Archive for the ‘ Archaeo-astronomy ’ Category

The Biblical Astronomy of the Miracle of Joshua’s Long Day

In Jon Nessle’s current OT History class, we have learned of key errors linked to the dating of the conventional chronologies, of history, and the assumptions that accompany their popularized time placement, that have caused no end of confusion for archaeology, Bible historians, and students. We will see how Courville’s redating of Bible History has provided much-needed answers to the numerous problems linked to the conventional chronology. We will also note some modern historians and Bible Archaeologists that not only agree with Courville’s redating, but provided key evidences in support of it. The following quotes from Courville provide the context of this position along with the benefits that come with their acceptance. This provides an important backdrop for the subject of this month’s blog, an astronomical event known as Joshua’s Long Day. The focus of this study is an alternative timeline to the conventional chronology, along with some existing and newer research connected to Joshua’s Long Day. The first reference from Courville addresses certain cultural innovations that the Hebrews brought in their invasion and conquest of Palestine, led by Joshua.

“The pottery of the period is exceptionally fine… At Megiddo there is a complicated succession of building periods …. Early in the sequence comes a very fine town wall… and is a most impressive example of the town walls of this period. This phase can be taken as representative of the fully developed culture of Canaanite [sic] Palestine, a culture of prosperous city-states. Against the background of the revised chronology, the ancient Hebrews were far from being a cipher culturally. It was the Hebrews who introduced the use of bronze into Palestine; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of the fast wheel in making pottery; it was the Hebrews who introduced the high level of culture to be observed in Palestine at the beginning of Middle Bronze and which was never exceeded; it was the Hebrews who introduced the use of drainage systems and the use of cisterns as a means of preserving water from the rainy season; it was the Hebrews who introduced improvements in the architecture of dwellings and defense walls; it was very probably the Hebrews who introduced the technique for obtaining iron from its ores in quantity. These and other contributions to the culture of Middle Bronze Age in Palestine should be credited to the Hebrews and not to their pagan
contemporaries, the Canaanites or the Amorites. However, all this is true only if it is possible to erect a satisfactory chronological structure of the ancient world on the foundations laid by a redating of the end of Early Bronze to c. 1400 B.C., some 600 years later than dates currently attributed to this change of culture. This is an exceedingly large IF. While it has already been shown that a number of large problems in archaeology are provided solutions by this alteration, this is only a start. It must also be shown that every significant synchronism which has been used to support the conventional structure is either ill-founded or else, that it continues to hold for
the revised structure; it must be shown that the almost infinite bits of information gleaned archaeologically can be rationally interpreted against this revised background; it must be shown that all of the chronologies of other ancient nations can be revised as necessary to fit into this revised scheme; it must be shown that the various methods of dating that have been used in arriving at the presently accepted structure are not valid, including the so-called astronomical dating methods.”

“And finally, it must be explained why most scholars in the field for the last half-century and more have fallen into the same errors of fallacious reasoning without being able to recognize the nature of their mistakes which have led them to the currently accepted views. Not only is this possible, it can be done with the continued elimination of numerous added difficulties characterizing the conventional structure and with the appearance of a number of noteworthy synchronisms that have not been previously recognized. The writer does not ask the reader to accept these claims per se. He only asks that the reader follow carefully and critically the developments outlined in the subsequent chapters of this work, evaluating for them the evidence which are presented in support of a revised chronology of Egypt which agrees with Bible chronology and with Bible history without an appreciable flaw.” [HEBREW CULTURE p. 113-114 THE EXODUS PROBLEM] 1

At this point, we are content to note that the same shift in dating at the end of Early Bronze which provides solutions to anomalies at Jericho, and at Ai, as well as providing a ready solution to the enigmas of Hittite chronology, also provides the proper setting for the events of the Exodus, the Conquest of Joshua, and the era of the Judges. A major issue with the Conventional Chronology where the history of ancient Egypt is concerned, is the lack of precise evidence to delineate epochal divisions between Stone, Bronze & Iron ages, to mark the transitions between these epochs. Courville is one of the very few who has aligned the layers of the archaeological digs starting in Jericho, as documented by Kenyon, from the end of the Jews 40-year wilderness wandering after the Exodus, with Joshua’s conquest and displacement of the Canaanites, Amorites, et al. in Palestine.

On the basis of the multiplicity of synchronisms indicating that the Conquest should properly be set at the end of Earlv Bronze IV, it was concluded that the Exodus occurred at the point of the fall of the Old Kingdom, approximately marked by the end of Dynasty VI. This point is marked by a similar eclipse of power in Egypt which lasted for a pluralitv of centuries. [3] On the basis of the demands of the redating of the end of Early Bronze, it was necessary to recognize both these periods as one and the same2

The identification of the line of Pharaoh’s just before the Hyksos kings, puts us in the proper position to reveal the pharaoh of the Oppression, which provides confirmation of this general structure. Thus, it will be possible also to show clearly the identity of the Pharaoh of the Oppression who carried out an extensive building program in brick in the eastern Delta region where the Israelites lived. A famine inscription appears, dated almost exactly at the point required by Old Testament Chronology relative to the Exodus, dated c. 1445 B.C., with a multiple of confirming evidences for the proposed setting of the Exodus. This scenario put forward by Courville in THE EXODUS PROBLEM, is the setting of my Nov. 2022 blog, that handles details of Joshua’s Conquest, to agree with the Scriptural and historical account of events as seen in Joshua 10. 3

Joshua 10:1-6
1 Now it came to pass when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among themthat they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mightyTherefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.” Therefore the five kings of the Amoritesthe king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachishand the king of Eglon, gathered together and went up, they and all their armies, and camped before Gibeon and made war against it. And the men of Gibeon sent to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, saying, “Do not forsake your servants; come up to us quickly, save us and help us, for all the kings of the Amorites who dwell in the mountains have gathered together against us.”

This Biblical record begins in verse 1 by recounting how “Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it—as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king—and
how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them.” This is in general agreement with Courville’s redating of the conventional chronology, to a time when Joshua was conquering the cities of Jericho, and Ai, as we find in the following reference from Courville.

XII. “Other Peoples Migrated out of Palestine at the End of Early Bronze age, in line with Scripture, as it was not alone the Hittites who were to be displaced by the incoming Israelites. If the proposed redating of the Conquest is correct, then there should be evidence of the settlement of other peoples in areas outside Palestine that previously had resided within this territory. The Phoenicians who settled along the northern coast of the Mediterranean refer to themselves as the Canaanites, [60] people also displaced from Palestine by the Israelites. The Mitannians appear to be a remnant of one branch of the Hurrians who similarly dwelt in Palestine previously. [61] The Amorites were in the Palestine area from the time of Abraham. They were displaced at the time of the Conquest, and appear in the area north of Palestine as the Amurru, a name associated with the Amorites. [62]
A consistent picture results from the recognition that Early Bronze represents the era just prior to the conquest of Joshua and the following transition period is that of the Conquest itself.”  [p. 98 THE EXODUS PROBLEM.] 4

As this Biblical record agrees with Courville’s redating of Joshua’s Conquest at the End of Early Bronze age, confirmed by the displacement of the men of JerichoAi, and the Amorites, many other thorny historical problems associated with the Conventional Chronology find solutions also.

Joshua 10:7-11 
So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valorAnd the Lord said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have delivered them into your handnot a man of them shall stand before you.” 9 Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly, having marched all night from Gilgal. 10 So the Lord routed them before Israel, killed them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, chased them along the road that goes to Beth Horon,
and struck them down as far as Azekeh and Makkedah.
 11 And it happened, as they fled before Israel and were on the descent of Beth Horon, that the Lord cast down large hail-stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they diedThere were more who died from the hailstones than the children of Israel killed with the sword.  

This was a singular battle in world military history because as verse 11 above recounts; it was  the Lord who cast down large hailstones from heaven on the fleeing Amorites. The Lord of Hosts was fighting from Heaven for Israel against their enemies in Palestine, and the large hail-stones God sent raining down on them killed more of the enemy than the Israelites themselves. This harmonizes with Josh. 10:8 above, which says “I [God] have delivered them into your hand,” but this miracle, that recalls the signs from heaven akin to the destruction of Sodom and Gommorah, [Gen. 18:17-32] to a lesser degree, was only an astronomical foretaste of what was in store for these enemies of God’s people.

Joshua 10:12-15 12 Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of IsraelSun, stand still over GibeonAnd Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” 13 So the sun stood stillAnd the moon stoppedTill the people had revenge upon their enemiesIs this not written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day14 And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that the Lord heeded the voice of a man; for the Lord fought for Israel15 Then Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

The locations of Gibeon, Beth Horon and the Valley of AijalonAzekah and Makkedah are shown in figure 1. 5

Map of ancient Canaan showing the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, according to Joshua 10:9–10.

This Map of ancient Canaan shows the route taken by the Israelites, starting at Gilgal, then to the great slaughter @ Gibeon, to pursue them unto Beth Horon, where the large hail-stones started falling, then Aijalon over which the Moon stood, [Josh. 10:12], then unto Azekah and Makkedah according to Joshua 10:9–11. The book of Joshua continues in the Old Testament, after an all-night march from Gilgal, the Israelites attacked the Amorites at Gibeon, and then pursued them to Azekah and then to Makkedah (fig. 1). As evidence from historical geography shows the locations of these sites: Gibeon was about 10 km northwest of Jerusalem, Azekah about 30 km southwest of Gibeon, and Makkedah about 20 km south of Azekah. 6

Prior research into this topic by Humphreys and Waddington aids the conventional chronology of astronomy, with related data in the fields of Egyptology and Hebrew studiesSo how did these two physicists proceed in their research regarding an event that’s only obliquely referred to in an ancient text? Their multidisciplinary task according to them, required a foray into ancient Hebrew, a rethinking of Egypt’s royal history, and some complex calculations about the Earth’s rotation. Their inquiry began with the translation of the Hebrew word dôm,” from Joshua 10. In English versions of the Bible, it’s usually translated as “stopped,” as in the sunstopped moving.” When discussing the word with Alan Millard, a professor of Hebrew and ancient Semitic languages, Humphreys pondered whether it could actually mean the sun stopped shining”—that may suggest an eclipse. In order to date the eclipse, the Cambridge researchers included a new eclipse code” which examined variations in the Earth’s rotation over time. 7

Earlier researchers also only looked at total eclipses, failing to consider that the text may refer to an annular eclipse, in which the moon passes directly in front of the sun, but is too far away to cover the disc completely, they said. From their calculations, the Cambridge researchers found that the only annular eclipse visible from Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC was on Oct. 30, 1207 BC, in the afternoon.

Historical evidence from the Merneptah Stele, a text from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, shows that the Israelites were in Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC. This large granite block held in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo says that it was carved in the 5th year of Merneptah’s reign and mentions a campaign in Canaan in which he defeated the people of Israel. If correct, it enables academics to date the reigns of Ramesses the Great and his son Merneptah, to within a year.

Figure 2. The Merneptah Stele. 

The Merneptah Stele (ca. 1208 BC) is a 10-foot tall, granite victory monument which names Israel as a nation in Canaan.

The most famous, and arguably the most important discovery related to Moses and the Exodus is the Merneptah Stele. In ca. 1208 B.C. Pharaoh Merneptah erected a 10-foot tall victory monument (called a stele) in a temple at Thebes to boast of his claims of victory in both Libya and Canaan. It was discovered in 1896 by Sir Flinders Petrie. On it, Merneptah boasts, “Israel is wasted, its seed is not; And Hurru (Canaan) is become a widow because of Egypt.”9

Most scholars agree that this is the oldest definitive reference to Israel as a nation outside of the Bible, and certainly the clearest Egyptian reference to Israel. It is also important because it points towards an early date for the Exodus (ca. 1446 B.C. agreeing with Courville) and not the late date that some scholars hold to (ca. 1270 B.C.). It is doubtful that there would be enough time from 1270 B.C. to 1208 B.C. to account for the Exodus, the 40 years of wandering in the desert, the seven-year conquest of Canaan, the settlement of the tribes in their territories, and the establishment of a national presence in the land, all before Merneptah claims to have conquered them. Merneptah’s Canaanite campaign instead likely dates to the time of the Judges, when the nation of Israel was already settled in Canaan. The Merneptah Stele is evidence that the Exodus from Egypt, led by Moses, took place in the 15th century BC, as the biblical data indicates. 10

The later dates from mainstream Egyptologists for the reign of Ramesses II are c. 1279–1213 BC, with his son Merneptah reigning from c. 1213–1203 BC (Shaw 2003Horning et al. 2006Kitchen 2013). These dates are subject to some uncertainty, with the latest possible dates for Ramesses II being 1270–1204 BC, and for Merneptah 1204–1194 BC (Kitchen 2013). Some other researchers, most notably Rohl (1995), have proposed an alternative chronology for ancient Egypt in which these dates are advanced by several hundred years. Their “New Chronology” has achieved widespread publicity alongside widespread criticism from mainstream Egyptologists. In this “New Chronology,” the 5th year of Merneptah is 867 BC. 11

Changes to Egyptian history that Humphreys suggests pertain to the ruling period of each pharaoh, including Merneptah, during whose reign the Merneptah Stele was carved. Merneptah was the son of Rameses the Great, one of Egypt’s most famous pharaohs, and there’s been considerable debate over the years about when Rameses was in power. With the combination of a date from the solar eclipse, and the carving of the Stele, Humphreys and Waddington have proposed years for the pharaohs’ reigns that narrow their reigns down to plus or minus one year. They argue Rameses the Great ruled from 1276 to 1210 BC, while Merneptah was in power from 1210 to 1200 BC.

Prof. Humphreys added: “Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient worldEclipses have also shaped human events, says Duncan Steel, author of Eclipse: The Celestial Phenomenon That Changed the Course of History. “Historically, they have been pivotal in deciding battles,” including the 585 BC eclipse that stopped a battle between the Medes and the Lydians. The Greek philosopher Thales had predicted the eclipse, and when darkness did fall, the warring sides viewed it as an omen and hurried to come to a peaceful agreement. 12

The Bible puts the Israelites in Canaan from the beginning of the Conquest through the destruction of the Temple in about 586-5 BC, so this gives a span of many centuries for a potential conflict between Egypt and Israel. Why choose the first year of that span as the date, when Merneptah’s reference on the stele must have occurred? A primary reason to link Merneptah’s stele with Israel’s conquest of Canaan seems to be first based on tradition, that the Exodus occurred during the reign of Ramesses II. Second, that the Merneptah Stele is the consensus among Egyptologists and historians as the oldest reference to Israel in the history of ancient Egypt, providing an anchor point for their thesis, with this eclipse linked to it. Thus the conclusions of their research are grounded, assuming the conquest happened congruently with Merneptah, as proof that Merneptah reigned during the time of the conquest in 1207 BC, near the possible Joshua eclipse date of the same year. Also if the idea of an exclusive annular eclipse is correct, as the only eclipse candidate to suffice in the situation, eliminating the possibility of other partial eclipses, it would seemingly strengthen their position.

Previous claims of the earliest recorded eclipse include images carved into stone cairns at Loughcrew in Co Meath, Ireland, over 5,000 years ago, while Greek astronomer Ptolemy claimed that the first recorded eclipse was observed by the Babylonians in March 721 BC. The results are published in the Royal Astronomical Society Journal of Astronomy & Geophysics. 13

Were Humphrey’s & Waddington the first to propose an eclipse interpretation for Joshua’s Long Day? In fact, another linguist named Robert Wilson came to the same conclusion of an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10, nearly 100 years earlier. And while previous scientists had attempted to find solar eclipses for that period and failed, they’d never thought to look for an annular eclipse, which occurs when the moon only partially covers the sun, leaving a ring of light visible at the edges. “That convinced me that ‘eclipse’ was the right translation,” Humphreys says.

Humphreys looked to the giant stone inscription on the Merneptah Stele, as corroboration that the Israelites really were in Canaan during the time of a supposed eclipse. He referenced the Egyptian text believed to be the earliest textual reference to Israel, specifically its final few lines of hieroglyphics that refer to a battle with the Israelites in Canaan, correlated to the Old Testament.

