic in relation to the Galactic Equator.

When we consider the location of Kepler’s Supernova in close proximity in the Star Saiph in Ophiuchus’ Heel, being stung by the Scorpion, we are witnessing the first of multiple heel alignments on the Planisphere Axis relating different aspects of the victory of the Promised Seed over the Serpent, as promised in Genesis 3:15Figure 6c above, shows the Galactic Axis in harmony with the Axis of the Planisphere extending through Ophiuchus’ Heel between Sagittarius and Scorpius, rising in the east with Orion setting in the western Galactic Plane. Here Orion’s foot star-Rigel is the first star of the heavenly river Eridanus also intersecting the celestial equator, depicting the relationship at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, unifying the message of The Star Gospel on the ecliptic and equator via the Galactic plane.

Figure 7. Ophiuchus, battling Serpens as the Scorpius stings his heel. #28

the serpent scorpion

In the record of Scripture, with the celestial depiction of the first Messianic Prophecy of Gen. 3:15, we find this stellar chase scene portrayed between Scorpius-Orion at opposite ends of the heavens; 

Gen. 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Here we have a reference to the spiritual battle between light and darkness, embodied between the serpent and its seed, versus the Woman with her seedGod is telling the serpent that the seed of the woman, who is Jesus Christ would bruise the serpent’s head, indicative of the fatal blow that Christ inflicts on the enemy, as opposed to the scorpion stinging Christ’s heel, showing Christ’s sacrifice, as short-term sufferings that freed all mankind from the serpent’s curse. While the man Ophiuchus’ heel is stung by the Scorpion, he is wrestling the serpentSerpens for Coronathe Crown of Dominion aboverevealing how our spiritual adversary, shown as a serpent works through his seedthe scorpion, in conflict with the man, fitting the three Scriptural elements of the star picture; in Fig. 7, the Man vs. the Serpent and its Scorpion-seed. In Hebrew the Scorpion is Akrab, meaning war or conflictagainst the Man, for dominion over Creation. The Church of the body of Christ is already walking in this victorious power, as the entire kingdom of the serpent and his seed is crushed under our feetin Christ. We must recognize this unalterable victory as a past tense reality, we only need to stand on the truth of God’s Word to reap the full benefits of this eternal victory, both in this world, and the coming one.

This story from Gen. 3 is depicted in astonishingly powerful ways in the Gospel in the Stars, as the truths the stellar axis brings to light as it intersects stars across the heavens in Fig. 8 below.

Figure 8. Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis. #29

This “Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis” extends through the North pole intersecting a number of constellations and notable decans that relate aspects of the Genesis 3:15, theme from various teaching perspectives. Starting at the bottom of the planisphere, we find the Scorpion constellationScorpius, whose prominent tail stinger is located under the heel of Ophiuchus the Serpent-bearer sign, who is engaged in a struggle with the serpent-Serpens. The axis intersects the star in Ophiuchus‘ heel, called Saiph, in the LXX Greek meaning “bruised.” [30] This is the same Greek word found in Gen. 3:15 for “bruised,” while Ophiuchus’ other leg is poised over the head of the Scorpionstriking his fatal blow in crushing the head of the enemyKepler’s Nova marked the star Saiph to open the Galactic Axis where it crosses the ecliptic path of the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, calling our focus to this axis, and its alignment of Heels across the heavens between two Stars named “Saiph,” at each end of the Genesis 3:15 Axis. We find further evidence in the lunar signs of the evening on Wed., April 28th, after Christ was crucified. During this evening the 1st Full Moon following the Spring Equinox, in 28 AD, the Moon passed over Ophiuchus’ foot-the Man who just laid down his life, by shedding his sinless blood to redeem all mankind, fulfilled this key part of the Messianic Prophecy of Gen. 3:15. This Paschal Moon seen from Jerusalem rose about 7:16 pm, and set about 6:15 am Jerusalem standard time, the eve of April 28th and morning of the 29th of April, 28 AD. [31]

I submit that the Mythology of Greece, Mesopotamia and many other ancient earthly nations, are all rooted as corrupted forms of what Joseph Campbell called the World Monomyth. In his works he embodies a framework for Comparative Mythology, wherein the Hero’s Journey is a template where he embarks on his journey, has transformative adventures, and returns home. #32  In the Genesis 3:15 Planisphere Axis as this axis extends through the next sign, we find it intersecting the decan of Scorpius called Hercules, whose foot is placed over the Head of Draco the serpentdragon whose location over the North pole, has been removed from it and now resides under King Cepheus’ foot over the tail of Ursa Minor. The axis runs between the two heads of Hercules and Ophiuchus, who are aligned, but inverted to each other. The star in Hercules’ head is Ras Al Gethi, meaning the head of him who bruiseskeeps with the Gen. 3:15 theme. 33 As this axis extends down to Hercules’ left foot, it shows the result of Ophiuchus‘ battle with the Serpent, since Hercules left foot crushed the Dragon’s headdestroying the devil’s works. As Hercules is kneeling, his right heel is lifted up as if wounded, in some star maps as Fig. 9 with a spear through his heel, [Rev. 12:9-10, Ps. 74:12-14]. Thus, we can see the source of the Greek Myth of the Labors of Hercules, not to mention Jason and his Argo-nauts pursuing the Golden Fleece; the ever-shining constellations as they tell of the greatest Hero of All-Jesus Christ!! Even as “Joshua” is the Hebrew equivalent of “Jesus,” so “Jason” is the Greek namesake of our Lord of Lord’s.

Figure 9. The Decan of Hercules

greek mythology of hercules

A.R. George writes: In ancient cuneiform scholarship the writing of a name can be adapted to impart information about the nature and function of its bearerJohn 20:30-31 leaves an intriguing clue regarding the nature of Jesus’ miracles, referring to them as semeia, signs,” the plural form of semeion. And although the Greek semeion indeed meant “sign, mark, omen”—it also had a more nuanced meaning: “a Godly sign, an omen, especially of the constellations regarded as signs” (Liddell & Scott, 1997, p. 727). #34 Once again most mythographers have it backwards since the constellations existed prior to mankind, and were untouched by the infected hand of man, being the handiwork of the Almighty.

Moreover, one of the astronomical epithets for Orion, SUKAL, “Vizier, Messenger,” also represented a revered type of priest whose title meant “Anointed-One,”the cuneiform equivalent to the Greek-Christos. Their highest order of such priests assumed the designation, “Anointed-One-of-the-ApsU,” implying they held sway over the Apsu, i.e., the stellar Sea that Orion was walking upon in Greek celestial mythology. In an era when celestial punning was construed as religious revelation, it seems likely that Matthew, Mark, and John would have conceptualized this as an epiphany imparting that Orion was the avatar of Jesus, whose Sea-walk also included the disciples’ boat- correlating with Argo, the Ship constellation stationed just southeast of OrionJesus. How the Argo may have come to be seen as a Boat full of “disciples” is found encrypted as wordplay in its Mesopotamian title. The Argo appears to be the derivative of a MesopotamianCargo Ship” or “Barge” written Makurru in AkkadianCuneiform astronomical texts confirm that this stellar Ship was found in the “path of Ea,”-which is the southern region of the night sky (Hunger & Pingree, 1989, pp. 35-39). Mythical texts also confirm its presence in the Apsu, or celestial Sea” that JesusOrion is walking upon; (Kramer & Maier, 1989, pp. 42-43). #35

In summary, some key elements in this study include; the LBAT 1601 Cuneiform Tablet, and how it could have aided the Magi in their search for the Star of Bethlehem, and how this tablet meshes with the Traits of the Celestial Prelude, as a likely basis for Daniel to teach the Magi what to look for in their search. These Cuneiform Tablets could have also provided a historical medium to transmit the prophetic content of the Celestial Gospel from ancient times. As we continue efforts to uncover more documentation along these lines, we could see added evidence for the Gospel in the Stars. In recognition of this, I’m signing off in Cuneiform this month!!