If these words are describing a real observation, then a major astronomical event was being reported (“There has been no day like it, before or since”, Joshua 10:14), but what does the text mean? The Hebrew word dôm means to be silent, dumb or still. The term amad is a broader word meaning to stop or stand. Modern English translations of this passage, such as the NRSV quoted above, have all followed the King James Authorized Version (of 1611), and assumed that the Hebrew text means the Sun and Moon stopped moving. However, a plausible alternative meaning is that the Sun and Moon stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining. In other words, the text is referring to a solar eclipsewhen the Sun stops shining. As a solar eclipse can only occur with the Moon directly between the Earth and the Sun, the Moon itself is not visible and so it is not reflecting sunlight to the Earthlike the Sun, it has “stopped shining” as well. 14

As the first person to suggest that Joshua 10:12–14 was referring to a solar eclipse, the linguist Robert Wilson (1918), who over 100 years ago gave the following translation:

Be eclipsed, O sun, in Gibeon, And the moon in the valley of Aijalon! And the sun was eclipsed and the moon turned back, while the nation was avenged on its enemies.

Wilson claimed that in Babylonian cuneiform texts there are words with the same root as the Hebrew dôm that are used in Babylonian astronomical tablets in connection with eclipses, meaning “to be dark”. However, at that time, 100 years ago, it was not deemed possible to investigate this further because of the laborious nature of the calculations required, 15 (Russell 1918).

As we check the Hebrew words used in Joshua 10:1213, from the same Hebrew root as dôm, they are general agreement with the meaning “to be dark” as Babylonian. The related Hebrew words include from Strong’s Concordance [H1820, H1826 and H1724]. H1820– “damah= to cease, rest, silenced, be quiet, make an end, destroyed, laid waste, desolate, cut off, to perish.” The Hebrew verb refers to violent ends, seen in Isa. 15:1, Jer. 14:17, Hos. 4:56. All 3 of these references include the word “night [H3915] with the darkness linked to it, as in Gen. 1:5 where God divided the day from the night, and Gen. 1:14, where the heavenly lights of the firmament divide the day from the night, for signs, seasons, days and years. See also [Ps. 19:2, Ex. 13:21-22]. Solar and Lunar eclipses surely qualify as key heavenly signs, in the Creator’s celestial order, so this favors a Scriptural view of an eclipse interpretation for Josh. 10:12-1416

Sawyer (1972) followed up the suggestion of Wilson (1918) that Joshua 10:12–14 refers to a solar eclipse and considered the dates of all total solar eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (giving generous limits to the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan). He found that there were only two such eclipses, on 19 Aug. 1157 BC and on 30 Sept. 1131 BC. However, both these dates are significantly later than the latest date that Humphreys and Waddington calculations allow for Joshua to have entered Canaan, as the latest possible date for the fifth year of Merneptah, 1200/ 1199 BC, using the Merneptah Stele as their anchor for this claimHistorians and Bible scholars in agreement with their calculations have therefore, to date ruled out a solar eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:12–14. 17 

However, as we will see below, there are other eclipses visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC, within these “generous limits” for the possible dates of the entry of Joshua into Canaan, but much earlier, c1400 BC than 1207 BC, which we will discuss presently.

People in the ancient world did not distinguish between total and annular solar eclipses. It is not until as late as 1292AD, that we find a separate expression in the Chinese eclipse records to describe an annular eclipse; both of the annular eclipses of 7 August 198 BC and 27 July AD 306, were recorded by the Chinese as being total. Thus they revisited the solar eclipse interpretation of Josh. 10:1214 to see if there was an annular eclipse visible in the same time frame as was used by Sawyer. [18]

The calculations of the Cambridge researchers found the only annular eclipse visible from Gibeon between 1500 and 1050 BC (using the same limits to the possible dates of entry of Joshua into Canaan as did Sawyer [1972]) was on 30 October 1207 BC, in the afternoon. The calculated track of the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC is shown below in figure 2, which passed directly over the land of Canaan. 19

Figure 2. The path of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC. 20

The path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, over-shadowed the land of Canaan in the afternoon. The shadow left the Earth’s surface at sunset over modern-day Iraq. The map is centered on Azekah, which is marked by a circle. 21

Solar eclipse of 1207 BC

 Because the eclipse occurred in the afternoon, it was probably seen from near Azekah, from where the annular eclipse would have started at 15:27 (local apparent time as given by a sundial), with annularity occurring between 16:48 and 16:53. The Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. During annularity, 86% of the solar disc’s area was covered by the Moon. 22

An interesting feature of the Joshua text is the observation that not only did the Sun stop (shining) but the Moon also stopped (shining). As the Moon is in conjunction at the time of a solar eclipse it is effectively absent from the sky for a couple of days (it has “stopped shining”). As the Israelites used an observationally based lunar calendar they would have been well aware of this monthly period of lunar invisibility and so could have timed their surprise night-time attack at Gibeon to take advantage of the lack of natural night-time illumination at this time.

After reporting that the Sun stopped (shining), the book of Joshua states further that “The Sun did not hurry to set for about a whole day” (Joshua 10:13, NRSV), which has given rise to the term “Joshua’s Long Day.” What did the writer mean? Figure 3 shows the level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse and figure 4 shows the appearance of the Sun as viewed from Azekah at three-minute intervals. 23

Figure 3. The level of illumination on the ground at Azekah during the annular eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, as a function of the local apparent time as given by a sundial. The thin line shows the normal illumination in the absence of an eclipse. The red line gives the illumination during the eclipse, showing the double-dusk effect. 24

Figure 4. The appearance of the Sun viewed from Azekah on 30 October 1207 BC, at three-minute intervals. The Sun was still partially eclipsed at sunset. 25

All ancient civilizations would have been accustomed to the Sun going down in the afternoon, leading to daylight turning into dusk, and then turning into night. However, on this occasion, in the afternoon the light from the Sun on Canaan started decreasing from its normal level at about 15:30 until at about 16:50, it was approximately ten times less intense than normal, and dusk set in (notice that figure 3 is plotted on a logarithmic scale to match the approximate response of the human visual system). However, by around 17:10 the level of illumination would have been somewhat restored before dusk fell again and then the Sun finally set at about 17:38. What the Israelites would have witnessed was a double dusk. 26

In attempting to describe this double dusk it is only natural that the Israelites would have done so in terms of their normal experience of the diurnal cycle. Although aware that on this occasion the time interval between the two dusks was less than the normal day, the book of Joshua records “about a whole day” (NRSV) for this period of time. In fact, the Hebrew text here is “like a whole day”, the preposition like also means as, and so the phrase can mean “as on a whole day” (Millard, private communication). 27

The appearance of the annular eclipse of 30 Oct. 1207 BC we are considering is shown in figure 4. Both before and after annularity, the eclipse takes on the appearance of a crescent, mimicking the form [crescent] of the Moon around both the end and beginning of a lunar month.

What Humphrey’s and Waddington have failed to mention in their proposed annular eclipse of Oct. 1207 BC, as seen in Figure 4 above, is that their thesis rests upon the exclusivity of an annular eclipse, separate from a solar eclipse. However, with annularity occurring only between 16:48 and 16:53 pm, briefly for 5 min, the rest of this event falls into the category of a Partial Lunar eclipse, as the Crescent Moon covers increasing parts of the Sun for 81 min. leading up to annularity from the eastafter which the Moon uncovers the Sun for 45 added minutes till dusk, as the Sun would still have been partially eclipsed at sunset, which occurred at 17:38. So for the entire eclipse period of 131 minutes duration of this annular solar eclipse, it was a Partial Lunar eclipse for 126 minutes.

The article by Humphreys and Waddington prompted rabbinic scholar Eli Gurevich to contact David Rohl with this idea of a partial eclipse fitting the requirements just as much as an annular eclipse. He referenced the NASA eclipse tables, which show partial eclipses typically crossing Canaan several times in every decade. Remarkably, a total eclipse passed just north of Canaan on July 14, 1406 BC (one year needs to be added to the NASA numbers to arrive at the correct BC date). This lines up perfectly with a common early date proposed for the Exodus of 1446 BC, with the Conquest starting in 1405 BC. 28

Figure 5. Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405. 29

The solar eclipse of 1406 BC with the blue band showing the zone of totality. 

A Total Solar Eclipse most likely is better suited to fit the Biblical context of Joshua 10, more than an annular eclipse because the darkness experienced in a total solar eclipse is greater than the annular eclipse, especially if both the Sun and Moon stood still during totality. This would have increased the shock and awe on the Amorites, not only making them easier prey for the attacking Israelites, but also agreeing with details of the Biblical text. In the comparison of the Hebrew text with the Babylonian cuneiform above, we looked at the Hebrew word H1820damah, a prime root for the related Hebrew word H1826damam, meaning to be dumb, astonished, put to silence, or to stop, stand still. If the eclipse stood still, stopping in its tracks during totality, the Israelites were allotted the extra time needed to complete the destruction of the Amorites, that Joshua had prayed for [Josh. 10:12] during this Long Day. 30

According to some critics of Humphrey’s and Waddington paper is a watered-down analysis of the Biblical account that is a consistent pattern for Colin Humphreys. He wrote a book on the Exodus that attempts to explain its occurrences as having been fulfilled by natural events rather than outright miracles, that he seems to discount here. Critics also call into question, how and why the paper Humphrey’s published in October 2017 with W. Graeme Waddington, is practically identical to, but did not credit a January 2017 published work by three Israelis: physicist Ḥezi Yitzḥak, Bible scholar Daniel Weinstaub, and archeologist Uzi Avner, in the Hebrew journal Beyt Mikra requires further clarification. Despite the fact that this Israeli journal is in Hebrew, does Humphreys claim independent inspiration for his thesis? 31

Critics also point out an even bigger problem, that Joshua’s long day couldn’t possibly have taken place in 1207 BC, according to the biblical account, since 1 Kings 6:1 states that building the First Temple began 480 years after the Exodus. It is evident that Joshua’s battle occurred soon after the 40 years of the Exodus. Advancing the date of 1207 BC, an additional 440 years into the future puts the building of the First Temple at 767 BC, which is 200 yrs after the traditionally accepted date of 970 BC. Historians have encountered difficulties in accounting for the detailed Biblical history of Israel in Canaan, listing each Judge and King, with the lack of time to compress every event in the books of Joshua, JudgesRuth, and Samuel to fit between the 237 odd years from 1207 BC to 970 BC.

Added reasons to question the designation of the eclipse of 1207 BC as the only candidate to date the conquest, are the 20 factors from archaeology and the Bible that demonstrate that Ramesses II just does not fit with as the pharaoh of the Exodus. Some of these are highlighted in the documentary film and more are found in the book, both with the title Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. The Biblical example from I Kings 6:1 above, also includes the fact that 1 Kings 6:1 has the Exodus occurring in the 480th year before Solomon began building the Temple, which puts it in the 1400s BC not the 1200s. Many attempt to dismiss this verse as merely being figurative of an abbreviated period, but a reference from Jephthah, of Israel’s judgessupports a more literal interpretation of the 1 Kings 6:1 chronology. It puts Israel already in the land for 300 years, long before the time that the House of David ascended to the throne and began to reign. 32

“While Israel lived 300 years in Heshbon and its villages, in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, why didn’t you take them back at that time?”

– Judges 11:26 (ESV)

Speaking of this history, Courville says “the critical area of the structure is that from Jephthah to Saul. Jephthah stated that 300 years had elapsed from the conquest of Heshbon under Joshua to his own day. 25 Since the figure is a round number, it is evident that the figure was intended to be only approximate. It is here assumed that the actual period was closer to 290 years and this figure is here used in setting up the tentative chronology of [Figure 1]. On the late end of the 480-year period, we must allow 3 years in the reign of Solomon, 40 years for David, and 40 years for Saul. With the 40 years between the Exodus and the Conquest, 413 of the 480 years are accounted for. This leaves 67 years for the period from the victory over the Ammonites by Jephthah to the reign of Saul.” 33

In a new publication by Egyptologists and Biblical scholars Manfred Görg, Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis suggest that there may be an even earlier reference to Israel in Egyptian records. Manfred Görg discovered a broken statue pedestal containing hieroglyphic name-rings in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and, after studying it with colleagues Peter van der Veen and Christoffer Theis, they suggest that one of the name-rings should be read as “Israel.” Not all scholars agree with their reading because of slight differences in spelling, but Görg, van der Veen and Theis offer strong arguments, including supportive parallels in the Merneptah Stele itself. This newly rediscovered inscription is dated to around 1400 B.C.—about 200 years earlier than the Merneptah Stele. If Görg, van der Veen and Theis are right, their discovery will shed important light on the beginnings of ancient Israel. 34

Figure 6. The Berlin Pedestal. 35

Berlin Pedestal

The Berlin Pedestal from the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. It has three name rings; the one on the far right has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.” Photo: Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain. Reconstructed Drawing: Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg, “Israel in Canaan (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A Fresh Look at Berlin Statue Pedestal Relief 21687.” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.

The Berlin Pedestal is an Egyptian inscription housed in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin that almost certainly refers to Israel as a nation in Canaan. The inscription has three name rings, two of which clearly read “Ashkelon” and “Canaan,” and a third that has been reconstructed to read, “Ishrael.”43  In a recent re-examination of the inscription, Peter van der Veen, Christoffer Theis, and Manfred Gorg noted that names Ashkelon and Canaan largely were written consonantally and better reflecting examples from the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II (15th cent. BC), than those from the times of Rameses II and Merenptah (13th cent. BC).44 While the inscription reads “Ishrael” instead of “Israel,” there is no other candidate near Canaan and Ashkelon, other than biblical Israel. It may be that the “sh” spelling is an older way Egyptians spelled Israel, or perhaps borrowed from the cuneiform version.45 If this interpretation is correct, it would indicate that the Israelites had migrated to Canaan sometime in the middle of the second millennium BC,46 exactly at the time the Bible says they did.

Figure 7. Granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep. 36

Evidence for Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus

This granodiorite head of the 19th Dynasty pharaoh, Amenhotep, was once part of a sphinx. It is currently housed in the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, Germany. Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0

Numerous scholars have identified Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus31; he was reigning in 1446 BC when the Israelites left Egypt. Amenhotep II is known to have spent considerable time in the delta region, likely in the 18th-Dynasty palace at Avaris where he would have met with Moses. According to Egyptologist, Charles Aling, Amenhotep II was born and raised in this area [the Nile delta region], built there, had estates there, and in all probability resided there at times, at least in his early regonal years.”32 Interestingly, (and in keeping with the 10th plague – the death of the first-born), Amenhotep II was not the firstborn son of his predecessor, Thutmose III, nor was his successor, Thutmose IV his firstborn son, as implied by the Dream Stele on the Great Sphinx.33 

Another piece of evidence for identifying Amenhotep II as the pharaoh of the Exodus is found by comparing the military campaigns of Amenhotep II and those of his father. While Thutmose III led 17 known military campaigns into the Levant, Amenhotep II led only two or three.34

 Thutmose III boasted of having taken 5903 captives on his first campaign, while Amenhotep II claims to have taken 2214 captives on his first. However, Amenhotep II’s final campaign in the ninth year of his reign (ca. 1446 BC) appears to have been a hasty and limited excursion into Palestine to take 101,128 captives. One plausible explanation for this campaign and its dramatic number of captives is that he was seeking to replace a large portion of his slave labor base that had just left Egypt. Moreover, Amenhotep II never took another campaign into Canaan, and the 18th dynasty began to decline in power. 37

In fact, there is strong evidence that the Bible shows the Judges period covered many centuries (not the 150 years allotted by the Ramesses Exodus Theory), that dictates the Exodus be pushed out 2 centuries before a 1207 BC dating of the Conquest. Additionally, The Bible has Moses being born around the time of the building of the city Rameses (Exodus chap. 1), which is the main basis of the Ramesses Exodus Theory. But the conquest happens 120 years later, after Moses’ death. For a 1207 BC Conquest that would mean the city of Ramesses was being built around 1327 BC, 27 years before Ramesses was born in Humphreys’ system. The Bible says in two places says that the pharaoh who sought Moses’ life (40 years after Moses’ birth) died before the Exodus (when Moses was 80). Therefore the builder of the store city of Rameses could not possibly also be the pharaoh of the Exodus. 38

Now in Midian the Lord told Moses, “Return to Egypt, for all the men who wanted to kill you are dead.”