God Bless! 

Rene’


Footnotes

1. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
2. IBID, 10, 212 obv. 9 – rev. 1. 9–15, (SAA 10,160 obv. 36–45)
3. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
4. IBID, Parpola (1983, 8f.)
5. IBID, (BagM Beih. 2, 89, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81–82, 83 and 106; NCBT 1231, Wee 2016b, esp. 182)
6. (Rochberg-Halton, 1988, p. 15, n. 54)
7. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest.
8. IBID, B1 Title of Izbu Tablet I (EBC obv. 5–7)
9. IBID, §B3 Incipit-Title of Izbu Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 3 H–5H // EBC  obv. 12–13)
10. Figure 2. picture credit for Coma Decan, p. 39 Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger.
11. Figure 3. picture credit, Axis E on the Dendera Zodiac. The Skies in Memory, John Lash in The Atlantis Blueprint, Wilson & Flem-Ath. p. 171.
12. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation Priest. [C2 Incipit-Title of Sa-gig Tablet II (LBAT 1601 obv. 12 H)]
13. Star Names their Lore and Meaning, p. 341, R.H. Allen
14. Figure 4 picture credit, May 27th, 7 BC Jupiter and Saturn in Conjunction in Pisces, from Starry Night Pro, astronomy software.
15. Figure 5a. picture credit for Cepheus Decan. [https://emmausroadministries.international/2020/06/05/the-real-story-in-the-stars-part-22-cepheus-the-king/]
16. Figure 5b. picture credit for Cepheus Decan. [https://emmausroadministries.international/2020/06/05/the-real-story-in-the-stars-part-22-cepheus-the-king/]
17. Witness of the Stars, p. 152, E.W. Bullinger.
18. John Z. Wee, Pan-astronomical Hermeneutics and the Arts of the Lamentation PriestEsoteric Babylonian Commentary
19. IBID, Qα Appendix to §Q (EBC rev. 4–5)
20. IBID, Scurlock/Al-Rawi (2006, 371f.)
21. THE HISTORICITY OF THE BIBLE, CHRONOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHAEOASTRONOMY by Iurii Mosenkis. [ref. a-h]
22. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail: jjmchugh72164@comcast.net
23. Ibid, (Toomer, 1998, p. 384; Aratus, 1997, pp. 98-99, 316; Condos, 1997, p. 105)
24. Figure 6a picture credit [Earthsky.org] Fig. 6ab picture credit Eridanus Supervoid. [pinterest.com]
25. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail: jjmchugh72164@comcast.net
26. IBID, (Apollodorus, 1967, pp. 30-31, brackets inserted)
27. IBID, (Hesiod, 1977, pp. 70-73; c.f., Aratus, 1997: 118121).
28. Figure 7 picture credit, Witness of the Stars, Book cover, E.W. Bullinger.
29. IBID, Figure 8 picture credit
30. Strong’s Concordance [H7779], James Strong.
31. Biblical Astronomy Newsletter, Bob Wadsworth
32. An Introduction [revised edition] Joseph Campbell.
33. Witness of the Stars, p. 59, E.W. Bullinger.
34. How Orion’s Ability to “Walk upon the Sea” Was Attributed to Jesus: The Astronomical Basis for Christ’s Sea-Walk Miracle, John McHugh, M. A. BYU; Provo, Utah, USA E-mail: Freedman, 1992, I, pp. 472-474)
35. IBID, (McHugh, 2016, pp. 90-94; Hunger & Pingree, 1989, p. 39; CAD 10/pt.1, p. 141; Gossmann, 1950, no. 254; Salonen, 1939, pp. 12-19; ePSD: magur).

The Prophet Daniel, the Magi and King Cyrus.

The Prophet Daniel, the Magi and King Cyrus.

It has been a true blessing and honor to provide this monthly research blog for the believers, and in recognition of the 9th year Anniversary of our try-god.org research blog this month, we are looking into more history of the Prophet Daniel, especially during the time of King Cyrus. A number of recent blog topics have tracked with Jon Nessle’s OT History class, and while last month’s blog focus was on Daniel’s potential impact on the appearance of the technology found in the Antikythera device, this month’s blog sights are set on Daniel’s times with King Cyrus, and how the impact of these two singular men of God is still evident today. The Prophet Daniel was strategically placed as a top official in the administrations of a number of kings, along with his friends and fellow Magi, as agents to ensure God’s plan would be enacted. The subject of this blog will be to uncover certain specifics not only regarding the history of the Magi, but also pertaining to Daniel’s relationship with King Cyrus, that would have not only made Daniel privy to the detailed plans to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, but also how aspects of these architectural plans are found in other examples of cultural architecture in the ancient middle east.

For centuries Jerusalem has played a central role in the spiritual perspective of the three major monotheistic religions. For Israel and Judaism throughout the world it is the focus of ancient yearnings, a living proof of archaic grandeur of the Golden age of Kings David and Solomon, and a center of national renaissance; for Christians it is the scene of both Jesus‘ triumphant entries into Jerusalem offset by the agony and victory of his perfect sacrifice. For Islam it is the goal of the Muhammad’s mystic night Journey and site for Muslims most sacred shrines. For all three faiths it is a holy city, a center of pilgrimmage, and an object of devotion. As the center of Jewish religious reverence, the most sacred spot in Jerusalem is the Temple Mount, where once stood the most sacred Holy of the Holies. Jerusalem’s oldest architectural remains show that Jewish life was centered around the Temple. As the Temple was the center of religion for the Jewish people and the focus of their life, both spiritually and physically, when the temple was destroyed, so was a part of the Jewish people. Ever since, the Jews have been waiting for a re-establishment of the Temple in Jerusalem. Jews and non-Jews alike travel from all over the world to visit the Western Wall, the only remains from the Temple. Thus, in modern Jerusalem the Western Wall is the most important center of prayer and pilgrimage, while other holy places include the King David’s Tomb on Mount Zion, and the Mount of Olives with its ancient Jewish cemetery, and the tombs of priestly families in the Valley of Kidron.

Central to God’s plan for humanity is Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and his birth was connected with and prophesied in the stars. The Star Gospel as found in the Old Testament, or for Judaism in the Tanakh, long foretold his birth, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension. Following the rise of ancient Babylon, the forces of king Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, the southern kingdom of Israel in 604 BC, and deported most of its key people. Among the exiles was a group of gifted and intelligent young men with their leader named Daniel. After distinguishing himself by first accurately revealing king Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and then interpreting it for him, he was rewarded with a high position in Babylon’s royal court, which included key governmental authority, where he was made chief over all the magicians, soothsayers, and wise men of Babylon. This is a central aspect of the narrative as it placed Daniel and his friends in key positions to influence many of the royal decrees that would come down, not only from Nebuchadnezzar, but many of the subsequent kings including Cyrus, during their lifetimes. As we have recently seen, the Babylonians were already renown in history for their study of the stars both from the perspective of science and symbolism. But with the rise of Daniel and his team of gifted geeks, they were able to bring a positive spiritual perspective to these studies in light of the prophecies of the coming Christ. Having the Babylonian Star Diaries, the cuneiform clay tablets at his disposal, provided a valuable resource for his work in identifying and accurately teaching the Magi the celestial signs to look for, leading to the birth of Christ.

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars not only enlightened his view of the OT Prophecies of Christ, but also provided the key insight needed to teach these critical keys to the Zoroastrian Magi, whose monotheistic religion also influenced King Cyrus, as one of the most enlightened leaders in history. As seen in the principles of the Cyrus Cylinder– his example of leadership was the first true model of diversity, that included successful rule over nations with different languages, belief systems and Religions. Since a number of Persian Kings were of Zoroastrian Faith including Cyrus, this most likely provided a source of religious tolerance exhibited in his rulership. Cyrus’ influence in ruling conquered nations impacted many other kingdoms in history including the Roman Empire, who applied similar principles in their rule of conquered nations.

Daniel’s knowledge of the Gospel in the Stars was closer to the original, because the initial revelation of what was originally given, became corrupted in the practices of astrology and divination much of which was rooted and further developed in Babylon. As in modern times, astrologers will cast their horoscopes, while many believe that the stars fatalistically control one’s destiny. Daniel, however, preserved the Tanakh, and developed his own order of scholar-disciples committed to his teaching, based on the truth of Scripture, not to include astrology or other kinds of divination, as they were strictly forbidden in the Hebrew ScripturesDaniel spent all his adult life in Babylon and later in Persia as a high official of the kings he served, while never wavering from his true service for the One true God. When the Prophet Daniel was carried off in captivity to Babylon, it was the result of one of 27 sieges of Jerusalem and its Temple, the first destroy it by Nebuchadnezzar, who burnt the Temple in 587-586 BC, [2 Chron. 36:17-20], the 2nd in 69-70 AD, by Titus and his Roman legions who also burnt the Temple. In both cases Jerusalem lay desolate for the next 50 years on the Jubilee Calendar. Daniel had the occasion to interpret Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the large statue of 4 beasts in Daniel 7, as Nebuchadnezzar was the first king of the first golden kingdom of Babylon, the golden head of this statue. It was Daniel’s privilege to also serve the King of the 2nd kingdom of Persia in this statue, of 4 beasts who embody the four beasts of the king’s dream. 

Daniel 7:17
These great beasts, which are four, {are} four kings, {which} shall arise out of the earth.

This was where the co-regent king Belshazzar hosted a big banquet during which a hand appeared and wrote on the wall the words, “Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin.” Daniel was called to provide the interpretation that was, “God has numbered your days; you have been weighed in the balance and found wanting; and your kingdom has been given over to the Medes and the Persians.”

That night the Medo-Persian army conquered the city, but Daniel was retained as a government minister. He also had several dreams,  described in chapters 8 – 12 of the book of Daniel, one of these dealt with the coming of Christ: “Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to make an end of sin, to make atonement for iniquity, to bring in ever-lasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the most holy place. So you are to know and discern that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince there will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; it will be built again, with plaza and moat, even in times of distress. Then after the sixty-two weeks the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing, and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. And its end will come with a flood; even to the end there will be war; desolations are determined.” [Dan. 9:24-26, Zech. 9:9] We have a detailed study on this important prophecy in Daniel 9 in the preceding link that you can refer to for further analysis.

The above prophesy indicated that the Messiah would be “cut off” and “the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary.” This was fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus and the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple by the armies of the Roman general Titus in 70 AD, In addition to writing his account in the book named after him, Daniel had occasion to teach this information to his inner circle of adherents. Their descendants centuries later-the Magi, based on Daniel’s teachings, were enlightened of the General time when Jesus was to be born. A series of celestial signs were given to them described in the Bible as a “star” as in the OT Biblical prophecy: “I see him, but not now, I behold him, but not near. A star shall come forth from Jacob…”  Numbers 24:17

Sometime in the first half of 3 BC a Jewish girl named Mary in Nazareth, a town in northern Israel, became pregnant. Later that year when she was expecting, her betrothed Joseph and Mary left their hometown, in response to a Roman census for their area. They, along with their countrymen, were obliged by the Romans to register in this census ordered by the Roman emperor Augustus. As a result, they returned to their ancestral city or town in that year-3 BC. This couple Joseph and Mary, being from the tribe of Judah, had to register in Bethlehem, the ancestral town of King David. With an abundance of travelers on the road, the inns and guesthouses were full, so when they reached Bethlehem, accommodations were in short supply, but they were able to secure lodgings with some of their extended family. With Mary nearing her birthing time, in the late summer weeks, on the eve of 11 Sept. 3 BC, on Rosh Hashanah, the 1st day of the Judean New Year and the “feast of trumpets,” their son was born.

As this series of unique celestial signs continued, a month or so before, in August 12, 3BC the planet Jupiter, the King Planet, with Venus, the bright and Morning Star, had risen together in the east. Then on Sept. 14th, Jupiter joined with Regulus, the “king star” of the constellation Leo the Lion, of the tribe of Judah. These unusual conjunctions proceeded through the winter into the following year, culminating with the union of Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury in late summer of 2 BC. The planets then went their separate ways, with Jupiter continuing in its path until Dec. 25th, on the winter solstice, it moved into the constellation Virgo, the virgin, appearing to stand still in retrograde motion. Prior to this period, an even more eye-opening celestial event took place. A bright star appeared in a decan of Virgo called Coma, the virgin, long considered the symbol of Israel and later of Christianity. This brilliant star-the Coma supernova outshone and dimmed all the other stars in same region of the sky. As indicated above, celestial signs were carefully studied by many in the ancient world, especially in Persia, when the kings had long employed court astronomers, like Daniel. The Romans themselves were aware of Biblical prophecies– of a new-born king even as scripture records of King Herod, who consulted the Jewish priests to find out where Jesus was to be born.

As followers of the Prophet Daniel, the Magi star-researchers were well versed in the Hebrew Scriptures and especially those from Daniel in addition to the doctrines of Zoroaster. They knew that a branch would grow out of the tribe of David, who would be Messiah or Savior as their own prophets foretold. The Magi’s two main branches consisted first of those who followed and remained faithful to the teachings of Daniel, versus those who followed the corrupted ways of astrology, divination and magic. The Magi who found the child Jesus were the genuine, while the “magicians” were those, as Scripture mentions; Simon the Sorcerer in [Acts. 8:9-24] and Bar-jesus in [Acts. 13:6] also originally called Magi, who departing-followed a corrupt path. This is evidence that at the time the Magi represented those respected of Persian culture and religion. The term is often translated as “magician.” However, most likely the Magi (priests) in the sense of Zoroastrianism are meant here, rather than sorcerers in the Bible records of Acts above.

The word “Magi” should not be equated with the word “magician“, but according to Herodotus, it refers to people from the tribe of the Magi. In the realm of the Parthians this was the priestly class, like the Levites in Israel. The Medes were an ethnic group, from Media, which was west of Parthia (Persia/Iran). Most Magi resided in and around Ecbatana, near modern Hamadan in Iran. Noting that there were seven cities called Ecbatana, four of them in Persia, suggests that the name simply designated a capital or royal city. From classical and other sources, the name variously occurs: Greek: Ekbátana, Agbátana (reading Apobátana in Isidore of Charax, 6, should be Agbátana), Ecbatana, Ecbatanas, Partiorum (Tabula Peutingeriana), BibleAcḥmeta, Arm. Aḥmatan, Hamatan, Ekbatan, Mid. Pers. Hamadān, etc. The citadel of Ecbatana is also mentioned in the Bible in Ezra 6:2, in the time of Darius I, as part of the national archives. 1#

In the inscription of Darius I at Behistun the name of the city appears in Old PersianHamgmatāna, Elamite-Ag-ma-da-na; Akkadian-A-ga-ma-ta-nu. It is usually interpreted as derived from *hangmata- the “[place of] gathering” and the summary that, prior to the formation of the Median state, some kind of popular assembly met there (Herodotus, 1.97, does mention a Median assembly that appointed Deioces king, but does not specify its location). 2#

Figure 1. The Behistun Rock with inscriptions. [pinterest.com] 3.