– Exodus 4:19 (ESV)

Then there is the archaeological evidence that shows no sign of massive numbers of Semites in Goshen during his reign, no sign of a collapse of Egypt as would be expected at the time of Exodus, and no pattern matching the Conquest of Canaan after his reign. That is why mainstream scholars are so skeptical of the Exodus account. These are just a few of the evidences that show that Ramesses was not the pharaoh of the Exodus and that Merneptah was not the pharaoh at the time of the conquest. When does the conquest account speak of a confrontation with Egypt anyway? For the Humphreys model to be factual, Egypt would have to have defeated Israel at a time when the Bible has the Israelites conquering city after city on their way to controlling most of Canaan. Nothing in this scenario adds up. 39

It is plausible that the Book of Joshua was describing a solar eclipse, but even if one agrees, there is no reason to confine this event to an annular eclipse strictly in 1207 BC. It has been shown that other total or partial eclipses over Canaan in the 1400s BC fit these data just as well, matching the Bible’s own context and timeline much better. Furthermore, evidence of an eclipse in Canaan in 1207 BC (whether or not it is related to the Israelites’ Conquest) gives no reason to connect that event to the reign of Merneptah, who in no other way (except by tradition) is connected to the Exodus or Conquest time period.

As Habakkuk memorably recounts the language of Joshua 10:12-13

Habakkuk 3:8-15

Were you angry with the rivers, LordWas your wrath against the streams?
Did you rage against the sea when you rode your horses and your chariots to victory?
You uncovered your bow, you called for many arrowsYou split the earth with rivers;
10  the mountains saw you and writhed. Torrents of water swept by; the deep roared and lifted its waves on high.

11 Sun and moon stood still in the heavens at the glint of your flying arrows,
    at the lightning of your flashing spear.
12 In wrath you strode through the earth and in anger you threshed the nations.
13 You came out to deliver your peopleto save your anointed one.
You crushed the leader of the land of wickedness, you stripped him from head to foot.
14 With his own spear you pierced his head when his warriors stormed out to scatter us,
gloating as though about to devour the wretched who were in hiding.
15 You trampled the sea with your horses, churning the great waters.


This month’s blog study favors an eclipse interpretation of Joshua 10:10-13, with the best candidate  being the Total Solar Eclipse North of Canaan on July 14th, 1405, for the extended celestial sign of Joshua’s Long Day. This shows the lengths the Heavenly Father went to, in answer to Joshua’s prayer when he spoke to the Lord, in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel. Joshua had the great example of Moses to follow, from the Believer’s Hall of Fame in Heb. 11:23-30. As Jon Nessle has encouraged us, we would do well to follow Moses’ example by working and believing his acts of faith. What will God do for you?!! 

If God be for you, who can be against you?

Agape’

Rene’


Footnotes

1. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 113-114, Donovan Courville.
2. IBID, p. 121.
3. IBID, p.
4. IBID, p. 98
5. Colin Humphreys, Graeme Waddington, Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 58, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages 5.39–5.42, https://doi.org/10.1093/astrogeo/atx178
6. (Notley & Rainey, 2014)
7. 
Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
8. Photo: Todd Bolen, BiblePlaces.com https://www.bibleplaces.com/2014/01/artifact-of-month-merneptah-stela/
Patterns of Evidence. [Picture credit]
9.
Digging for Truth.
10. Patterns of Evidence
11Kitchen 2013, Rohl 1995.
12Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington. ‘Solar eclipse of 1207 BC helps to date pharaohs.’ Astronomy & Geophysics (2017). DOI: 10.1093/astrogeo/atx178.
13. IBID
14. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
15. IBID
16Strong’s Concordance [H1820], James Strong.
17. Sawyer (1972), (Walton 1994).
18. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
19. IBID
20. IBID, Figure 2. picture credit.
21. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
22. IBID
23. IBID
24. IBID, Figure 3. picture credit.
25. IBID, Figure 4. picture credit.
26. https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/oldest-recorded-solar-eclipse-helps-date-the-egyptian-pharaohs.
27. IBID,
28. https://www.patternsofevidence.com/2017/11/10/is-this-solar-eclipse-really-joshuas-miracle/
29. IBID, Figure 5 Picture Credit, (courtesy of the NASA website)
30Strong’s Concordance [H1826], James Strong.
31.  Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus
32. IBID, https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
33. THE EXODUS PROBLEM and its Ramifications p. 12, Donovan Courville.
34. https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/
35. Figure 6, picture credit. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 2.4 (2010), 21.
36. Figure 7 picture credit, Photo: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 4.0
37. https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2021/09/24/top-ten-discoveries-related-to-moses-and-the-exodus/
38. IBID
39. IBID

Comments on Facebook

To those of you interested in commenting on this post please go to our Facebook Group Page 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/bibleastronomy

Leave your Comment

The Great Pyramid and Jacob’s Ladder

The focus of the November blog is the idea that the Great Pyramid’s location at the center of the earth’s geographical land mass, haspotential relation to the location of Jacob’s overnight stay, where he had a vision of the Angel’s ascending and descending from heaven to earth. At first glance, this may seem to be two unrelated topics, but as we proceed one may find more common ground here than initial observations suggest.

As both the figurative and literal axis-mundi on the face of the earth, the Great Pyramid’s location at the center of the earth’s landmass at the head of the Nile River delta, is a key among many other elements that express  the most impressive embodiment of the planet earth ever conceived. As the nexus of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy, it contains a sacred cosmology emerging out of God’s Word, perhaps the world’s greatest
architectural witness to the Coming Redeemer Jesus Christ.

The Great Pyramid is situated at the center point for all the landmass on the face of the Earth.

eart-mid

Piazzi-Smyth concluded that Giza was deliberately placed both on the 30th parallel and at the center of the world’s continents as a geodetic marker for the ancient world-meridian, making the Great Pyramid’s latitude the globe’s longest land parallel. In the words of Isaiah:

Plate 1. The Great Pyramid Bisects the Boundaries of the Nile Delta. 1 

Isa. 19:19-22
19 In that day
there will be an altar to the Lord in the midst of Egypt, and a pillar [H4676] at the border thereof to the Lord. 20 It will be a sign and witness to the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt, for when they cry out to the Lord because of their oppressors, He will send them a Savior and defender, and he will rescue them.

21 So the Lord will make himself known to the Egyptians, and in that day they will acknowledge the Lord. They will worship with sacrifices and grain offerings; they will make vows to the Lord and keep them.

Figure A. The Bethlehem Line from the Great Pyramid to Bethlehem and Jerusalem. 2

The Christ Angle : r/TrueChristian

A primary key to our understanding of the relationship between the significance of the Great Pyramid and the birth, life and ministry of Jesus Christ is the Pyramid’s so-called “Bethlehem Line.” This is a geographical application of the designed angle of descent and ascent of the Pyramid’s main sloping passages, which is 26 degrees 18’ 9.7”—an angle significant for having once been the exact elevation of Thuban-the Pole Star from the latitude of the Pyramid. In fact during the third millennium BC, when the Pole StarAlpha Draconis, actually shone directly down the Descending Passage at its lower culmination, and this was the millennium that apparently saw the construction of the Pyramid itself. This angle and thus, likely, the passage which forms it also—clearly has both an astronomical and chronological significance. If that same angle is laid off from the Pyramid’s east-west axis in a north-easterly directionthe rhumb-line so produced marks the bearing of the summer sunrise from the latitude of the Pyramid. [see Figure. A] Moreover it has long been known that the same line marks off several important geographical sites, and in particular, passes directly through the Jewish town of Bethlehem[3

Figure B. Bethlehem Line and Mt. Sinai Line from the Great Pyramid [4]

 

The Bethlehem line not only intersects Bethlehem at the site of Christ’s birth, but also the point where the River Jordan was parted when Israel was led into the Promised land by Joshua, and also Jerusalem/Mt. Zion, only 5 miles north of Bethlehem. Thus the “Bethlehem line” summarizes in geographical terms, Israel’s story of deliverance and redemption with Moses out of Egypt, to Joshua in the Promised Land followed by the birth of Christ in Bethlehem. When the same angle of 26 degrees 18 9.7“: the Bethlehem line, is laid off on a SE tangent from the Great Pyramid, this lower axis also intersects the site of the real Mt. Sinai after Moses crossed the Red Sea with the nation of Israel during the Exodus. As Jon Nessle taught us earlier this month in the OT History class, the actual site of Mt. Horeb is not in the Sinai peninsula, but in Saudi Arabia @ Jabal Al Lawz, as seen in [Fig. B] above, intersected by this Line as a product of the “Christ angle,” laid off from the Great Pyramid’s Apex.

The location of the real Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia is confirmed as God’s Word says in Galatians 4:25 –“For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia;” [see Figure B]. Thus the Great Pyramid was a mountain and sacred altar also linked to Mt. Zion and Mt. Sinai, as a boundary stone. The Pyramid as a sacred altar embodies the perfect sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the lamb of God, as he is found represented at the Pyramid’s apex in the messianic prophecy of Isa. 28.

Isa. 28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation [H3248-yecudah=from H3246, Ps. 87:1 founding a city] a stone,[H68] a tried [H976-bochan=trial, proof, testing, 1Pet. 2:4-6, Rom. 9:33, Jesus is the foundation Stone of God’s Kingdom, the Rock of proven footing upon which we can build our lives. ] stone,[H68] a precious corner-stone, a sure [H3245-yacad=appoint, assign, be settled, est. set, ordain, fix something firmly, Job 26:7, Ps. 24:2, 78:69, 89:11, 102:26, 104:5, Isa. 48:13, 51:13, 54:11. Paul links Isa. 28:16 to Isa. 8:14 in Rom. 9:32ff, Matt. 16:18 w/Isa. 28:14, Rev. 21:14, 19-20] foundation:[H4143muwcad=from H3245, laying foundation] he that believeth shall not make haste. 17 Judgment also will I lay [H7760-] to the line,[qav] and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place. 5

 for a foundation a stone” this stone is a title of the Messiah, from Gen. 49:24, the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel, who is Jesus Christ. [Ps. 118:22, Isa. 8:14, Matt. 16:18, 21:42, Mk. 12:10-11, Lk. 20:17, Acts 4:10-12, 1Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20Pet. 2:6-8]. This capstone and chief-corner stone of the Great Pyramid is missing, from the top of the Pyramid’s structure, until Jesus returns in glory.

 Figure C. The Great Pyramid structure with missing capstone. 6


 

As we consider these aspects of the Great Pyramid the Boundary Stone of the Ages, we find 3 immediate dimensions where this applies. The first is the Boundary Stone of the Egyptian Delta, [Fig. E]. Ancient Egypt consisted of two kingdoms with the Great Pyramid at the apex of the Nile delta, separating one kingdom from the other, upstream of the delta in Southern Egypt. Second, the Pyramid dimensions encompass all of Egypt in both its upper and lower kingdoms, with the Great Pyramid in the midst and center of each. Thirdly, The Great Pyramid is the Boundary Stone for the Promised Land of IsraelThe Giza Pyramid complex has also been shown to be linked to Mt. Zion, in Jerusalem, as seen in Isa. 28:16 above. This study depicts [see Figure B.] that the Christ angle also determines the real location of Mt. Sinai, as all 3 sites have ‘Altars’ linked with them in God’s Word; see Fig. D below.

Starting on the Giza Plateau with the Great Pyramid, which itself is called an altar as in Isa. 19.

Isa. 19:18-20 In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt, speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the city of destruction[19] In that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. [20] And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the Lord of hosts in the land of Egyptfor they shall cry unto the Lord because of the oppressors, and He shall send thema savior and a great one, and he shall deliver them.

altar to the Lord”- [H4196-mizbeachan altar as a place of sacrifice.] The same word is used for both the brazen altar in the outer court of the Tabernacle; {Ex. 39:38-39}, and the golden altar of incense in the holy place; {Ex. 30: 1-6, 27} which togetherfiguratively represent the bi-polar floor-plan of the Tabernacle-Temple corresponding to the system of Patriarchal Astronomy, as the polar centers of the double square layout of the Tabernacle. This shows a direct geometrical relationship between the ground-plan of the Tabernacle, the Temple, and the Great Pyramid, with the Great Pyramid’s Descending Passage alignment on ancient pole star Thuban. First, the double square blueprint of the Tabernacle consists of two equal squares; [1 x 2 rectangle] combining static and dynamic features as the capstone does, based on the phi ratio, even as the rectangular floor in the King’s chamber of the Great Pyramid.

celestial design of the heavens

The Pyramid’s Descending Passage alignment on Thuban the archaic pole star in Draco, [Figure C.] depicts the precession of the poles, in the center of the diagram above, with the transition of the morning stars from lucifer to Jesus Christ, encapsulating a spiritual history, from the rise and fall of lucifer to the ascendancy of the Promised Seed. As the perfect sacrifice, Jesus took the sins of the world on himself for the redemption of humanity. This depicts how the Pyramid symbolizes a sacrificial altar, with the missing Chief Corner-stone
representing, not only the sacrifice of the lamb of God laying down his life for all Mankind, but also as the High Priest offering this singular sacrifice after the order of Melchizedek[Isa. 28:16-172Pet. 2:4-9]

midst of the land of Egypt”-[H8432tavek7. It’s root means to sever or bisect. By implication it refers to the center, so called from its being dividedGen. 1:6 uses this word with the firmament in the midst of the waters, in the same sense that the Pyramid bisects the Delta of Egyptian Nile river.

 “pillar at the border” the word for “pillar” here in Isa 19:19 in reference to the Great Pyramid, is the same word seen in the story of  Jacob’s ladder [H4676matstsebah-a station stone, a column or monument, pillar, or memorial stone or, to the LordGen. 35:20 is Rachel’s grave marker, while 2 Sam. 18:18, is a memorial of Absalom, usually with a religious import. Gen. 31:45, 35:14, Ex. 24:4, Isa. 19:19.] 8

border”- [H1366-gebula twisted cord, boundary, enclosed territorylandmark, limit, quarter, space. In Ex. 10:14,19 the word refers specifically to the “coasts of Egypt.” Ezekiel 29:10 uses this word referring to the tower of Syene” which was a very important landmark for the boundaries of Egypt. 9 Ps. 74:17 uses it referring to the “borders of the earth,” which the Pyramid also figuratively and geographically represents. [Gen. 8:22, Jer. 49:36]

The graphic below depicts the Great Pyramid at the center of the Earth, as a 3D model of the planet on a 1:43,200 scale, reflecting both the geographical lines of Latitude and Longitude, and when projected to the Heavens, marking the lines of Celestial Latitude and Longitude also. Thus we can see how the Great Pyramid, embodies at least 5 dimensions as a boundary stone; a. of Egypt’s Delta. b. North and Southern Egypt. c. The Promised Land of God’s Covenant. d. Geographical lines of Latitude/longitude on Earth. e. Mapping the Stars of the Poles and Equator/Ecliptic of the Celestial Sphere and Celestial Gospel.

The perimeter of the base is equal to the length of the circle whose radius is equal to the height of the pyramid (2 * 3.14159 * 146.6 = 921). 10  

 circle

The Great Pyramid in Isaiah 19 describes an ‘altar where the Pyramid sits at both the center and border of Egypt. The possible correlation with other altars in Israel’s history broaches some interesting links to the  borders of the Promised land. On Mt. Sinai and Mt. Zion, the Bible describes where Abraham and Moses also built altars unto the LORD, honoring their Covenants with God. The links of the Pyramid’s Bethlehem line to the NE, and Mt. Zion, SE to Mt. Sinai through the Pyramid’s Apex chief cornerstone, linking the triangle of these 3 altars together in a unique way, reflecting a triangular face of the Great Pyramid.

Figure D. The Triangle linking the altars of The Great Pyramid with Mt. Zion and Mt Sinai.

It is important to see what the Bible tells us about boundary stones. We find Biblical evidence of these land boundaries in God’s Covenant with Abraham in Genesis.

Genesis 15:18-21 18 On the same day the Lord made a Covenant with Abram, saying: To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the River Euphrates— 19 the Kenites, the Kenezzites, the Kadmonites, 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.”

Genesis 17:4-8 “As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you, and you shall be a father of many nationsNo longer shall your name be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for I have made you a father of many nationsI will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come from youAnd I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you. Also I give to you and your descendants after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.”

Here we see the boundaries of the Promised Land extending from the River of Egypt-the Nile, to the rivers  the Fertile Crescent-the Euphrates, as an Everlasting Covenant. If we follow the extension of the Bethlehem line into the fertile crescent, it crosses the Euphrates river also.

Deut. 19:14 14 “You shall not remove your neighbor’s landmark, which the men of old have set, in your inheritance which you will inherit in the land that the Lord your God is giving you to possess. [Prov. 22:28, 23:10]

These sacred property lines of God’s everlasting Covenant with Abraham, were marked by a heap of stones called stones of the boundary, and certainly there is no more impressiveheap or mountain of stones” on the face of the earth than The Great Pyramid! How appropriate that God would use the Greatest and only surviving Wonder of the ancient world, as a marker for His Covenant with Israel pertaining to the Promised Land.

Hosea 5:9-10 Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke; Among the tribes of Israel I make known what is sure. 10 The princes of Judah are like those who remove a landmarkI will pour out My wrath on them like water.

The Hebrew word for ‘Landmark here is [H1366-gebul] meaning boundary, the same as Deut 19:14 above. God had commanded the Israelite’s to keep themselves from the idols of the heathens that inhabited the Promised Land, but they did not. Thus these boundaries not only refer to physical, but also spiritual separations. God’s boundaries not only framed the real estate but also the lifestyles of Israel. Boundary Stones on Earth were known to have been sighted and marked from celestial coordinates for accuracy. This was the case in the building of the Great Pyramid in a ceremony known as “stretching the cord,” [Job 38:4-6] yielding the most accurately oriented physical structure on earth aligned to the four points of the compass, [Fig. C]. Thus the Pyramid provides not only the anchor point to delineate the borders of the “Promised Land,” marked in accordance with God’s Promises to Abraham in Genesis, but also in the mapping of the heavens which began in a section of the sky called the Pegasus Square. What follows relates to Jupiter’s location, near the Pegasus Square from Earthsky for this month in 2022.

Star chart with Great Square, Circlet, green line of ecliptic, and Jupiter near ecliptic.

The bright “star” ascending in the east at nightfall is really a planet, the largest of the planets in our solar system, Jupiter. This planet’s opposition – when Earth flew between Jupiter and the sun – was on September 26. A dark sky reveals the bright planet directly south of the Great Square of the constellation Pegasus. Between the Great Square and bright planet is a pretty, but faint group of 6 stars known as the Circlet in the constellation Pisces. Chart via John Jardine Goss/ EarthSky. 11

God’s promise to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob pertained not only to the Seed of Abraham but also to the Promised Land. The holy place that Jacob was drawn to was the place that God chose to place his Name, that Jacob was to honor with the tithes of his increase, [Deut. 14:23]. The Square of Pegasus can be viewed as  a special depiction of this truth, established also from secular sources. In Hamlet’s Mill, Santillana and von Dechend have presented illustrations of the Pegasus Square in agreement with the Egyptian hieroglyph for the Square, seen on the Dendera Zodiac, as a rectangle, either empty or filled with fish/ water, positioned between the fish of Pisces. According to Peter Thomkins;

The Square of Pegasus was considered the starting point in mapping of the sky. The ancients from the Sumerians to the Romans, in surveying land, began by marking a square of a standard dimension, then proceeded to measure out of it, in a checkerboard pattern. In cuneiform texts the name l-iku is given to the basic surveying square, to a unit of land surface, and to the Pegasus Square. In ancient Egyptian this hieroglyph referred to a district extending for 15 degrees from Memphis–Sokar, to the Apex of the Delta,
showing that this district was viewed as the basic reference unit, from which they began the mapping of Northern and Southern Egypt.”12

This basic reference unit of land becameboundary between North & Southern Egypt, marked by three Parallels [1st 30.06’, @ the apex of the Delta2nd perfect latitude of the Great Pyramid; 30.00’,3rd 29.51’] The area between these 3 latitudes was organized as a special district belonging neither to N. or S. Egypt. {as the idea of a gnomon} 13, even as the Great Pyramid is the basic reference unit of the earth onto 43,200 scale model @ the Apex of the delta, mapping the latitude and longitudinal lines of the globe from pole to pole both on earth and in the celestial sphere! This reveals God’s plan of Creation explaining a key scientific and spiritual purpose behind the Pyramid, not only as a map and master-plan of all Creation both above and below,  but depicting it with the greatest and only surviving wonder of the ancient world, with implements that modern man can still not duplicate. This also shows the place of the Great Pyramid [Isa. 19] in the Creator’s Covenant, in context of God’s promises to Abraham relating to the Promised Seed and the Promised Land.

Figure E. Axis “E” on the Dendera Zodiac crossing the Pegasus Square. 14

This E-axis begins in the decan of Coma, proceeding unto Virgo, crossing over the star Spica, between Virgo and Leo the Lion. It then intersects the crocodile/Jackal pole in the center of the Zodiac, before it proceeds to the first of the two Fishes of Pisces. Before this axis hits the 2nd fish however, it crosses over the Pegasus Square, the so-called “tablet of destiny” is distinctly marked prior to completing its course through Pisces. Finally, this 5th axis bisects the Ram-headed altar at the edge of Dendera’s Zodiac, to end its course. Thus, Dendera’s axis “E” is understood as an answer to the great Pegasus Square enclosed by Pisces embodying not only the Paradise Field and also the ark of (Noah-Hebrew/Babylon or Utnapishtim/Sumerian), but also Heaven’s Gate, where God chose to place His name on earth, in Jerusalem at the site of Jacob’s ladder.

Together with this Great Square, the two fish of Pisces form an important motif in art from around the world. The square is often depicted as a game-board, with two fish, one on either side. What is also interesting is how the stars of the Pegasus Square in between the stars of the two fish of Pisces are interpreted in a similar theme by cultures separated in time and distance in history, as we have seen before with the World-Monomyth. As we find these roots in the Bible record of the Tower of Babel, [Gen. 10-11] when all humanity shared a common speech based on the Celestial Gospel astronomy depicted at the apex of this tower, we find a shared history and roots, at the basis of the ancient. This is what Joseph Campbell has referred to as the World Mono-myth shared by all at their inception. The roots of Babylon lie in ancient Sumeria, and it is here that we find earliest references to “Iku” as the [Alpha, Beta, gamma Pegasi, w/ Alpha Andromedasquare in land surveying, formed the Square of Pegasus.

An iku was a square measure of 100 musaror about 3,600 square meters, which is approximately one modern acreIku was also the name of the constellation now called Pegasus, or more particularly the Square of PegasusAmong the Babyloniansthe Square of Pegasus was represented by four stars which do indeed make nearly a square shape in the heavens. In ancient Sumeria-Iku was meant to be the home of their God Enki his other home was Eridu, identified with the star Canopus in ArgoThe Field Iku represents is a barley field divided by a series of irrigation ditchesThe constellation rises as the barley is regularly irrigated and starts to ripen. Iancient Sumerian astrology its omens foretell the nature of the coming harvest.”15

One could easily liken this grid of irrigation ditches to the lines of latitude and longitude used for mapping the celestial and terrestrial globes, not to mention how this system was utilized in ancient Sumeria for agricultural purposes as seen in Egypt with Sirius-the Nile star.

The Pegasus Square’s alpha star of Al Pharetz, carries a message of the persecution of Israel as a primary theme, along with the deliverance of the returning Savior, seen in [Rev. 19:11-14]. With Al Pharetz as Pegasusbrightest star in the Andromeda sign, leads also to the nearby Andromeda Galaxy-the closest galaxy to our Milky Way. 16

Figure F. Pegasus the winged horse between the two fish of Pisces.

The stellar composition of the Pegasus Square, included in the flying horse decan of Pegasus and Andromeda, is comprised of the four stars of the Square: Alpharetz-the brightest star in the Square, is a spectroscopic binary, whose two stars revolve around their common center in nearly 97 daysAlGenib [below it], has the meaning of one “who carries” [Luke 19:12-15] in reference to the judgment and gifts the Lord carries with him when he returns in gloryAl Genib-gamma Pegasi, is one of three “guide” stars, on the SE corner including Al Pharetz, situated on the NE corner and the Prime Meridian, is used as the base-line in mapping the celestial latitude and longitude lines. 4 This is a key in understanding the function of the Pegasus Square as a “basic reference unit” in mapping both the celestial and terrestrial global grids.

The third star Scheat, is the 2nd brightest star in the NW corner of the Square with the meaning of “one who goes and returns.” Scheat is a Red Giant and variable star with a period ranging from 30-40 days. This star testifies to the surety of the Lord’s return in victorious glory, following the sufferings of his 1st appearance. The word for this star occurs in Num. 11:8 in reference to manna from heaven, that is personified in Christ, [John 6:48-58]. During his first advent on the earth, Jesus was sent from heaven as a sacrifice for his saints,” so that man could eat the bread of life and not die. In his 2nd coming, the Lord will return in victory “with his saints”-the believers, manifesting this eternal life, conquering death forever. Finally, Markab the
brightest star of Pegasus, refers to the Messiah: “returning from afar.”17 The Arabic word here means a ship, saddle or anything ridden upon. 18 We find this imagery of the Lord’s victorious return in [Rev. 19:11-14] “with his saints,” who join him on white horses in his ultimate victory over evil. Markab is a star of first magnitude, a spectro-scopic binary, on the SW corner of the Square, with Al-Genib, the wing-tip of Pegasus
also on the south side pictured above.

The Hebrew word for Markab is found in Micah 4:2-3.

4:2 And many nations shall come and say, Come let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and go to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for the law shall go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem3And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nationneither shall they learn war anymore.

These references first to the Mountain of the Lord, refer to the Mountain of Jehovah, indicating God [Jehovah] in relation to His Creation. The “house of the God of Jacob”-God here is Elohim or God as the Creator. Jacob usually refers to his natural seed, and Israel to his spiritual seedIsa. 44 below, reveals a key occurrence of these terms. The House [H1004-bayith] 19 of God tells us of the Temple, of Israel, where God appeared to His people yearly on the Day of Atonement. This shows the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, not only as the line of believer’s, but as the nation wherein all the nations of the earth are to be blessed. God’s will is that everyone is saved and comes unto the knowledge of the truth, and Christ’s commission is to the entire world.

Isa. 44:2-3, 5 Thus saith the Lord that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee; Fear not O Jacob, my servant, and thou Jeshurun whom I have chosen. 3. For I will pour water upon him who is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: and My blessing upon thy offspring. 5. One shall say I am the Lord’s and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel.

These verses in Isaiah 44 relate some key celestial truths that we need to understand. Here we can witness the true nature and quality of Jacob the righteous, relative to the meaning of Jeshurun.

My blessing upon thy offspring”-God’s blessing upon Jacob’s offspring coincides with the promises God gave Abraham [Gen. 13:14-17, 15:4-7] which pertained not only unto the Seed of Abraham and the nations of the world, but also to the Promised Land. We find the fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham in Jacob in Genesis 28.

(Gen 28:11-15) And he lighted6293 upon a certain place,4725 and tarried there all night,3885, 8033 because3588 the sun8121 was set;935 and he took3947 of the stones4480, 68 of that place,4725 and put7760 them for his pillows,4763 and lay down7901 in that1931 place4725 to sleep. (12)  And he dreamed,2492 and behold2009 a ladder5551 set up5324 on the earth,776 and the top7218 of it reached5060 to heaven:8064 and behold2009 the angels4397 [malak] of God430 ascending5927 [alah-] and descending3381 [yarad-] on it. (13)  And, behold,2009 the LORD3068 [Jehovah-] stood5324 [natsabstand erect like a pillar] above 5921 it, and said,559 I589 am the LORD3068 [Jehovah] God430 [elohim-] of Abraham85 thy father,1 and the God430 [elohim-plural of the Supreme God] of Isaac:3327 the land776 [erets-] whereon834, 5921 thou859 liest,7901 to thee will I give5414 it, and to thy seed; 2233 [zera-] (14And thy seed2233 [zera-] shall be1961 as the dust6083 of the earth,776 and thou shalt spread abroad6555 to the west,3220 and to the east,6924 and to the north,6828 and to the south:5045 and in thee and in thy seed2233 [zera-] shall all3605 the families4940 [mishpachah-] of the earth127 [adamah-] be blessed.1288 (15)  And, behold,2009 I595 am with5973 thee, and will keep8104 thee in all3605 places whither834 thou goest,1980 and will bring thee again7725 into413 this2063  land;127 for3588 I will not3808 leave5800 thee, until5704, 834, 518 I have done6213 (853) that which834  I have spoken1696 to thee of.

What was this place that Jacob came upon where his father Isaac, and his grandfather Abraham had built an altar? It was the exact location where Isaac was bound to the altarMount Moriah, the site that eventually became the holy city of Jerusalem, where Jacob was unwittingly lead in his trek through the desert that night, to this holy place. This confirms the witness of Micah 4:2 above regarding the star Markab, where the law shall
go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem… I have also included selected excerpts from Keil & Delitsch’ Commentary to enlighten our view and understanding of this record of “Jacob’s Ladder,” marked [K&D] below.

(K&D) Jacob’s Dream at Bethel.-“As he was traveling from Beersheba, where Isaac was then staying (Gen. 26:25), to Haran, Jacob came to a place where he was obliged to stop all night, because the sun had set. The words “he hit (lighted) upon the place,” indicate the apparently accidental, yet really divinely appointed choice of this place for his night-quarters; and the definite article points it out as having become well known through the revelation of God that ensued. After making a pillow with the stones (מְאֲשֹׁת, head-place, pillow), he fell asleep and had a dream,
in which he saw a ladder resting upon the earth, with the top [rosh] reaching to heaven; [as a stone ziggurat] and upon it angels of God going up and down, and Jehovah Himself standing above it. The ladder was a visible symbol of the real and uninterrupted fellowship between God in heaven and His people upon earth. The angels upon it carry up the wants of men to God, and bring down the assistance and protection of God to men. The ladder stood upon the earth, just where Jacob was lying in solitude, forsaken by men. Above in heaven stood Jehovah, explaining in words the symbol that he saw. Proclaiming Himself to Jacob as the God of his
fathers, He not only confirmed to him all the promises of the fathers in their fullest extent, but promised him protection on his journey and a safe return to his home (Gen. 28: 13-15). But the fulfillment of this promise to Jacob was still far off, so God added the firm assurance, “I will not leave thee till I have done
(carried out) what I have told thee.” 20

(Gen 28:16-17)  And Jacob3290 awaked3364 out of his sleep,4480, 8142 and he said,559 Surely403 the LORD3068 is3426 in this2088 place;4725 and I595 knew3045 it not.3808 (17)  And he was afraid,3372 and said,559 How4100  dreadful3372 is this2088 place!4725 this2088 is none369 other but3588, 518 the house1004 of God,430 [elohim-plural of the Supreme God] and this2088 is the gate8179 of heaven.8064

(K&D) Jacob spoke the impression made by this vision as soon as he awoke from sleep, in the words, “Surely Jehovah is in this place, and I knew it not.” The revelation was intended not only to stamp the blessing, with which Isaac had dismissed him from his home, with the seal of divine approval, but also to impress upon Jacob’s mind the fact, that although Jehovah would be near to protect and guide him in a foreign land, the land of promise was the holy ground on which the God of his fathers would set up the Covenant of His grace. The place was none other thanthe house of God and the gate of heaven,” i.e., a place where God dwelt, and a way that opened to Him in heaven. 21

Ever since Abraham heard the promise of God to bless his family, and seed took them with him, he had become a focus of the enemy, and the spirit realm, which intensified even more, when Moses lead the children of Israel out of Egypt.

The house of God; Beth-El and the gate of heaven refer to the future site of the Jerusalem Temple Mount. He explains that the foot of the ladder in Jacob’s dream was in Beersheba, and the top was in Luz. Therefore the ladder’s midsection was over Mount Moriah as the pivotal point of their encounter. When he awakened, Jacob realized he had visited the dwelling place of Godthe most intimate spot where Abraham’s prayers were answered in heaven. The Temple as God’s abode is fitting, since it was in the holiest of all that God revealed the Shekina glory (שכינה) of His Presence among His people. This makes the location, the so-called “axis-mundi” or center of the earth not only for Israel, but all mankind, as is fulfilled in the Christ millennium when all the world’s population will make a regular pilgrimage to Jerusalem to worship Christ as the King of Kings. We also find this truth in Gen. 28:14 above, where Jacob’s seed as the “dust of the earth” spreads to the cardinal directions of the compass; to the west, east, north, and south to bless all the families of the earth.