Persia /Iran Bsotun / Darius the Great legacy carved in stone | Persia ...

E.W. Bullinger in his Companion Bible Appendices #57 on The Genealogy of the Persian Kings, states “Sir Henry Rawlinson published a complete translation of the trilingual Persian text on the isolated rock of Behistun [or Bahistun] which rises 1700 feet out of the plain on the High Road from Babylonia to the east; in which Darius Hystaspis gives his own genealogy. The famous rock derives its name from the village of Bisitun or Bisutun, near its foot. It is on the High Road from Baghdad to Tehran about 65 miles from Hamadan on the site of the ancient Ecbatana.” On this rock on which Darius Hystaspis had the principal events of his reign carved, commences with an account of his Genealogy. “Darius Hystaspis is thus called to denote him as Darius the Son of HYSTASPES; and to distinguish him from Darius the Mede, who was ASTAYGES, his grandfather. According to HerodotusASTAYGES was the son of Cyaxares, the son of Phraortes [II], who was the son of Deiokes, who again was the son of Phraortes [I]. Consequently, we have under these three names, titles, or appellatives, from Greek, Median, and Persian sources, three persons, called by Herodotus-ASTAYGES, by Darius-ARSAMES, and by Cyrus-Cambyses, who are in reality one and the same. Thus, in all these identifications from independent sources and authoritiesASTAYGES=Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1, Arsames= Artaxerxes of Ezra 6: 14, Neh. 2:1, and Cambyses=Darius the Mede of Dan. 5:31. 4#

According to Herodotus (1.98), Ecbatana was chosen as the Median capital in the late 8th century B.C. by Deioces, founder of the Median dynasty which ruled Media for one and a half centuries. Herodotus describes the royal complex as a palace, treasury, and military quarters built on a hill and encircled by seven rings of walls so that each out-topped the one beyond it, by the height of the battlements. Such a citadel on a prominence surrounded by concentric rings of walls corresponds to representations of Median strongholds in Neo-Assyrian reliefs.5

Figure 2. A. Ecbatana Plan [pinterest.com] side by side with the Plan for Jerusalem. B. [pinterest.com] 6.

Bolivia and the Sumerian Connection | Sumerian, Ancient persia, Ancient near eastPlan of the city in biblical times : the City of David upper left, Solomon's Temple lower centre ...

According to Herodotus, Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes‘ capital in 678 BC by Deioces, the first ruler of the Medes.[4] The Neo-Assyrians do not seem to mention Ecbatana, and it is likely they never penetrated east of the Alvand despite two centuries of involvement in Median areas of the central Zagros.[7] Ecbatana was captured by Cyrus II in 550 BC, under the Achaemenid Persian kings and transferred its treasury to Anshan.[8] Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, is mentioned in several sources, the city was used as a royal archive as evidenced by the fact that Cyrus’s order for the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple was found in the city.[10] In ancient times, Ecbatana was renowned for its wealth and splendid architecture. [7[11]

In the Histories of the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Ecbatana was founded by Deioces, the legendary first king of the Medes. Herodotus names Deiokes (or Dioces), grandfather of Cyaxares, as the king who eventually united the nomadic Median tribes, forming a single kingship that is centered on Ecbatana. The six Median tribes he dominates are named: the Arizanti, Budii, Busae, Paretaceni, and Struchates, plus the independent, priestly tribe of the Magi (Maggai) which serves them all. 8a He writes:

Deioces bade them build for him a palace worthy of the royal dignity and strengthen him with a guard of spearmen. And the Medes did so: for they built him a large and strong palace in that part of the land which he told them […]. He built large and strong walls, those which are now called Ecbatana, standing in circles one within the other. And this wall is so contrived that one circle is higher than the next by the height of the battlements alone. The nature of the landscape, seeing that it is on a hill, lent itself towards this end; but much more was it produced by architecture, since the circles are in all seven in number. And within the last circle are the royal palace and the treasure-houses. The largest of these walls is in size about equal to the circuit of the wall round Athens; and of the first circle the battlements are white, of the second black, of the third crimson, of the fourth blue, of the fifth red: thus are the battlements of all the circles colored with various tints, and the two last have their battlements one of them overlaid with silver and the other with gold. These walls then Deioces built for himself and round his own palace, and the people he commanded to dwell round about the wall. 8b#

This ostensibly fantastic description above, likely based on elements of truth: the seven walls may in fact be a ziggurat, a multi-storied temple tower that was common in the ancient Near East. Ecbatana is also the supposed capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), that was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus (550/549 BC). Perhaps only archaeology is able to offer a reliable description of ancient EcbatanaEcbatana was the Greek name of the capital of the empire of the Medes, and later one of the capitals of the Persian and Parthian empires, the Old Persian name of which was Hangmátana, “the place of assembly.” The city is mentioned several times in the apocryphal books. In Tobit it was the home of Reguel and Sara his daughter (Tobit 3:7; 7:1; 14:13). It was fortified by the Median king Arphaxad in his war against “King Nebuchadnezzar of Assyria” (Judg. 1:1, 2, 14), and to it Antiochus Epiphanes IV fled shortly before his death (2 Macc. 9:1-3). #9

Henry Rawlinson noted that Persian king Cyrus (a descendant of Deioces) with the temple-shaped tomb placed on a series of six plinths was like a miniature seven-tiered ziggurat. [see Fig. 4 below], Thus, he thought it legitimate to compare the seven colors given by Herodotus for the battlements of Ecbatana to the seven-colored stages of ziggurats. 10 I refer to this citation to introduce the idea that these seven colored stages of both the ziggurats in the historic kingdoms of the middle east and in this tomb of King Cyrus had a color scheme [documented below], that appeared to correspond to the five naked eye planets, with the Sun and Moon.

The Seven-Tiered Ziggurats

Gadd countered Rawlinson’s planetary theory with the objection that ziggurats often had less than seven stages, commonly three or four. Indeed they did, but this does not preclude the possibility that ziggurats with seven stages may have exemplified an idealized prototype. No intact types of ziggurats have been found, and, as we have seen, their poor condition typically does not permit confidence about the original number of stages. 11a Nonetheless, in some excavated examples of the first millennium BC, it has been surmised that seven was the original number of tiers. At Borsippa, for example, Allinger-Csollich counted seven stages in the ruins of Nebuchadrezzar’s restoration, but allowed for the possibility of two added top stages with no archaeological remains. 11b At Ur, Woolley discovered 3-4 stages (depending on whether the white court is included in the count), but, based on architectural projections, he suggested that Nabonidus’s intention had been to transform the existing structure into one of seven stages. At Khorsabad only four stages were discerned, but Frankfort thought it reasonable that there had been three further stages, as the height of the structure would then match the base “and this was, according to Strabo, the case in Babylon.” 11a,b,c.

Figure 3. Ziggurat of Susa. 11d.