(Gen 28:18-19) And Jacob3290 rose up early7925 in the morning,1242and took3947 (853) the stone68 that 834 he had put7760 for his pillows,4763 [headrest] and set it up7760, (853) for a pillar,4676 [matstsebah-a station stone, a column, as a memorial stone or monument, Rachel’s grave marker, Gen. 35:14, 20, 2 Sam. 18:18, usually with religious import. Gen. 31:45, 35:14, Ex. 24:4, Isa. 19:19.]and poured3332 oil8081 upon5921 the top [H7218rosh] of it. (19) And he called7121 (853) the name8034 of that 1931 place4725 Bethel:1008 but199 the  name8034 of that city5892 was called Luz3870 at the first.7223

(K&D) In the morning Jacob set up the stone at his head, as a monument (מַצֵּבָה) to honor the revelation he had received from God; and poured oil upon the top, to consecrate it as a memorial of mercy shown him there, not an idol or object of divine worship, (Ex. 30:26). He then gave the place the name of Bethel, i.e., House of God, whereas (וְאוּלָם) the town had been called Luz before. He renewed it on his return from Mesopotamia (Gen. 35:15). This is confirmed by Gen. 48:3, where Jacob, like the historian in Gen. 35:6-7, speaks of Luz as the place of this revelation. (see K&D notes on Josh. 16:2). 22

(Gen 28:20-22)  And Jacob3290 vowed5087 a vow,5088 saying,559 If518 God430 will be1961 with5973 me, and will keep8104 me in this2088 way1870 that834 I595 go,1980 and will give5414 me bread3899 to eat,398 and raiment899 to put on,384(21) So that I come again7725 to413 my father’s1 house1004 in peace;7965 then shall the LORD3068 be1961 my God:430 (22) And this2063 stone,68 which834 I have set7760 for a pillar,4676 shall be1961 God’s430 house:1004 and of all3605 that834 thou shalt give5414 me
I will surely give the tenth6237, 6237 unto thee
.

(K&D)  Lastly, Jacob made a vow: that if God would give him the promised protection on his journey, and bring him back in safety to his father’s house, Jehovah should be his God (וְהָיָה in Gen. 28:21 commences the apodosis), the stone which he had set up should be a house of God, and Jehovah should receive a tenth of all that He gave to him. It is noted here, that Elohim is used in the protasis instead of Jehovah, as constituting the essence of the vow: if Jehovah, who had appeared to him, proved Himself to be God by fulfilling His promise, then he would acknowledge and worship Him as his God, by making the stone thus set up into a house of God, i.e., place of sacrifice, and by tithing all his possessions. With regard to the fulfillment of this vow, we learn from Gen. 35:7 that Jacob built an altar, and in dedicating the tenth to God, i.e., offered it to Jehovah; according to the analogy of Deut. 14:28-29 (cp. Gen. 31:5446:1). 23

According to H.G. Wood: “the ziggurat of Jupiter Belus at Babylon had an ideal basis in the number 360. He describes a 7-staged pyramid in which each of the six upper stages is 360 inches shorter than the one next below it: the base side was 3,600 inches, and the total height of the structure was 3,600 inches. Wood therefore concludes that: the entire system of ancient Babylonian metrology appears to have been derived from 360 x 360 x 100 or, 12,960,000.”24

noahs calendar

This number total (12,960,000) happens to be half the length of solar years in the precession of the equinoxes showing the precessional basis of timekeeping as an ancient temporal standard related to Noah’s calendar. This perfect template of the cosmic order is based on the beauty of the precessional pattern, as seen in the sun’s trajectory through it’s annual course, where it “dwells” in each of the 12 houses of the mazzaroth for a month. The Sun moves in its circuit at a rate of 12 miles per second or 43,200 miles per hour (1/3 of 1,296,000) as it carries its train of planets in our solar system, and shedding its light upon the earth within the boundaries of the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn. As the Sun illuminates the earth for twelve hours each day; (43,200 seconds), and since there are 86,400 seconds in each 24-hour day, we find the earth moving through 1,296,000 arc-seconds every 24 hours. It is also interesting to note that the diameter of the sun is 86,400 miles, thus the time it takes for the sun’s light to cover the space of the earth’s surface relates to it’s own diameter. A key difference between the Great Pyramid and other Temple-ziggurats of the world, is the steps built into the heathen temple-towers like as in Mexico above or other nations, did not violate God’s standard not to build steps in His altars; [Ex. 20:22-26], which the smooth external surfaces of the Great Pyramid, complied with.

Gen. 28:22b And this2063 stone,68 which834 I have set7760 for a pillar,4676 shall be1961 God’s430 house1004

The Stone [Eben-H68] that Jacob set up for a pillar [H4676] is the same word used in Isa. 19:19 for the Great Pyramid, the prototypical “stone ladder.” [Gen. 11:4, Ex. 14:2 Ezek. 29:10, 30:6, Jer. 44:1, 46:14ziggurat-tower [migdol-H4026] of Babel. In Gen. 28: 18, 22, 31:13, 35, 51, 52 etc.  This same word for pillar” [H4676] is used for Jacob’s Ladder and the stone Jacob used as a pillow” and later made into an altar respecting his Covenant with God. 25

pillar”- H4676 {matstsebah}from H5324, in Isaiah 19:19. Something stationed, a column, memorial stone, a monument usually with religious significance. The root means to stand erectestablish boundaries, be firm and healthy. {Ex. 7:15; 34:2, Ps. 82:1, Gen. 28:18, 22; Micah 5:12, II Kgs. 3:2, 10:26, 18:4}. 18 John 2: 19 also uniquely depicts Christ-the signal-beacon embodied in the Jerusalem stone-temple, reflecting his image as the chief cornerstone in the Great Pyramid. The boundaries marked by the Great Pyramid not only mark the borders of Egypt, but also the borders of the promised land boundaries in God’s Word.

Figure G. The Great Pyramid Squaring the Circle. 26
Great Pyramid and Squaring the Circle

The Pyramid is designed that for all practical purposes it accomplishes the squaring of the circle. The Pyramid’s base is a square whose perimeter is equal to the circumference of a circle whose radius is the Pyramid’s height. The square holds the Earth ‘s dimensions seen in the base of the Pyramid, while the circle is a reflection of the heavens seen not only in its unique location at the center of landmass for our planet, but also as a scale model of our planet’s dimensions on a 1 to 43.200 basis.

As Jacob’s Ladder embodied future site of the Beth-el Tabernacle and Hebrew Temple, it reveals deeper truths as Israel’s High Priest had access to God’s personal presence in the holy of the holies with the Ark of the Covenant, only once a year on the Day of Atonement. Hebrews tells us Christ is this High Priest after the order of Melchisedek, with an everlasting Priesthood and final perfect sacrifice for all mankind. In certain ancient sacred Geometry traditions, the relation of the Diameter to the Circumference, embodied in the pi ratio, symbolized the Names of GodElohim and Jehovah. With Elohim, the Creator as the Circumference, of the curved line formingcircle as the totality of His Creation, and in Jehovah, the straight line Diameter, as God relates to His handiworks. Thus the pi ratio embodies the geometrical expressions of diameter and circumference, embody these Names of God. We find the basic elements of the concept of “squaring the circle” in 2D: the Circle’s diameter inscribed in the circumference of a Circle surrounding Sphere inside a Cube, in 3D. In I Kings 7:30, the circular Brasen Sea is contained withinsquare base. This principle survived through the centuries via domed sacred architecture of many temples and churches, where the circular dome is surrounded by a square building. It is notable that the Holiest of all, with the Ark of the Covenant, was a perfect cube, within a double-square ground-plan of the Hebrew Tabernacle.

These names of God embody some of the powers of His traits or attributes which make our God Who He is. A key to grasping the 40+ Attributes of God as Rev. Jon Nessle and I have cataloged them, as they relate to the special traits of God referred to as Essences, is summarized in the Chart below. When God’s Word refers to a certain Trait by saying God IS ___. These traits are His very essence- or essential character. These four traits, all mentioned in the Gospel of JohnLightSpirit and Love, are found in their 3 main categories of God’s Attributes, with the fourth, the Spoken and written Word of God, explaining them in detail. 27

Elohim El/Elah Jehovah
Infinitude Holiness Monarchy
Light Spirit Love
                           The Word of God

As Jehovah rules the Monarchy of His Kingdom by the laws of God’s Love, so His geometric order is seen in how the Circle and Square represent Elohim and Jehovah in the Figure H graphic below, the Square with its axes represents the Great Pyramid, and how Christ embodies this version of the sacred architecture as seen in the many references to him as the Chief Cornerstone, and the missing Capstone of the Pyramid, [Job 38:16, Ps.118:22, Isa. 28:16, Zech. 4:7, Matt. 21:42, Mk.12:10, Lk. 20:17, Acts 4:11, Eph. 2:20, I Pet. 2:6-7]. The Gift ministries of the spiritual body of the Church in Christ are the foundation of this body, as the ministers manifest Christ in them., to the members of the Spiritual body of Christ.

Ephesians 2:20 (KJV)

20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophetsJesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone;

We should note how both sets of hands and feet of the Vitruvian Man are touching the boundaries, one of the Circle and the other of the square, representing how Christ embodies the Godly Attributes of both Elohim
and Jehovah. One of the best examples of how Jesus embodies some of the Jehovah titles is found in reference to 7 redemptive Names of God, in unity with the 7 aspects of the Shepherd in the 23rd Psalm, in the Chart below as more evidence of this Godly septenary order.

Seven Redemptive Names of God in the Shepherd of Ps. 23

Jehovah
Names
OT Feasts Moses Christ Church Ps. 23
Jireh
Gen. 22:13
Unleavened Bread Ex. 12; 19, Levi. 23:6-8. Manna
Jn. 6:31
Bread
Jn. 6:35
Communion
Body 
I Cor. 11: 23-34
Pastures
v.2
Rapha
Ex. 15:26
Passover
Ex. 12,  Levi 23:4-5,
Num. 28:16
Passover Lamb/Light
Jn. 8:12
Communion
Blood 
I Cor. 11: 23-34
Restores Soul v. 3
Nissi
Ex. 17:15
Atonement
Levi 16, 23:26-33,
Rod
Ex. 7:10
Door
Jn. 10:7
Christ in You
Rom. 8:35-9
Rod & Staff
v. 4
Shalom
Jdg. 6:21-24
Tabernacles
Ex. 23:16, 33-44.
Cloud
Ex.14:14-19
Way, Truth, Life
Jn. 14:6
Prince of Peace
Eph. 2:14-18
Still Waters
v. 1
Tsidkenu
Jer. 23:6
Trumpets
Ex. 19-20
Levi. 23:23-25,
Law
Gal. 3:24
Faith
Rom. 10:9-10
JC Faith
Jn. 11:25
Right paths
v. 2
Shammah
Ezek. 48:35
Pentecost
Ex. 23:16
Levi. 23:9-22
Tabernacle-Ark Vine
Jn. 15:1
Holy Spirit
Jn. 4:23-24
With me
v. 4
Raah
Shepherd-
Ps. 23
Octave
Levi. 23:36, 39, Ezek. 37:1-14
Shepherd of Israel
Ex. 3
Good Shepherd
Jn. 10:11-15
Love
Rom.5:5
Loves Sheep
v. 6

The importance of relating pi to septenary units is obvious in a Biblical light as we consider Elohim’s abundant use of the number 7 in His ordering of Creation, for example in the temporal order of the 7 days in the weekly Sabbath, a week of years, the Jubilee, and the 7 Biblical DispensationsOnly from God’s viewpoint in His Word, do these applications of the pi ratio seen in Job make sense. As we find in Job 38:5 with the Biblical usage of the Hebrew word “qav,” as Ps. 19 refers to the Creator’s exercise of the of Pi, in reference to the ecliptic, that far exceeds any previous application of it by mankind. Only He could apply the pi ratio to the ecliptic.

This is also true with the spherical dimensions of our planet, a concept which is borne out in much greater detail, in the role of pi in the symbolic and architectural design of the Great PyramidLivio Stechini, a modern scholar analyzing the work of these ancient and modern Pyramid researchers, focused on the meridian triangle of the Great Pyramid, which give excellent values for both the Pi and Phi ratios, of the four triangles on the four faces of the Great Pyramid. Agatharchides presented dimensions for two meridian sections of the Great Pyramid based on Pi, with the other two triangular sections based on Phi. 28 Vitruvian Man shows Jehovah reaching out to humanity through Jesus His only begotten Son, as the diameter line that connects the centerpoint [Man-creation] to the Creator- the eternal Circle, outside Creation. Thus, Christ is witnessed as the mediator between God and Man [I Tim. 2:5].

Figure. H. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images. 29

Image result for Golden Ratio Great Pyramid of Giza

We also find in the 4 triangular sides of the Pyramidtwo sides each measured by the pi/phi ratios, with Christ as the chief cornerstone. This shows us how the Great Pyramid mirrors heaven and earth, by squaring the 2D circle, and cubing the expanded 3D sphere in a cosmology that has been reflected with various imagery through the myths of many world cultures, all finding their ultimate meaning in the key touchstone of Biblical Archaeo-Astronomy to help us discern the times wherein we reside. As Jesus said in Matthew;

Matthew 16:2-3 
He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is redAnd in the morning, It will be foul weather today: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

 Figure I. The Great Pyramid Squaring the Circle. 30

Luke 12:39-40
39 
And this know, that if the good-man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through. 
40 Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not41 Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all? 42 And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?
43 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.

As the time of the Lord’s return draws nearer, we must not only discern the times, but also know what action to take to be ready and faithful. A faithful servant will know how to prevent his house from being robbed, to insure that his spiritual inheritance and reward is not stolen or lost, aiding others in ministry doing the same.

God in Christ in us, is with us to a greater extent than at any time up to now, and we are equipped with all His enablements to accomplish what he has called us to do! our collective answer should be “Here I Am Father, Send me!

God Bless!

Rene’


Footnotes

1 Plate 1. The Great Pyramid Bisects the Boundaries of the Nile Delta. picture credit, Decoding the Great Pyramid Peter Lemesurier, pg. 12.
2. IBID, p. 18-19
3. IBID. p. 19
4. Pillar of Enoch Ministries, Lehman- Picture credit; Figure B.
5. Strong’s Concordance for H3245, H3248, H4143, & H4976. James Strong.
6. The Great Pyramid Decoded, Peter Lemesurier, p.193 [picture credit-Figure D.]
7. Strong’s Concordance for [H8432tavek], James Strong.
8. IBID, [H4676matstsebah]
9. Strong’s Concordance for [H1366-gebul], James Strong.
10. http://ancients-bg.com/the-sacral-geometry-of-the-great-pyramid/
11. Picture credit on Jupiter’s location, near the Pegasus Square from EarthSkyOct. 2022.
12. Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins p. 297
13. IBID
14. Figure E. Axis “E” on the Dendera Zodiac crossing the Pegasus Square, picture credit.
15. https://www.academia.edu/22401454/On_Chinese_Astrology_s_Imperviousness_to_External_Influences
16. Star Names-Their Lore and Meaning, p. 35. R. Hinckley Allen
17. Witness of the Stars, p. 90,  E.W. Bullinger
18. IBID
19. Strong’s Concordance [H1004-bayith], James Strong
20. Keil & Delitsch’ Commentary on Gen. 28:11-15
21. IBID Gen. 28:16-17
22.  IBID Gen. 28:18-19
23. IBID Gen. 28:20-22
24. Ancient Metrology, H.G. Wood
25. Strong’s Concordance; [Eben-H68], [H4676], James Strong
26. www.cropcirclesandmore.com [Bert Janssen] picture credit
27. One God of Original Christianity Session 15 Supplemental file, Jon Nessle
28. Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins, Livio Stechini ppg. 373-375
29. Figure. H. Pi Ratio in the Great Pyramid of Giza – Bing images, picture credit.
30. www.cropcirclesandmore.com [Bert Janssen] picture credit

 

Comments on Facebook

To those of you interested in commenting on this post please go to our Facebook Group Page 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/bibleastronomy

Comments Off on The Great Pyramid and Jacob’s Ladder

The Miracle of the Sundial of Ahaz

For those who have been keeping up with the sessions of Jon Nessle’s Class on Old Testament History, we have come to a section called Biblical Chronology. This topic deals with time in general; regarding events, both in history and in the future, dealing with Bible Prophesy, along with the details of Hebrew timekeeping and their calendar.

The Almighty Creator originally intelligently designed the universe with His sacred timekeeping installed at the foundation. He set the fixed stars and planets in place, so that man could understand times – seasons, days and years, [Gen. 1:14]. With this in mind, I wanted to call attention to an interesting article I found on a fascinating Biblical topic regarding the Sundial of Ahaz. I will include the majority of the post by Bob the Berean, entitled The Sun Dial of Ahaz and the Extra 40 Minutes! 1 in this month’s blog for your edification, to help us think about Biblical time and how our CreatorGod designed the temporal order of Creation for our planet.

As Jon Nessle and Ren Manetti have taught, God’s calendar originally had 30 days in each and every month. The first statement made by Bob the Berean in his blog that caught my attention is: “The relationship between the sun and the moon defined the months.” This is a foundational concept to understand when considering this miracle on the Sundial. The setting for the miracle of the Sundial of Ahaz takes place during the rule of King Hezekiah, when Jerusalem was under siege by King Sennecarib, in 1 Kings 20, and Isa. 38. According to the blog by Bob the Berean; 

“In 712 B.C. Hezekiah was king of Judah and fell ill. The prophet Isaiah was sent to his bedside to tell him to set his affairs in order because he was not going to recover. Hezekiah wept and prayed to the Lord and reminded him how he had served Him in sincerity and truth. Since he became king, Hezekiah had spent his time tearing down the high places, groves, altars and idols to the false gods in the land. He had indeed served God.

(2Ki 20:5-6) Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus saith the LORD, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up unto the house of the LORD. (6) And I will add unto thy days fifteen years; and I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city for mine own sake, and for my servant David’s sake.

God heard his prayer and through Isaiah told him that he would –
1. heal him
2. he would appear in the temple on the third day
3. He would add 15 years to his life, and
4.
 He would deliver Jerusalem out of the hand of the king of Assyria.

Talk about answered prayer! But look how bold Hezekiah was in response –

(2Ki 20:8 ) And Hezekiah said unto Isaiah, What shall be the sign that the LORD will heal me, and that I shall go up into the house of the LORD the third day?

After being granted all that, he had the nerve to ask for a sign! And the Lord granted it! Now here’s where we get back to the calendar and how keeping track of time became more complicated.

(2Ki 20:9-11) And Isaiah said, This sign shalt thou have of the LORD, that the LORD will do the thing that he hath spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees? (10) And Hezekiah answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten degrees (11) And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the LORD: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz.

So God altered the position of the sun such that time went backwards! This added time to that day and every day since. How much time? If you think of the eastern horizon to the western horizon as 180 degrees (half of a complete circle), then 10 degrees would be calculated like this If daylight is 12 hours then 180 degrees equals 12 hours:

12 hours x 60 minutes per hour = 720 minutes
720 minutes divided by 180 degrees = 4 minutes per degree
10 degrees that God moved the shadow backwards x 4 minutes per degree
40 minutes!

So God moved the position of the sun such that time turned backwards by 40 minutes. Imagine you’re lying on your bed as Hezekiah was and the sun has gone down. Suddenly, the sun appears above the horizon again after it has already set! Now that’s a sign!

It doesn’t tell us specifically that the sun had already gone down, though it could have, the movement of the shadow backwards on the sundial would have been just as dramatic.

Why the Sun’s Position Must have Changed, and Not the Earth rotating Backwards-

For the shadow of the sundial to return backwards 10 degrees, this must be the sun’s position moving and not the earth rotating backwards. If both the sun and moon moved, or earth rotated backwards, then there would be no change in the months. If both the sun and moon moved backwards together, then there would be no change in their relationship, only the length of that day would be 40 minutes longer. As was the case in Joshua’s long day” (Josh 10:12-13), the sun and moon both stood still, and their relationship between each other did not change. The only thing that happened was a long day until the battle had ended.

For the 10 degrees to make a change in the months, there had to have been a change in the position of the sun in relation to the moon. This would change the length of the phases, that determines the length of the months. If both sun and moon didn’t move, but the earth “rotated” backwards, this could not explain a change in the months either, as the relationship between sun and moon would remain unchanged. It would have only made that day 10 degrees/40 min longer. But it wouldn’t have changed the months. The moon’s phases and times
would still have been the same since the moon is dependent only upon the sun for the timing of its phases, and not the earth.

The Jews have kept track of the months by observing one new moon to the next, for centuries. The Hebrew calendar has 12 months of 29 1/2 to 30 days. Approximately every 3 years they add a 13th month. Does that correlate in any way with the 10 degrees/40 minutes?

40 minutes per day x 30 days per month = 1200 minutes difference per month
1200 minutes x 12 months per year = 14,400 minutes per year
14,400 minutes per year x 3 years = 43,200 minutes
43,200 minutes divided by 60 minutes per hour = 720 hours over 3 year period
720 hours divided by 24 hours per day = 30 days
(the 13th month!)

This adjustment is required also to ensure the alignment of the feast days with the correct season.

Why Did God Choose How Many Degrees and not allow Hezekiah to choose?

(2Ki 20:9) And Isaiah said, This sign shalt thou have of the LORD, that the LORD will do the thing that he hath spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees?

Here we see that God gave Hezekiah the choice of 10 degrees forward or backwards, but not how many degrees. Why did God choose how many degrees, and not let Hezekiah choose? Because it could have affected God’s sanctified holy Sabbath.

If God had let Hezekiah choose the number of degrees, we as men like to see spectacular fantastic miracles. And as such Hezekiah might have chosen 30 or 40 degrees! What would that have done to the calendar? If a change was made, which caused more than 1 day’s loss in any month, we would lose the last Sabbath of that month, as the last Sabbath is the 29th day of the month on the Hebrew calendar. As it stands now, only the 30th day, is lost in some months. If we had lost two days instead of one, then we would lose both the 30th dayand the 29th day Sabbath, thereby destroying the 7-day weekly cycle, which God instituted in Genesis 2:3.” 2

Gen. 2:1-3
 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He had rested from all His work which God created and made.

God blessed and sanctified the seventh day making it a Sabbath Covenant going forward, and He did not allow this Miracle of the Sundial of Ahaz to interfere with this. According to the calculations of Bob the Berean above, the 40 Minutes related to the 10 degrees the shadow of the sun moved backwards, on the sundial, the numbers fit a sacred numerical matrix that pervades the earth and our solar system. As the sun passes through its 365.2224- day, annual course it “dwells” in each of the 12 houses of its “civil year” of the zodiac for one month. The Sun moves in its circuit at a rate of 12 miles a second, or 43,200 miles per hour, with its train of planets in our solar system between the boundary lines of the tropics of Cancer and CapricornInterestingly, the sun’s orbital speed is 1/10th of 1/2 its perimeter in miles [864,000], or [20 x 43,200] shown as a multiple in the unity of Space-Time. In the base 60 number system seen in the 60 seconds per minute, 60 min. per hour, and 360-day calendar year of Noah, also breaks down into the basic numbers of 6 x 10. This exhibits the relation between the civil [lunar], and sacred [solar] years of the Hebrew calendar, in context of precession. This base 60 number system also provides the basis for the golden section ratio, also known as phi: 1.618 (10 by 6.18, or 100 by 61.8…). In addition to unifying the structure of the human body, the musical scale, planetary orbits, biological growth cycles and the Hebrew Calendar, this phi ratio proves to also be a key element in the correlation of the eclipse cycle with the solar year.

The numbers Bob the Berean referenced above, all fit within the workings of the Hebrew Calendar, and how Israel intercalated their calendar with an extra or 2nd month of Adar, to make up the 11-day difference between the luni-solar cycles. God knew how much leeway He could allow for this miracle of the Sundial, but He could not allow it to violate His existing Sabbath Covenant. It is important that we understand these, and other details to absorb to a fuller extent, the ramifications of God’s structure of the Hebrew Calendar, and how it relates to the Zodiacal band., within which the 12 constellations of the Mazzaroth are viewed on the earth.

With this in mind, let’s continue with a deeper look at the planet Mercury, symbolizing the winged-footed Mercurius, indicating the speed and urgency with which the archangel Gabriel carries the teachings and messages of God, depicted in this planet’s rapid 88-day solar orbit. The range of Mercury’s orbit is within the Earth’s tropical borders, delineating the rectangular borders wherein the celestial light of the Sun, Moon and Stars is shed upon our planet. The wordtropic” has its roots in the Greek word tropos; [G5157], found in James 1:17 with a shadow cast by the turning of a heavenly body. This is understood better when we realize that the Solstices are the farthest points from Earth, for the Sun’s position, and thus the seasonal turning points of the calendar, where the days lengthen in summer, and shorten in winter. Because Mercury’s orbit takes it as much as 7 degrees North, or South of the Equator –Mercury is seen as figuratively bringing the light of God’s message to the Earth, by delineating our bounds on this  pathway of the stars, within which the light of the Celestial Gospel is shed. This heavenly highway of 15 degrees is called the zodiacal band,

This also distinguishes the planets and stars outside this band generally un-named, by God in the firmament, from those whose names have been with us since antiquity, within this band [Ps. 147:4] As the messenger archangel of light, Mercury symbolizing Gabriel, defines a pathway in which God’s three-fold light in the Celestial Gospel is shed upon the Earth. The tropical borders will also determine the two interlocking polar borders of the great circles of the ecliptic and Equator in the cycle of obliquity, relating to the varying degree of the earth’s axis tilt.

Figure 1. The Earth’s Axis and the Obliquity Cycle. 3

two interlocking polar borders

It is important to realize Mercury’s symbolic portrayal of the ministry of the archangel Gabriel, and how this translates into the science of Astronomy, relating to the boundaries of the tropics. We find here a truth and correlating principle in the revelation of God’s threefold celestial light in Biblical Astronomy, as it reveals the laws of scientific astronomy.

Even as the orbit of the planet Mercury is compatible with the borders of the zodiacal band, so these borders fall inside the tropical boundaries on Earth. Thus, Mercury-Gabriel establishes the boundaries wherein celestial light is revealed upon the Earth, not only in a spiritual sense, when Gabriel brings a message of God directly to the people, and in the Gospel in the stars, but also in a practical scientific sense. Astronomy in ancient cultures on the face of the Earth documented the extreme rising and setting points of the Sun’s Solstice, as witnessed for example, with the Great Sphinx and Stonehenge. One of our goals is to uncover the roots of the Astronomy of the Biblical Patriarchs that underlie the vast reservoir of ancient Archaeo-Astronomy, to recognize the influence exerted by the wisdom and divine revelation of these antediluvian Men of God. In this way, the study of Biblical Astronomy, reveals an authentic fountainhead of knowledge in ancient astronomy, which was perverted in later star religions of the ancient World.

Another level of truth we need to consider related to the Miracle of the Sundial of Ahaz, which is not mentioned in  Bob’s blog above, relates to what are called the “Songs of the Degrees.” There are 15 of these Psalms, that get their name from the 10 degrees the shadow returned on the Sundial, and are found in the Psalms, from; 120-134.
They relate to the 15 years added to the life of King Hezekiah, resulting from his prayer to God for healing him. These 15 Psalms break down into 10 related to Hezekiah and the 10 degrees the sun moved back on the dial, [2 Kings 20:8-11], while the remaining 5 Psalms are from King David [4] and King Solomon [1]. The Psalm of Solomon occupies the center position [Ps. 127] in the structure of these 15 Psalms, with 7 Psalms on either side of it, including 2 Psalms in each of the 2 sets 7-by King David, and 5 of these two sets of 7 by King Hezekiah. 4

Since these 15 Psalms record God’s deliverance of His people from their trials under these 3 kings, God’s names are prominent in these Psalms, where the name Jehovah occurs 24 times in both of the 2 sets of 7 Psalms. The 15 Psalms are arranged in 5 groups of 3, emphasizing God’s Deliverance with the subject in each of the first group is Distress, the second is Trust in Jehovah, with the 3rd covering blessings and peace in Zion. 5

The Structure of the Psalms of the Degrees is as follows; 6
from E.W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible.

Group 1. Distress
Psalm 120-
Hezekiah’s distress under siege crying to Jehovah
  Psalm 121- Hezekiah’s trust in Jehovah’s help
Psalm 122-Hezekiah’s deliverance and blessing in the house of Jehovah
[Psalm of David]

Group 2. Trust
Psalm 123-Hezekiah looking unto Jehovah 
  Psalm 124-Hezekiah trusting Jehovah [Psalm of David]
    Psalm 125-Hezekiah’s blessing and Peace in Zion

Group 3. Blessing and Peace in Zion
Psalm 126-Hezekiah’s Distress prayer to turn his captivity
  Psalm 127-Center Psalm of Solomon [Trust]
    Psalm 128-Hezekiah’s Blessing and Peace out of Zion

Group 4. Distress
Psalm 129-Hezekiah’s distress in affliction
  Psalm 130-Hezekiah trusting Jehovah
    Psalm 131-Hezekiah’s Blessing and Peace out of Zion

Group 5. Trust
Psalm 132-Hezekiah recalls David distressed in affliction
  Psalm 133-[Psalm of David], Trusting Jehovah w/1 heart.
    Psalm 134-Hezekiah’s Blessing and Peace out of Zion

Link to the Structure of the Psalms of the Degrees from E.W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible.

The Zodiacal Band.  7

What is interesting about these 15 Psalms of the Degrees is that they get their name directly from the 10 degrees that the shadow of the sun moved backwards on the Sundial of Ahaz. These 10 degrees symbolized the 15 years added to the life of King Hezekiah. Is it a mere coincidence that these 15 Psalms of the Degrees mirror the 15 degrees of the Zodiacal Band? The Center Psalm of Solomon; [Ps. 127], reflects the center-line of the Equator of the Earth, with 7 degrees- or 7 Psalms of the Degrees, on either side.

“The Great Hallel, which included these 15 Psalms of the Degrees, was sung at Passover, being recited at the Paschal supper, since remote antiquity. It praised the goodness of Jehovah towards Israel, in their deliverance from Egypt, where this generation began serving God instead of Pharaoh. Below, Alfred Edersheim tells us how the true worship of the Great Hallel or “Hallelujah chorus” was ordained and carried out on the Temple Steps by the Heavenly Father, in opposition to the idolatry that occurred before:

“….The Levites (with instruments of music without number) stood upon the fifteen steps which led down from the Court of Israel to that of the Women, according to the number of the fifteen Songs of Degrees in the Book of Psalms [Ps. 120-136]. Two Priests with trumpets in their hands, were at the upper gate (that of Nicanor), which led from the Court of Israel to that of the Women. At cock-crowing, they drew a three-fold blast. As they reached the tenth step, they drew another three-fold blast; as they entered the Court itself, they drew yet another three-fold blast; and so they blew as they advanced, till they reached the gate which opens upon the east (the Beautiful Gate). As they came to the eastern gate, they turned round towards the west (to face the Holy Place), and said: Our fathers who were in this place, they turned their back upon the Sanctuary of Jehovah, and their faces towards the east, and they worshipped towards the rising sun; but as for us, our eyes are towards the Lord.” 7 [Ezek. 8:16]

This tells us the nature of this idolatry based on sun worship, while shedding some light on the association of these the fifteen Songs of Degrees [Ps. 120-134] known as the “Great Hallel,” with the miracle of the Sun going backwards on Ahaz’ sundial. This was a sign not only of Hezekiah’s personal rescue, but also the liberation of all those dwelling in Jerusalem via the fifteen years added to Hezekiah’s life, each year related to one of the 15 Psalms of the Degrees mentioned above, [Isa. 38]. This miraculous healing of King Hezekiah led to the extension of his progeny that eventually produced Jesus Christ, man’s deliverer. The Creator’s control of the sun in relation to the Earth’s orbit confirms His omnipotent power over these celestial bodies as only a small part of His Creation, no aspect of which deserves worship in place of the Almighty, [Rom. 1:23-25]. This record in Ezekiel 8 thus exposes the decrepit foundations of all forms of Astrology, showing the level to which the idolatrous substitution had its affect, because each ascending step of the Hallel rite leading up to the Temple altar, was given over to an idol. This lead to the corruption of not only Temple, with all its associated ministers, Sanhedrin priests, altar and sacrifices, but also the entire nation would be under this spiritual darkness as a result.