Chogha Zanbil [ Dūr Untash Ziggurat ] | Chiyakotravel

Reconstructions aside, what do iconography and texts tell us about the number of stages? Parrot’s survey includes numerous illustrations, for example, a three-tiered structure on an Old Babylonian cylinder seal, four-to five-tiered towers on Assyrian cylinder seals, and the five-tiered ziggurat of Susa on a relief sculpture shows Assurbanipal’s Elamite campaign. 12a In addition, a considerable body of literary and pictorial evidence documents the concept of a ziggurat with seven stages: 1. The so-called Esagila tablet from Uruk (AO 6555), first noticed by George Smith in 1876, dates to 229 BC, 12b. and is now also known from a partial duplication the British Museum (BM 40813), they are thought to be copies of an original no later than the early-seventh century BC. 12c. This displays the dimensions of the temple-tower Etemenanki (é.temen.an.ki) part of the Esagila-complex in Babylon, completed by Nebuchadrezzar II. Seven stages are described, with their respective dimensions (AO 6555 ll. 36–42). The height of the structure is equal to the base, a fact supporting Strabo’s input,  and Frankfort’s deduction regarding the original height of the ziggurat at Khorsabad.

At Khorsabad only four stages were discerned, but Frankfort thought it reasonable that there had been three further stages, as the height of the structure would then match the baseand this was, according to Strabo, the case in Babylon.13

The Ziggurat at Ur.

Sümerler, Mezopotamya’ya yaklaşık olarak M.Ö. 3500’lerden sonra gelmeye başlamıştır.

This sets out dimensions of the temple tower Etemenanki (é.temen.an.ki) of the Esagila complex in Babylon, which was completed by Nebuchadrezzar II. Seven stages are described, with their respective dimensions (AO 6555 ll. 36–42). The height of the structure is equal to the base, a fact supporting Strabo’s words and Frankfort’s deduction regarding the original height of the ziggurat at Khorsabad. George regards it as “an ideal of how the tower was meant to look,” not “a physical survey of a built structure.”2. A broken Neo-Babylonian stele (MS 2063) in the Schøyen Collection depicts a king, apparently Nebuchadrezzar II, “standing before a seven-story ziggurrat drawn in outline & labelled [é].tem[en] .an.ki [ziqúra-at ba-bili (ká.dingir.ra)ki  ‘E-temen-anki, ziqqurrat of Babylon.’ The tower is as high as it is wide.” 14

Ziggurat models of Ur and Babylon. 14a

What is a Ziggurat? - Amazing Facts, History & Information

 

Woolley’s considerations included the distinct changes made by Nabonidus’s builders to the lower levels, calculations from the amount of debris covering the ruins, suggesting that it originally stood to a considerable height, the layout of the flights of stairs and their angles, plus an idealized plan providing the best symmetry possible, where the “(Belou táphos)” is described as a quadrangular structure a stadion both in length and height. #15.

With regard to the remaining colors in the Ecbatana sequence (light red, silver, and gold), one should not be too skeptical given that Place and Thomas reported the discovery of glazed tiles around the Khorsabad ruin sporting these very colors. Further, the restriction of silver and gold decoration to the topmost stages is credible enough, for purely practical considerations. As it happens, silver and gold are mentioned in characters drawn at the center of the seven-staged ziggurat plan on the Jena tablet. #16

A hundred and fifty years of further archaeological research have produced a very telling result. We have seen that Rawlinson’s color scheme at Borsippa was largely imaginary. By contrast, the Ecbatana tradition has been partly confirmed by the evidence from other sites (Khorsabad and Ur). A reexamination of the possible meaning of this color sequence (hereafter “the Ecbatana/ziggurat sequence”), especially where it has been confirmed by excavation, is thus long overdue. Aside from the placement of precious metals on the topmost levels and the protective function of the bitumen at the base, it is hard to imagine any practical reason for the positioning of the other (better-attested) colors, namely, white, red, and blue. All the more since they appear to have occurred in a fixed sequence. One understandably turns, therefore, to the likelihood that their arrangement had some religious or cosmological significance. 17

According to H.G. Wood: the ziggurat of Jupiter Belus at Babylon had an ideal basis in the number 360. He describes a 7-staged pyramid in which each of the six upper stages is 360 inches shorter than the one next below it: the base side was 3,600 inches, and the total height of the structure was 3,600 inches. Wood therefore concludes that: the entire system of ancient Babylonian metrology appears to have been derived from 360 x 360 x 100 or, 12,960,000.” 17b

Based on this quote above, H.G. Wood not only confirms the equal height and width of the Ziggurat of Belus at Babylon, but also shows how the base 60 number system employed in Babylon, that is still used today, provides a universal key to the sacred geometry of Creation in a standard world measure. When we divide the sun’s orbital speed of 43,200 mph, by the 12 houses of the ecliptic, we get 3600, or the number of arc-minutes in a solar day. This matches the 36 decans of the zodiac’s 360 degrees, the same celestial and numeric standard manifested at increasing powers of 10, showing the Creator’s signature of Symmetry throughout His Creation. The sun’s orbital speed; of 43,200 mph, is also 10% of half of its circumference in miles (864,000 miles or 2/3 of 12,960,000). This is undeniably the signature of the divine Hand of the Creator, or the Great Geometer as the Pythagoreans called Him, exhibiting the dominion of His divine measure of Light, His own essence ruling over all kingdoms of terrestrial and temporal life. [John 1:3-4] For an extended discussion on this topic, please click this link for Noah’s Calendar.

As the ancients expressed this potential cosmological significance in Ziggurats, whose earliest examples seem to be found in the “tower of Babel,” I think it would be more fruitful to recognize the geometry at the basis of this planetary order, that the ancients were describing in their architecture. In this following link to our 2019 blog, on Solar System Symmetry we show how the relative planetary distances average to the pattern of the Phi ratio.

Relative planetary distances average to Phi

Beginning with Neptune and moving inward toward the sun, the ratios are 1/2 (Uranus: 30,688 earth days to Neptune: 60,193 earth days)1/3 (Saturn: 10,670 to Uranus: 30,688), 2/5 (Jupiter:4,332 to Saturn:10,670), 3/8 (Ceres: 1,681 to Jupiter: 4,332), 5/13 (Mars: 687 to Ceres: 1,681), 8/21 (Venus: 225 to Mars: 687) and 13/34 (Mercury:88 to Venus: 225). These are all Fibonacci numbers in proper sequence, skipping Earth, as if the Designer of this system had foreknowledge that Earth was the vantage point from which this pattern would be observed. The influence of the Fibonacci series in the order of our Solar System, reflects how the orbital distances of the planets approximate the phi ratio.

The average of the mean orbital distances of each successive planet in relation to the one prior approximates phi: #18

Planet Mean
distance
in million
kilometers
per NASA
Relative
mean
distance
where
Mercury=1
Mercury 57.91 1.00000
Venus 108.21 1.86859
Earth 149.60 1.38250
Mars 227.92 1.52353
Ceres 413.79 1.81552
Jupiter 778.57 1.88154
Saturn 1,433.53 1.84123
Uranus 2,872.46 2.00377
Neptune 4,495.06 1.56488
Pluto 5,869.66 1.30580
Total 16.18736
Average 1.61874
Phi 1.61803
Degree of variance (0.00043)

At times we forget about the asteroids when thinking of the planets in our solar systemCeres, the largest asteroid, is nearly spherical, comprises over one-third the total mass of all the asteroids and is thus the best of these minor planets to represent the asteroid belt. (Insight on mean orbital distances contributed by Robert Bartlett.)

The Fibonacci number series of; 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,… But this doesn’t mean Earth is haphazard. It also has an intermediate set of Fibonacci ratios of 8/13 (Earth: 365 to Mars: 687) and 13/21 (Venus: 225 to Earth: 365). There is no way arbitrary haphazard chance that can account for the precision behind this kind of mathematical and geometric order and design. This kind of design demands an Intelligent DESIGNER, also known as the Father of Lights.

Rom. 1:18-20
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who [d]suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because what may be known of God is [e]manifest [f]in them, for God has shown it to them20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and [g]Godhead, so that they are without excuse. The truth however of the cosmological significance of God’s order and Symmetry in how He organized our Solar System, is not only evident, but has been obscured and indeed suppressed in the idolatry of mankind, in the worship of his various mythological pantheons, that have ignored the eternal power and Godhead of our Almighty Creator.