This Miracle of the Sundial was a game changer not only for King Hezekiah and all Israel, but all mankind also since the progeny of the Christ-line through Hezekiah was extended, that brought us our redeemerJesus Christ! This was probably another occasion where the enemy was partying thinking they had won, when Isaiah told the king he would die and not live, [Isa. 38:1] until Hezekiah’s faith turned the tables unto victory for mankind, through the Son of God. How thankful we are for great believers like this who stood against the darkness until the light prevailed, and as we stand we will see it do and see the same. Amen!

God Bless!

Rene’

 

Footnotes

1. Bobtheberean.blogspot.com/2010/05/sundial-of-ahaz-extra-40-minutes.html
2. IBID
3. Picture credit, Heaven’s Mirror, Graham Hancock, Santha Faiia, p. 182.
4. E.W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible, p.827
5. IBID
6. IBID, App. 67
7. essentialastronomy/intermediate-level-gcse-astronomy/observing-the-night-sky/the-zodiacal-band
8.  The Temple, its Ministry and Services, Edersheim, p. 176.

Comments on Facebook

To those of you interested in commenting on this post please go to our Facebook Group Page 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/bibleastronomy

Comments Off on The Miracle of the Sundial of Ahaz

Old Covenant Foundations of the Celestial Gospel

There has been a good amount of debate over the validity of a Celestial Gospel over the years, the term referring to what E.W. Bullinger called the “Witness of the Stars” in his well- known book on the subject, published in 1893. A contemporary of Bullinger was Dr. Joseph Seiss, who published “The Gospel in the Stars,” during the same period in 1882. These two resources have provided a foundation for study in this important area of research, as they built on the earlier work done by Frances Rolleston who published her work in the book; Mazzaroth, or the Constellations in 1865. Bullinger credits Rolleston for her research as the first to generate interest in this important topic, in the reference below;

To the late Miss Rolleston, however, belongs the honor of collecting a mass of information bearing on this subject; but, published as it was, chiefly in the form of notes, unarranged and unindexed, it was suited only for, but was most valuable to, the student. It was she who performed the work of collecting the facts presented by Albumazer, the Arab astronomer to the Caliphs of Grenada, AD850; and the Tables drawn up by Ulugh Beigh, the Tartar prince and astronomer, about AD1450, who gives the Arabian astronomy as it had come down from the earliest times. (Bullinger 1893, pp.iii–iv).”1

Although Rolleston was the first among more modern writers to advocate the Celestial Gospel, that does not mean that there are no ancient texts supporting the Gospel in the Stars. For the most part, we need only consult the Biblical Text for all the needed proof, since God always protects the integrity of His Word, whether Spoken, Written in the Stars, or written in His Word. A goal of this research is to provide a solid Biblical and  spiritual foundation for The Gospel in the Stars, which as a specific topic of study has remained a bit cloudy and undefined up to now. I’m sure this was not the case for a renown and august group of scholars like this, but due to critics like Faulkner, a positive spotlight needs to be trained on this topic. This is the focus of our current study. In the context of Rev. Jon Nessle’s OT History Class, an overarching framework of Covenants between God and mankind, were presented starting with Adam and Seth, and progressing to Noah, Abraham, Moses, David consummated in Jesus Christ, the Promised Seed. Due to the topic size, my goal is to provide a solid basis, in tonight’s teaching, from which further research can detail other aspects of this subject more fully. However, teaching script, notes and references will be posted on my June blog for further study.

A primary modern critic of the Celestial Gospel is Dr. Danny Faulkner, in his published work in 1998, stated “I examined some of the factual and biblical issues involved in this theory, and found that the theory has serious problems.”2 Faulkner’s stated premise for his critique is that his initial study was based upon the books of Seiss and Bullingernot Rolleston’s original work. By confining focus to what Faulkner calls “theories,” he has largely omitted the weight of Scripture itself in support of the Celestial Gospel, which is our primary focus here. As we will show, the Celestial Gospel is an indispensable aspect of the historical Scriptural Covenants that highlight God’s Creation and dealings with mankind. It is the witness of Scripture alone that supports the validity of the Celestial Gospel, to stand or fall on the merit of these Godly Covenants, as the word of the Almighty requires no assistance from secular sources. This however, does not mean there is a lack of secular evidence in support of the Celestial Gospel, including archaeological history from ancient Egypt that appeared on this link, to my blog in April, 2020. This blog is part of a series of rebuttals against Faulkner’s critique of Frances Rolleston’s writings on The Mazzaroth, along with the works of Dr.s Bullinger and Seiss.

To understand the roots of the Celestial Gospel, we must first comprehend God’s Creation of the Heavens and Earth, and His Covenant’s with Man, beginning in Genesis. The Stars, Sun and Moon were not created till the 4th day of Creation Week. These lights in the firmament were organized, to divide the day from the night, and for signs, seasonsdays and years, as the Sun, Moon and Stars move in their ordained courses on the ecliptic, set in synchronized motion by the Almighty, in the beginning. [Gen. 1:14-19, Ps. 19]

Faulkner admits that; “Gen. 1:14 records that one of the purposes of the heavenly bodies is for man to mark the passage of time (seasons, days, and years), which has always been a function of astronomy. As the first man, Adam was in place to establish astronomy, thus Faulkner has no quarrel with this information provided by Josephus.”3

As we proceed in this study, we will see how Adam’s position as the first man in establishing astronomy and timekeeping based on astronomical calendars, is a key aspect of the narrative providing a foundation for the Celestial Gospel and Noah’s Covenant, that cannot be ignored. We will also see that the Celestial Gospel includes key topics in astronomy that are central and essential for the History of Astronomy, forming a basis at the origins of Astronomy as a category of Scientific inquiry. One example of this is the conception of the 12 constellations on the ecliptic as a unit. Another related concept is that of The Zodiacal Band, found documented below.

As Gen. 2:19-20 states:

19 And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a helper meet for him. [KJ21]

In v.19 what Adam would “call” the beasts of the field, and whatever he called them is the same Hebrew word [H7121-Qara] as in v.20 where Adam gave names to every beast of the field. Strong’s says Qara means “to cry out, to call aloud, to roar, proclaim, pronounce or preach, to summon, invite, call together, to appoint, praise, celebrate, or call by name. Its basic meaning is to enunciate a specific message addressed to a specific recipient, to elicit a specific response. The verb form of this word is used in the act of naming, that sometimes is an assertion of sovereignty over the thing being named; [Gen. 1:5, Ps. 147:4, Isa. 40:26]4
Even as God-the Father of lights asserts His authority and sovereignty over the division of Day and Night in Gen. 1:5, and over the naming of the stars in Ps 147:4, so Adam was asserting his sovereignty over the Animal Kingdoms of life, delegated to him by God.
We should note that Adam’s delegated sovereignty pertained to Earthly things, while God’s sovereignty ruled over all, with special emphasis on the things of the Heavenly Creation, as they shed their 3-fold light upon the Earth. When God calls the roll up yonder for the stars, they are present and accounted for His summons, to fulfill the reason and purpose He called and created them. The named Stars are fulfilling their part to proclaim the Celestial Gospel witnessing to the Coming Christ! This word [Qara] is also found in reference to the Seed of Abraham, namely Isaac, [Gen. 21:12b] “for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.”

Genesis 1:14-16
And God said,
Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: [15] And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. [16] And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: He made the stars also.

Gen. 1:14: “signs“- indicate first, the significance of the work wrought, and second, someone significant to come.[5] In context, the “work wrought” is God’s re-ordering  of creation in the 2nd Heaven and Earth, repairing the damage inflicted on the 1st Heaven and Earth as a result of Lucifer’s revolt in heaven, causing it to be “without form & void.” [Gen. 1:1, Rev.12:1ff] God’s repair job is divided into 7 spiritual administrations, or dispensations, each one bringing man’s relationship with his Creator back into increasing harmony, [Heb. 11:3]. This repair narrative is found in God’s progressive Covenants with Man, with each step bringing man closer to that perfect fellowship seen in Original Paradise with the Creator restored.

Secondly, it refers to the celestial narrative that “someone is coming,” the redeemer, the promised seed who is Jesus Christ. He is the central figure and subject of God’s Word. He is the one of whom the 12 Mazzaroth signs prophesy, the one who embodies the light of the world, who fulfilled all the Old Testament Law, and personifies the spiritual illumination of the world. The earth was thrown into Chaos between Gen1:1 & 1:2, but the effulgence of this light, the Sonrise of the ages, was framed between the two great lights of the Sun and the Moon on his birthday, specifically in the star Spica also called Al Zimach in Arabic (tsemach in Hebrew) in Virgo, on Tishri 1, 3 BC. Jesus’ birthday on New Year’s Day of the Hebrew calendar, celebrates the anniversary of Creation, revitalizing the social and spiritual structure of Israel according to the ruling standard and scepter of the King of kings. God had this date preserved in His omniscient foreknowledge since before the Creation and instituted in the Hebrew calendar, uniquely marked by the stars included in the story of Bethlehem this date in 3 BC. The complete reign of the Son of God and the prophecies of his utter defeat of the kingdom of darkness began its consummation at his birth.

The word for “lights” in the firmament [Gen. 1:14, 16maor“]6 is the same word used in reference to the lamps of the Menorah, (Exodus 20:27, 35:14). This word shares the same root of the word used for “light” in [Genesis 1:3-4], that God divided from the darkness, setting the universal standards of Day and Night. It should be noted that the Day was divided from the Night, and the light from the darkness prior to the creation of the Sun and Moon. This points to spiritual light vs. darkness [Jn. 1:5], as the reason that the Earth became without form and void, between Gen. 1:1-2. The perfection of the Almighty removes the possibility that God created the universe in Chaos, thus the context of Lucifer’s failed insurrection against the Almighty, is why the earth was thrown into chaos. Also, the foundational order of Creation seen in God’s command to divide the light from the chaotic darkness, was a response to the enemy in his overthrow of God’s original order in the First Heaven and Earth, precedes God’s reorganization of this light in the Second Heavens and Earth, during the Genesis Creation week. The verses above also exhibit how the Sun, Moon and Stars regulate seasons, days and years, in God’s created temporal order.

In Faulkner’s critique; “The proponents of the Gospel in the Stars hypothesize that God revealed His entire plan of redemption to Adam (or alternately, Seth) and that God ordained the constellations as the mechanism to perpetuate that plan, till the giving of the written revelation. However, this is entirely conjectured in that it is not clearly stated or even implied in Josephus, and is not clearly stated in the Bible. Furthermore, this approach underestimates the efficiency of oral transmission of information to reliably preserve truth due to the longevity and overlapping of generations in the early world...”7

Faulkner expands on this highly questionable line of reasoning in a comment in another of his written works called the “Universe by Design,” where he states; “Some Christians go
so far as to think that God gave Adam the complete story of Redemption in the form of the Constellations and star names that have been passed down to us, though garbled a bit. This idea has become known as the Gospel in the Stars,” 8 which he links to Rolleston.

First let me say that the Gospel in the Stars is not based on what “Some Christians Think.” It’s basis is on much firmer, and more solid ground of Scriptural truth. By associating the Gospel in the Stars with the obvious falsehood that God revealed His entire Plan of Redemption to Adam, before any of the other Bible Patriarchs, the prophets or even God’s only begotten Son-Jesus himself, Faulkner not only discounts God’s eternal plan and the purposes in His Covenants, but also contradicts Scripture in too many ways to count! Faulkner’s basis for his “strawmanargument against the Celestial Gospel, also ignores the truth that God kept the Great Mystery a secret as part of His master-plan of Redemption, [I Cor. 2:7-10].

A precept of this study documents how in truth, the Celestial Gospel is specifically and clearly stated in God’s Word, as part of God’s Old Covenants with His chosen people. The Hebrew word for “Covenant” [H1285-Beriyth] 9 is defined as “an agreement between nations; [Josh. 9:6], individuals and friends; [I Sam. 18:3, 23:18] or man and wife, [Mal.2:14]. The most important Covenant between God and Abraham [Gen. 15], was confirmed by Moses, [Ex. 24:7-8, 34:27, Deut. 5:2], was renewed and amended, after the exile, through the intervention of the prophets; [Isa. 42:6, 49:8] and the Messiah [Mal. 3:1, cp. Jer. 31:33]. It was a treaty, an alliance of friendship, a pledge, an obligation between a Monarch and his subjects, a Constitution. It was a contract accompanied by signs, sacrifices, and a solemn oath that sealed the relationship with promises of blessing for obedience and curses for disobedience.”10

The Celestial Gospel also documents the effectual means of Oral transmission of the Covenant tenets, not replacing their foundations in God’s perpetual Scriptural Covenants with man, but as an inseparable part of them, prior to their being recorded into the scrolls of the OT Scriptures by Moses. Man has always needed an external standard for Godly truth outside of himself, working in union with man’s inner compass and Godgiven conscience, that began with Adam & Eve in the Garden, before the giving of the OT Law. We will see more details of this in the record of the Abrahamic Covenant below.

Covenant Theology holds that God created humanity as one people, starting with Adam and Eve, who broke God’s only condition, not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil. After their fall from perfection, and rejection from Original Paradise, and with their seed in Seth, were led back to God via certain key Biblical Patriarchs with whom God made perpetual Covenants. This redemptive history, starts with God establishing His Covenant with Noah [Gen. 6:18] to bring him and his family into the Ark, with every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort, male and female. In Gen. 9, God established His Covenant with Noah and his seed after him [Gen. 9:9-17], with His token of the Covenant on levels, in every living creature with Noah, for perpetual generations, and with Earth itself, seen in the rainbow, not to destroy it by flood again.

Figure 1. Genesis Patriarch’s Table. 11 


By adding up the age of years in the genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 we find the number of years from the Creation of Adam to the birth of Abraham as about 2000 years. Since there is almost universal agreement that Abraham lived around 2000 B.C., we can see the Bible teaching that the human race was created near 4000 B.C. and is thus, about 6000 years old.

Noah is a key Biblical Patriarch because he embodies the transition between the pre-flood and the post-flood world. Thus all the systems of Biblical timekeeping going back to Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, after the flood, including the coordination of the luni-solar year, the year divided into 12 months of 30 days, giving a 360-day year relating to the 360 degrees of the circle, all are traceable back to Noah’s pre-flood days. Thus, the calendrical practices of the Biblical Patriarchs are summarized in Noah, combining the Lunar, Solar and Sidereal years in his standards of astronomical timekeeping. Since Noah was already 600 years old when the deluge fell upon Earth [Gen. 7:6], Noah continued to use this calendar leading up to and during the 120-year period (120 x 3= 360), wherein he built the Ark. The construction of the Ark was according to God’s revealed plan, that followed a consistent divine pattern, the same tripartite pattern found in the Tabernacle of Moses and the Temple of David and Solomon, based on the 3-fold creation of man in body, soul and spirit. Noah’s Covenant basis for his 360-day calendar, is also found in God’s Covenant of Day and Night.

The Genesis record of Noah establishes the advanced astronomical practices of the Biblical Patriarchs, providing a basis from which, the roots of ancient Astronomy and studies in Archaeo-Astronomy are traced to their true context. Noah’s Covenant with God took place after his family came out of the Ark, and included the first burnt offerings on the altar that Noah built, [Gen. 8:20-22]. This initial and unconditional Covenant relates to the Earth, even as God’s Covenant with Abraham did, referring to Israel’s claim on the Promised Land.