The concept of “seven heavens” and “seven earths” could well have found its architectural expression in the seven-tiered ziggurats. In the annual Akitu ritual, Marduk was symbolically imprisoned in Etemenanki, as explicitly stated in Marduk’s Ordeal (VAT 9555+9538; ND 812(a), l. 13;) “[That which] they do [on] the ziggurat: Since the gods imprisoned him he disappeared and was held captive inside.” He was released from captivity by Nabû  (ll. 8–9), the tutelary deity of astronomy to whom the Borsippa ziggurat was dedicated. This, in combination with Strabo’s reference (16.1.5) to the ziggurat of Babylon as the [Belou táphos], the “tomb of Belus [Marduk],” indicated to many scholars, though not all, that Marduk’s enacted imprisonment can be seen in terms of a ritual death scheme, suggesting that the ziggurat acted as a representation of the underworld. #19

Since the Great Pyramid embodies the ideal conception of the cosmic world mountain” as its passage system of star shafts are noted first, for their very telling star alignments, that relate a specific and significant story. The Descending Passage of the Pyramid was aligned on the archaic pole star Thuban, of Draco the dragon, whose shaft realized its dark destination in the pit of the Pyramid’s base. This symbolized the fall of Lucifer [Isa. 14:12] as a result of his failed coup attempt to overthrow the Almighty. This also embodies the “underworld” of fallen 1/3 of spirit angels that he deceived in his defeated revolt [Rev. 12:4], where some of these angels are imprisoned in the bottomless pit, [Rev. 9:1-11], where the future dragon-the Devil and Satan himself will be imprisoned for a thousand years, [Rev. 20:1-6]. The Great Pyramid thus not only symbolized God’s Holy Mountain wherein He called Moses in [Ex. 3:1-12, 15:17, 19:3, 20:18-21], but also tells the story of redemption through Christ.

From the references above by leading authorities of ancient archaeology, I find it intriguing that these ancient ziggurat structures were built and designed with equal height and length, that conforms to the plans of the Jerusalem temple as stated in Ezra 6:3 below. Furthermore, the record in v. 2 tells us that copies of King Cyrus’ decree were found at Achmetha, which many authorities above as Herodotus, Josephus etc. acknowledge as being Ecbatana, including E.W. Bullinger. This seems to support the notion not only, that King Cyrus’ tomb was built with these blueprints in mind, as with the tomb of Belus (Belou táphos) above, and attested to by its ziggurat form and matching colors of its seven levels.

Figure 4. The Tomb of King Cyrus. 20a

Image result for King Cyrus' Tomb-images

The Tomb of Cyrus is located in the south corner of the site, which was once the royal park of Pasargadae, was built of yellowish-white limestone, probably from the Sivand mine. The tomb building has been resistant to natural and unnatural factors for 2500 years and is still standing in Pasargade plain. Its main base/foundation is a stone platform whose design forms a rectangular square with a length of 13.35 meters and a width of 12.30 meters. This building consists of two completely separate parts: a six-step stone platform, and a room with a gabled roof on the 7th step. 20b[11]

According to Josephus in Antiquities; “Now when Daniel was become so illustrious and famous, on account of the opinion men had that he was beloved of God, he built a tower of Ecbatana, in Media: it was the most elegant building and wonderfully made and still remains […] Now they bury the kings of Media, of Persia and Parthia, in this tower to this day; and he who was entrusted with the care of it was a Jewish Priest also observed unto this day.” #21

Daniel’s potential influence and strategic placement in the courts of Babylon and later in Ecbatana would have followed King Cyrus’ take-over, and their doubtless cooperation in rebuilding the city and temple of Jerusalem. We find this not only in the good reputation of the Magi, but also in archaeological evidence that shows an active Jewish community in Ecbatana. Daniel’s key contributions may have helped the rise of Ecbatana with the resulting decline of the ancient city of Babylon in importance. As Ecbatana ascended to claim its royal position: “The actual seat of the Persian government, where renown and Great-kings wrote their decrees, received foreign ambassadors, was not in Persepolis, but in Susa and Ecbatana.” 22 If Daniel did indeed help to build this tower as part of Ecbatana, in recognition and honor of the Median, Persian, and Parthian Kings it most likely would have been spared by King Cyrus in his later

According to Pliny, he also did much to restore its former importance, and in the time of Antiochus III (222-187 B.C.), the temple of Anāhitā still had gilded pillars, some silver tiles piled up inside, a few gold bricks and many silver bricks (Polybius, 10.27.11). Out of this material, Antiochus minted royal coinage to the value of nearly 4k talents to fill his depleted treasury. In the course of his program to hellenize the kingdom, Antiochus IV Epiphanius (175-64 BC.) renamed the city Epiphania after himself. This may be the Seleucid refounding of the city to which Pliny refers. 23

In the time of Jesus’ birth, the explorers in Ecbatana were better known and more influential in the royal court than those of Babylon, where a probable rivalry existed between the cities. In summary it is logical that the wise men came from Ecbatana and not from Babylon. For further study on this subject see: “Die Magoi von Ekbatana [The Magi of Ecbatana]”.

Babylon versus Ecbatana

Babylon was for a long time the most important city in the Middle East, but lost to Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. in validity. Among the Seleucids and Parthians, other cities besides their new capital, Ctesiphon, were significant as a winter residence for the royalty, with its sister city Seleucia, on the other side of the Tigris and Ecbatana, where the summer residence of the Parthian kings was, due to the coolness of the 1800m elevation. Ecbatana was not only an economic and political center, since coins were minted mainly there, but also a royal archive as Cyrus’s order to rebuild the Jerusalem temple was found there. Strategically its location on a crucial crossroads made it a staging post on the main east–west highway called High-Road. Ecbatana was the capital of Media, called in Chaldee Achmetha (Ezra 6:2). It is situated at the foot of Mount Orontes, and was surrounded by seven walls, each overtopping the one before it, from the outer to the inner, crowned with battlements of different colors. Its citadel was used as a royal treasury. Below it stood a splendid palace, with silver tiles, and adorned with wainscotings, capitals, and entablatures of gold and silver. These treasures, to the value of 4,000 talents, were coined into money by Antiochus the Great of Syria. 24#

Secondly, if as Josephus holds, that Daniel himself may have been an influential source for the design and building of such a tower as part of the Ecbatana complex which may have been designed to fit into a similar plan, influenced by the first Jerusalem temple, of David and Solomon-especially with a structure of equal base and height, it makes more sense that the design of Ecbatana could have been based more-so on religious or cosmological significance, as the rebuilding of Jerusalem under King Cyrus would have afforded Danielrich details to build this “tower” as part of the plan referred to above. Also, in light of the blueprints for King Cyrus’ separate tomb are concerned, the tower at Ecbatana may have been a secondary monument to Cyrus. The tomb of King Cyrus also provides a smaller scale example of an ancient intact seven-stage ziggurat, which exhibits this type of architecture, as part of similar middle eastern cultural traditions during this important period in history.

The Cyrus Cylinder, [Bing.com] 25

Isaiah 1 3, Gods Discipline And Our Response

Ezra 6:1-3
6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon.
And there was found at Achmetha; [Ecbatana] in the palace that is in the province of the Medes, a roll, and therein was a record thus writtenIn the first year of Cyrus the king the same Cyrus the king made a decree concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, Let the house be [re]-built, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits; With three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber: and let the expenses be given out of the king’s house: And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, everyone to his place, and place them in the house of God. Another similarity between the structure of Ecbatana and the Jerusalem Temple is also found in the cedar walls and ceiling of God’s House, that in turn was overlaid in Gold: [I Kgs. 6:13-22] The design of the Jerusalem Temple, whose stone walls were covered with cedar wood and then over laid with gold, according to E.W. Bullinger was symbolic of the “saved sinner who was covered both with Christ’s human and divine righteousness imputed unto him” by God’s Grace. [I Kgs. 6:15-16] #26 As described by Bullinger above, the design of Ecbatana seems to share certain aspects with Jerusalem’s Temple, not only in its opulence, but also its potential spiritual symbolism. We find some of these details also in Polybius’ description below.

Polybius of Megalopolis’ description 

In the 2nd Century BC, Polybius writes about Ecbatana. He mentioned that the wealth and magnificence of its buildings make it stand out among all other cities. It has no walls but an artificial citadel with amazing fortifications. Underneath this is the palace which is about seven stories in circumference, and its magnificence shows the wealth of its founders. During his time, no parts of the woodwork were left exposed. There were silver or gold-plated rafters, compartments in the ceiling, and columns in the porticos and colonnades, and silver tiles were used throughout the structure. In the invasion by Alexander, most precious metals were stripped, while the remainder were stripped during Antigonus‘ and Seleucus‘ reigns. However, Antiochus found that the columns of the temple of Aene were still gilded and that several silver tiles were piled up around the temple along with some gold bricks. 27

The Polybius offers probably the best available description of the city. He writes that the city was richer and more beautiful than all other cities in the world; although it had no town wall, the citadel had impressive fortifications. This confirms Herodotus words that the Medes were ‘to dwell round about the wall’, but Polybius offers more plausible dimensions: the circumference of the citadel was 1,300 meters. He also states that the builders used cedar and cypress wood, which was covered with silver and gold. The roof tiles, columns and ceilings were plated with silver and gold. This not only sounds like a credible description of an eastern palace, like Persepolis, but also resembles the construction of the Jerusalem Temple. 28

When the Persian king Cyrus the Great, a member of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty, had overthrown the Median empire in 550 BC, he captured Ecbatana. The tablet the Chronicle of Nabonidus records Cyrus’s conquering of Ecbatana, the capital of the Median king Astyages, in the sixth year of the reign of Nabonidus. This chronicle describes in several entries the self-imposed exile of Nabonidus in the Arabian oasis of Tema (mentioned as Teiman in Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls known as the Testimony of Nebonidus dated to 150 BC)[10][11] and the disruption that this caused to the Akitu (New Year) festival for a period of ten years.  The king spent ten years in Arabia and left Babylonia administered by his son, Bel-shar-usur (Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel in the OT). The celebration of the Akitu festival is recorded, indicating Nabonidus’s return to Babylon. The text describes of the Battle of Opis, in which the Persians decisively defeated Nabonidus’s army, massacred the retreating Babylonians and took a great haul of loot. The Persian army went on to capture the cities of Sippar and Babylon [Isa. 45:2] itself without further conflict.[12] Cyrus is reported to have been received with joy by the city’s inhabitants and appointed local governors. The idol gods that had previously been brought to Babylon by Nabonidus, were returned to their home cities on the orders of Cyrus. 29#

The Lion of Ecabtana, Hephaestion’s tomb

The stone lion of Hamadan, Hellenistic sculpture, Ecbatana… | Flickr

In December 522 BC, the Median rebel Phraortes reoccupied Ecbatana and made it his capital; but he was defeated, by the Persian king Darius I the Great (May 521 BC). He celebrated this event with a large relief and an inscription along the road between Babylon and Ecbatana (the famous Behistun inscription). In 1923, two foundation plaques of silver and gold were found, inscribed with the name of Darius I, and also column bases of Artaxerxes II. These indicate that Darius I and Artaxerxes II built palaces in Ecbatana. 30

Greek sources mention temples dedicated to the goddess Aenê (probably Anahita) and the goddess of healing, which the Greeks called Asclepius. This shrine was destroyed by the Macedonian king Alexander the Great, who overthrew the Achaemenid empire, because the god had allowed his friend Hephaestion to die in Ecbatana (324 BC). Hephaestion’s sepulcral monument, a lion, is still visible [above]. Earlier, Alexander had had his general Parmenion killed in the capital of Media (330 BC). Later, Ecbatana was one of the capitals of the Seleucid and the Parthian empire, sometimes called Epiphaneia. #31

Another critical aspect of the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem involved laying the foundation [H3245] of the House of God. The word for foundation is [yacad] to establish, set, found, build up, appoint, be settled, ordain, or fix firmly. #32 It can be literal as here, where the physical foundations of the Temple are referred to, or metaphorical as in the popular usage of Isa. 28, in the Messianic Prophecy of the Chief Cornerstone in v. 14-16. #33 In this context we find the in v. 6 that the physical foundations of the temple were not yet laid, until the builders of v.10, laying the physical foundations of the temple had been set, could the spiritual aspects of the temple foundations in Israel be set in motion, with the priesthood carrying forward their ministries, with trumpets, and the Levite sons of Asaph with cymbals, as King David had done with the first temple.

As the record in Ezra depicts in Chapter 6:6-12;

From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt offerings unto the Lord. But the foundation of the temple of the Lord was not yet laid. They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of PersiaNow in the second year of their coming unto the house of God at Jerusalem, in the second month, began Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and the remnant of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to set forward the work of the house of the LordThen stood Jeshua with his sons and his brethren, Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, together, to set forward the workmen in the house of God: the sons of Henadad, with their sons and their brethren the Levites10 And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel.  11 And they sang together by course in praising and giving thanks unto the Lord; because He is good, for his mercy endures forever toward Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the Lord, because the foundation of the house of the Lord was laid.  12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy:

In spite of formidable opposition, it was by the decrees and provision of the reign of King Cyrus that much of this activity in Jerusalem was allowed to go forward. Why was King Cyrus singled out by the Hand of the Almighty, and what was so unique about him? According to 2 Chron. 36:22-23, Cyrus was a singular OT Gentile who had the spirit [ruach] of God dwelling on him, that God stirred up in him to proclaim the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple. Perhaps the fact that Cyrus was of Zoroastrian descent as were the Magi, plays a part in this scenario, as Zoroastrianism was essentially the only monotheistic religion other than Judaism at the time. The Almighty speaking of Cyrus [Isa. 44: 28] called him “My shepherd,” to bring Israel back to a rebuilt Jerusalem with a restored Temple.

Isa. 45:1-5Thus says the Lord to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have [a]held—To subdue nations before him, And loose the armor of kings, To open before him the double doors, So that the gates will not be shut: I will go before you and[b] make the [c]crooked places straight; I will break in pieces the gates of bronze and cut the bars of iron. I will give you the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, That you may know that I, the Lord, Who call you by your name, Am the God of Israel. For Jacob My servant’s sake, And Israel My elect, I have even called you by your name; I have named you, though you have not known Me. am the Lord, and there is no other; There is no God besides Me.

Verse 1 calls the Gentile king Cyrus His Anointed,” a Messianic title reserved for Christ. Only Jesus was the Biblical Messiah, but God called King Cyrus, His Anointed as the only Gentile in historynaming him from before his birth as He had only done with 3 other Bible figures; Isaac, [Gen. 17:19] Solomon, [I Chron. 22:9], and Josiah [I Kgs 13:2]. How could King Cyrus be the only “anointed” OT Gentile for Israel? Only because as 2 Chron. 36:23- Tells us as “the Lord God of Heaven” had given Cyrus all the kingdoms of the earth, and He hath charged me to build God a House in Jerusalem which is in Judah. As E.W. Bullinger notes; this is the first usage of the phrase the ‘Lord God of Heaven’ in the Bible, now used because His people were [Lo Ammi=not My people], and Jehovah had withdrawn from their midst. It is a title applied only in the times of the Gentiles, while God acts from heaven, and not from between the Cherubim as Jehovah the God of Israel, or as “the Lord of all the Earth”-His millennial title.#34 God’s plan included Israel ‘s protection by King Cyrus during the 70-year Babylonian captivity of Israel, so they could return under God’s protection once the captivity period was fulfilled, to a city of Jerusalem restored and the temple rebuilt, according to God’s specifications.

Figure 5a. New Jerusalem, Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid     5b.The Molten Sea of the OT Jerusalem Temple. #35
A.                                                                                           B.
Stonehenge 27

The New Jerusalem represents the true JerusalemNOT the one in bondage, but the heavenly Jerusalem, [Gal. 4:25-26, 29-31, Heb. 12:22, James 1:17]. As the Square of New Jerusalem also embodies the Holy Mt. Zion, it includes the Lord Jesus Christ who said in Matt. 16:18; And I also say to you that you are Peter, [G4074-petros] and on this rock [G4073-petra]36will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. Peterpetros was a small chunk of rock, but Jesus is the massive mountain, the Rock-petra, in reference to himself, the foundation upon which he builds his ChurchJesus surpasses the OT Temple, as he fulfilled all the OT sacrifices linked to the former Covenant, which will be back in effect during the 6th spiritual administration of the Millennial Kingdom, when Christ rules over the earth, with a rod of iron. Thus, Jesus embodies the foundation of the Church, as he is our peace who has broken down the middle wall of partition [OT law] between us, [Eph. 2:14] enacting our unity. Here we not only see the difference between the three groups of people signified in God’s WordJews, Gentiles and the Church of God, but the unity of both the Jews and the Gentiles related to the NT Church of Grace, in the spiritual body of Christ.

In summary, the Bible does not tell us the extant of the relationship between Daniel and King Cyrus, only that Daniel prospered in his reign, [Dan. 6:28]. This study has investigated some historical details in an effort to explore the truth of the Scripture Narrative, and build up to shine its light on areas that may not have been enlightened previously. I trust it this will help you consider how these aspects of the Word including history, science and archaeology can assist us in our research efforts. As we recognize our true foundation who is Jesus Christ, we are building an impregnable foundation for our lives and for our family and loved ones in the body of Christ.

Agape’

Rene’

 

Footnotes

  1. ZIGGURATS, COLORS, AND PLANETS: RAWLINSON REVISITED; Peter James and Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs (London) (Weissbach, col. 2155; Ezra 6.2).
    2.(DB 2.76 ff.; Kent, Old Persian, p. 122) & (Kent, Old Persian, pp. 183, 212)
    3. Figure 3 picture credit; The Behistun Rock with inscriptions. [pinterest.com]
    4. Companion Bible Appendix #57, E.W. Bullinger [ppg. 79-82]
    5. (Gunter, pp. 103 ff., and pls. II-III, IVa).
    6. Figure 2 picture credits on Ecbatana plan compared to the Plan for Jerusalem. [pinterest.com]
    7. wikipedia.org on Ecbatana.
    8a. [Herodotus, Histories 1.98-99] 1858 The History of Herodotus. London: John Murray
    8b. IBID
    9. Biblegateway.com
    10. (Parrot 1949: 50–51) Ziggurats et Tour de Babel. Paris: Albin Michel.
    11a. (Woolley 1925: 14 n. 1 and 1939: 142 n. 1) Ur Excavations, Vol. V: The Ziggurat and Its Surroundings. Publications of the Joint Expedition of the
    British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia to Mesopotamia. London: Oxford University Press.
    11b. (Allinger-Csollich, 1998: 103) Birs Nimrud II. “Tieftempel”—“Hochtempel”: Vergleichende Studien Babylon—Borsippa. BaM 29: 95–330.
    11c. (Frankford 1970: 79) The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. 4th edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
    11d. Fig. 3 picture credit. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chogha_Zanbil#/media/File:jpg]
    12a. (Parrot 1949: 37–50)  Ziggurats et Tour de Babel. Paris: Albin Michel.
    12b. (Parrot 1949: 22–24.; Wiseman 1991: 71) Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon. The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy. Oxford: Oxford University
    Press
    12c. (George 2005/2006: 75, 78; The Tower of Babel: Archaeology, History and Cuneiform Texts. AfOr 51: 75–95. (Allinger-Csollich 1998: 290–94).
    13. (Frankford 1970: 79) The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. 4th edition. Harmondsworth: Penguin
    14. (George 2005/2006: 75, 77, 78, 79, 86; Allinger-Csollich 1998: 290–94). The Tower of Babel: Archaeology, History and Cuneiform Texts. AfOr 51: 75–95.
    14a. Picture credit from Iransafar.com
    15. (Wolley 1939: 137–41) Ur Excavations, Vol. V: The Ziggurat and Its Surroundings. Publications of the Joint Expedition of the
    British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia to Mesopotamia. London: Oxford University Press. and See Strabo, Geog., 16.1.5,
    16. (Suter 1997: 5) Gudeas vermeintliche Segnungen des Eninnu. ZA 87: 1–10
    17. ZIGGURATS, COLORS, AND PLANETS: RAWLINSON REVISITED; Peter James and Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs (London)
    17b. Ancient Metrology, H.G Wood
    18. [https://www.goldennumber.net/solar-system/]
    19. (Livingstone 1986: 236–37, also 212–13, 230–31 l. 40; Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Oxford: Clarendon.; Naydler 2005: Shamanic Wisdom in the Pyramid Texts; The Mystical Tradition of Ancient Egypt. Rochester, VT: Inner
    Traditions. 56; see Bidmead 2002: 87, 2002 The Akÿtu Festival; Religious Continuity and Royal Legitimation in Mesopotamia. Gorgias Dissertations: Near Eastern Studies 2. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Frankfort 1948: 322–23) Kingship and the Gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
    20a. Figure 4 picture credit; https://fineartamerica.com
    20b. en.wikipedia.org/tomb of Cyrus
    21. Josephus in Antiquities [p. 284; 264]
    22. “Nouruz in Persepolis?” 2009 page 1, Josef Wiesehöfer
    23. Pliny (Naturalis Historia 6.17, 43) (Stephanus Byzantinus, Deurbibus, s.v. Agbatana; Morkholm, pp. 117, 171-72. n. 22).
    [https://iranicaonline.org/articles/Ecbatana]
    24. [Herodotus, i. 98; Polybius, x. 27]. 1858 The History of Herodotus. London: John Murray
    25. The Cyrus Cylinder, [Bing.com]
    26. Companion Bible; marginal note, [I Kgs. 6:15-16] E.W. Bullinger
    27.
     (Polybius, 10.27).
    28. (World history 10.27. 5-13)
    29. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabonidus_Chronicle
    30Ecbatana (Achmetha) – Encyclopedia of The Bible – Bible Gateway
    31. [https://www.iranchamber.com/history/ecbatana/ecbatana.php]
    32. Strong’s Concordance [H3245-yacad] James Strong.
    33. IBID, notes on [H3245-yacad] on Isa. 28:14-16.
    34. Companion Bible; marginal note, [2 Chron. 36:23]
    35. Picture credit-Figure 5aThe Mystery of Stonehenge… Revealed | Truth Seekers Ministries5b. [pinterest.com]
    36. Strong’s Concordance; [G4074-petros, vs. G4073-petra], James Strong.