The accuracy of these ordinances of heaven set the standard for truth, in the important area of calendars and timekeeping also, still applied today, according to the perpetual Covenant of Day and Night [Jer. 33:20-22]. This is a trait of “heavenly mandates” that their truth remains intact beyond the scope of their original Biblical Administration. In the record of Gen. 8 and Noah’s Flood, verse 22 certainly stands out as an ordinance of heaven that has remained a constant, governing the seasons [Gen. 1:14] after the flood. This is a key aspect of God’s Covenant with Noah where God’s Promises are made with Noah and his seed, that day and night shall not cease.

Genesis 8:22
While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

This verse opens with the words; “While the earth remains,” speaking to this Covenant being Everlasting and perpetual in nature because the Earth will be around forever. The connective “and” is found 7 times in verse 22, which according to Bullinger “pairs four sets of opposites, to express the completion and perfection of this perpetual Covenant,” that shall not cease. 12 In Gen. 9, as God further establishes His Covenant with Noah, and his seed and every living beast on earth, with His token or sign of an everlasting Covenant, listed 7x in Gen. 9; [Gen. 9:9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17], that The Almighty established with all flesh upon the Earth. Gen. 8:22 is a key aspect of the “Rainbow Covenant” with Noah, wherein the productivity of the earth’s life cycles in four seasons, in the 4 Kingdoms of life, perpetuate in the 2nd Heavens and Earth, in the Covenant of day and night, [Jer. 31:31-37]. Gen. 8:22 also reflects the biblical symbolism of the number four, as the first square number mathematically, witnessed pervasively in nature, as 4 elements of earth, wind, fire, and water, four points of the compass, north, south, east and west. Also, the 4 lunar phases, mirror the 4 Cherubim angels that quarter the 12 Mazzaroth signs. There are also four heads of the animal kingdom, witnessed in the four constellations at the celestial cardinal points; Leo the Lion-King of wild beasts, Taurus the Bull and king of domesticated animals, Aquila the Eagle, king of the bird kingdom, and the ManAquarius of the human kingdom. There are numerous other examples of biblical symbolism in the number four, like the four-fold ministry of Christ reflected in the Four Gospels, supporting this wisdom in God’s order of Creation. 13

Christ in the Center of his Mazzaroth Surrounded at the four corners by the Cherubim; The Four Celestial Signs at the four points of the Compass; Man, Eagle, Bull and Lion. [Ezek. 1, 10. Rev. 4:7]

The Four Cardinal Points

Let’s take a moment here to notice the impact of God’s Covenant with Day and Night and His Intelligent Design of the 2nd Heavens and Earth in spacetime. In scientific and
astronomical terms, this certifies what’s called the Earth’s obliquity cycle, as it defines  the scientific parameters of the Covenant of Day and Night to remain intact forever, as a perpetual promise from the Heavenly Father, that does not cease. The key to the cycle of obliquity, gives us an example of the Creator’s Intelligent Design, as it conveys the Covenant of Day and Night. The sun at the summer Solstice is vertical; 90 degrees overhead to one in the Southern Hemisphere, on the Tropic of Capricorn. At the same time, for those in the Northern Hemisphere on the Tropic of Cancer one would witness the Sun’s high point at only 43 degrees above the horizon. The tropics exist because the earth does not revolve vertically on its axis relating to its orbit around the sun. The axis is removed from vertical by an angle presently measuring 23 degrees and 27 minutes, which is formally known as the obliquity of the ecliptic, or the cycle of obliquity, relating to this varying degree of the earth’s axis tilt. This angle of the ecliptic not only governs the northern and southern limits of the sunrise on the earth’s horizon, witnessed on the winter and summer Solstice, but it also determines the points of the tropical borders, 23.5 degrees north and south of the Equator. The obliquity cycle refers to the range of just under 2.5 degrees, wherein the earth’s axis tilt varies, over approx. a 41,000-year period. 14 This cycle of variation related to earth’s obliquity is part of the pattern of mathematical harmony relating to the Solar and lunar cycles in God’s earthly Covenants.

 

Figure 2. Earth’s Obliquity Cycle15

Thus all the doomsayers predicting that earth would topple off the axis of their polar balance, their fearmongering directly opposes the promises of the Creator and Possessor of the Heaven and Earth’s promise here in Genesis 8:22. It is the tilt of the Earth’s axis, along with the revolution and rotation in Earth’s orbit of the sun, providing our seasons, and the 24-hour cycle of day and night, that set the tropical boundaries of Cancer and Capricorn. We will see added aspects of these truths, related to the Zodiacal band, and the Great Sphinx, a bit later. This daynight 24-hour cycle, based on God’s Covenant of Day and Night, is also known as an anthropic constant.[www.try-god.org]

These constants are finely tuned into Creation by the Hand of the Almighty, of which there are 200+, displaying His Intelligent Design of Creation, providing essential elements supporting life on Earth, because even if the length of days slightly exceeded their longer or shorter ranges, the temperature fluctuations between night and day would be too extreme to support life on our planet. Jeremiah 33:25-26 below speaks to this truth.

Let’s focus on one of the pairs of opposites in Gen. 8:22;Day and night.” Jeremiah put a special emphasis on this pair where he specifically states in 31:36 & 33:20 below, linking God’s Covenant Promises to the everlasting New Covenant of the Promised Seed Jesus Christ. The chapters of Jeremiah 31 & 33 also form brackets around Jer. 32,  providing a basis for further study of God’s signs and wonders.

Jer. 31:31-37

31 “Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah— 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke[h]though I was a husband to them, says the Lord.

Here we see in v. 32, how Israel broke their Mosaic Covenant with God, which was based on, and an extension of the Patriarchal Covenant. God’s Covenant Promises were broken in the wilderness in Exod. 32:13, in the golden calf incident, when Moses reminded God in his conversation with Him, of His promise to His people;

Ex. 32:13-15
Turn from Your fierce wrath, and relent from this harm to Your people. 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Your servants, to whom You swore by Your own self, and said to them, ‘I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven; and all this land that I have spoken of, I give to your descendants, and they shall inherit it forever.14 So the Lord relented from the harm which He said He would do to His people.

So God’s promises in the Patriarchal Covenant, to Israel to multiply their seed and set aside the Promised Land were upheld and fulfilled. As The Celestial Gospel is part and parcel, and an essential aspect of God’s Patriarchal Covenant with mankind, like all God’s Promises, they are yea and Amen! Its precepts remain in force, seen with Abraham in Gen. 15 & 17, and Moses as both Covenants co-existed together. As each advance to the next spiritual administration is made, the foundations are laid for the subsequent Age, until the basis for man’s spiritual transformation back into fellowship
with the Heavenly Father is completed.

Jer. 31:33-37
33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LordI will put My law in their minds, and write it on their [i]hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

[Jon Nessle taught in a previous session of class in Jer.31:34, that only part of this verse has come to pass, Israel is still blinded. Heb. 8:6-13 ]16 Jeremiah provides here a high-level overview not only of how these Godly Covenants link together, as their legal basis changes from one spiritual administration to the next, but also they are consummated and fulfilled in the coming Promised Seed Jesus Christ, in both of his appearances as the perfect Sacrificial Lamb, and the conquering Lion of Judah 

Jer. 31:35-36
35Thus saith the LORD, which gives the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The LORD of hosts is his name: 36If those ordinances depart from before me, saith the LORD, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before Me forever. [two lights /limits put on the spirit realm]

In session 6 of this OT History Class, Rev. Nessle referenced Job 26:8-10 to describe the ways that our Almighty Heavenly Father placed boundaries on the spirit realm of fallen angels. 17 In verse 10 we can see how the Covenant of Day and Night embodies part of the ordinances [H2710chaqaq] 18 of the spiritual aspects of these boundaries on the spirit realm via His Foreknowledge, symbolized in the “waters,” as the waves roar in Jer. 31:35 above.

Job 26:10 He hath compassed the waters with bounds until the Day and Night come to an end. [Rev. 22:5]

In Jer. 31:35 the root of the word [chaqaq] is used of the light of the celestial ordinances of the Sun by day, and the Moon and stars by night, [Gen. 1:14-18]. The ordinances of God’s Covenant with the seed of Abraham were first set in the Natural laws that rule Creation, before they were ever recorded in written form. Later these laws, as they applied to God’s Covenant with Israel, were written with the finger of God in the rock of His Holy mountain and entrusted to Moses the Lawgiver, [Ex. 24:12, 31:18, 32:16]. This verifies an inseparable link with God’s Celestial Gospel and His Word written in the Scriptures, [Gen. 1, Ps. 19]. We find close ties between God’s stellar witness of His ordinances fulfilled in His Covenant with the seed of Israel in verse 36 above. This Promised Seed is consummated in the Lord Jesus Christ. The word for “ordinances” in Jer. 31:36 above is [H2706] meaning “an appointment of time, space, quantity, labor or usage. It is a statute, appointed, bound, commandment, decree, law.” The root word for [choq-H2706] is [chaqaq-H2710].” 19

Job 19:23-25

23 Oh, that my words were now written! Oh, that they were printed in a book, 24 that they were graven with an iron pen and lead, in the rock forever25 For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter day upon the earth;

The word “graven” *H2710 [chaqaq]  in Job 19:24 means: to cut, carve, hew, square, quarry, mason. This refers to the Great Sphinx being carved out of stone as the same word for “lawgiver” in Gen. 49:10. This is the same root for the word “ordinances” in [Job 38:33, Jer. 31:35] as the ordinances or constants of God and nature, were many times engraved in stone, even as the 10 Commandments were carved by the finger of God. “Lawgiver“- [H2710-chaqaq], meaning; to engrave, inscribe, establish, ordain, to decree, leadership, a ruler, a lawgiver; a scepter.20 It occurs 19 times in the Hebrew O.T. Its main meaning is “writing or drawing in the sense of etching [Isa. 30:8; in a book] The root can mean to enact a decree [In Prov. 8:15 it’s used of a governor decreeing justice with wisdom.] This word [chaqaq] attests to the power of the coordinated decrees of God’s Covenants first written in the stars, confirmed in stone and in Scripture. [Gen. 49: 9-10].

There is no power that can halt these celestial cycles and seasons set in motion by God’s mighty Hand, thus the surety of the return of His promised seed is inevitable! We should also note in Jeremiah that he picks up on the order established on the first and fourth days of Creation, concerning the Sun, Moon and Stars, the three most widely used calendars in history.

37 Thus says the LordIf heaven above can be measured, [H4058] And the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, says the Lord.

Here Abraham’s Covenant regarding the seed of Israel is directly linked to the Promised Seed of Jesus Christ, who has already delivered Israel and the Church, defeating the devil forever in the process. In our day, there is no more controversy in this matter, it’s a done deal! This tells us all God’s Promises linked in the chain of previous and future Covenants have been fulfilled in Christ-the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the promised King of the Davidic Covenant.

Jer. 33:20-22

20 Thus saith the LORD; If ye can break My covenant of the day, and My covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season21 Then may also My covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a son to reign upon his throne; and with the Levites the priests, My ministers. 22 As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: [H4058] so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites that minister unto me.

God inspires Jeremiah to make an inseparable connection between His “covenant of the dayand My covenant of the night,” and Hiscovenant with the seed of David my servant.” Why? Because the Scriptures told of God’s covenant with the seed of David, in Gen. 49, as the Royal genealogy of Jesus Christ the Promised Seed, the Lion of Judah. This Royal Geneology is the Christ line that was protected by the Cherubim’s flaming sword, the Way of the Tree of Life, and the way of Holiness that embodies God’s plan of redemption for mankind.

Jeremiah 33:25-26
Thus saith the Lord, If My covenant be not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth26 Then will I cast away the seed of Jacob and David My servant, so that I will not take any of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, for I will cause their captivity to return and have mercy on them. [Gen. 8:22]

This shows a direct relationship between the Godly designed anthropic constants of Creation that make life possible on earth, and the Covenant Promises of the Creator to mankind, regarding the seed of Jacob and David carried forward in faith. God is the One Who established the Covenant conditions and statutes that make life possible on earth, preserved and determined according to His purposes. Anthropic is from the Greek root [anthropos-(G444)] to be man-faced or a human being, whether male or female.” 21

In a previous blog we referenced a key astronomical function of the Great Sphinx, in its Pre-dynastic stellar role as a sighting device linked to its astronomical functions, to observe and record the horizon points of the sunrise, found not only in the Sphinx’ orientation facing due east, but also in relation to the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The Great Sphinx

Image result for Great Pyramids with satellite pyramids images

The Sphinx’s solar alignments relating to the borders of the tropics, depict ancient knowledge of the zodiacal band, within which the heavenly bodies named by God the Creator [Ps. 147:4, Gen. 37:9-11, Isa. 40:26, Job 9:7], shed their 3-fold light upon the Earth. God set the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, as boundaries wherein the Sun, Moon and Planets all move, above and below the celestial Equator. God created all the stars and numbered the celestial bodies, but He did not name them all. Thus, it is the stars within the Zodiacal Band that God marked to carry the message of His Celestial Gospel, and His eternal plan and purpose for mankind’s redemption. There have been few to realize the role of the Great Sphinx as the Alpha/Omega signs in the circle of the Celestial Gospel, but I have not seen it referenced as an early symbol of the Zodiacal Band anywhere else. We find added biblical evidence of this in Joseph’s 2nd dream [Gen. 37:9-11], in an astronomical context.

Gen. 37:9-11 And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. 10 And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? 11 And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.

The Zodiacal Band of 12 primary Constellations and their stars.

In Joseph’s second dream, we find evidence not only of the knowledge of the zodiacal band with the Biblical Patriarchssince Joseph’s 11 brothers appear as 11 stars with Joseph as the 12th constellation, summarizing the primary signs found along the path of the Sun and Moon, embodied in Joseph’s parents. We also see evidence of the ancient knowledge of the Precession of the Equinoxes, wrapped up in the idea that “the eleven stars made obeisance to me.” This idea that the other 11 Constellations of the ecliptic, bowed down, or prostrated themselves to Joseph’s sign/star, exhibits a figurative idea of precession, that is expanded upon in the link above. This ancient knowledge of the zodiacal band with the Bible Patriarchs, is an added astronomical proof, as a key aspect of the Celestial Gospel in concert with Scripture, astronomy and the Great Sphinx; the head of the woman-Virgo unified with the body of the Lion-Leo, as a prophecy of the promised seed in the birth of Christ.

We also find the perfection of divine order in the number 10 related to the genealogy of Biblical Patriarchs, where not only Noah was the 10th generation from Adam, [Gen. 5:1-32], but also Abraham was the tenth generation from Shem, son of Noah [Gen. 11:10-26]. Thus all Earth’s inhabitants, being preserved in Noah’s seed, are the focus of God’s singular purpose to redeem and save sinful man from every tribe, tongue, nation, and race, through the blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, [Gen. 3:15]. Let’s see how God’s purpose is developed further in a series of Covenants building on Noah to Abraham’s and his seed. These Covenants provide the temporal and spiritual context of how the Almighty not only repaired the Ages or spiritual dispensations, but also revealed His plan and eternal purposes in Christ.

Contrary to Faulkner, Dispensationalism presents a framework to interpret Scripture as it lays out successive periods of redemptive history where God progressively revealed more and more about His plan of redemption. This corresponds to [Heb. 11:3] “the worlds [aion] or each of the ages [dispensations] were framed by the word of God… which also exposes the falsehood that God would reveal His entire redemption plan to Adam.

Psalm 19:1 – The Bible Wallpapers

To get a clearer idea of God’s Covenant with Abraham, let’s look at the specifics of God’s discourse with him, starting with the record in Gen. 13:14;

14 And the Lord said to Abram, after Lot had separated from him: “Lift your eyes now and look from the place where you are—northward, southward, eastward, and westward; 15 for all the land which you see I give to you and your [c]descendants forever. 16 And I will make your descendants as the dust of the earth; so that if a man could number the dust of the earththen your descendants also could be numbered.

Here God’s Covenants with Heaven and Earth are represented to Abram in God’s Promises regarding Abram’s seed, first relating to the Promised Land, then regarding the Stars. In Gen. 13:14 we find again the number symbolism of Four as God tells Abram that all the land he can see to the four points of the compass is promised to the seed of Abram, making his seed innumerable as an everlasting nation.

As we have seen, God also included the timekeeping aspects of the stars, as He numbered them, a key function of Astronomy. In the process of allowing God to speak via His revealed Word, we should note the figure of speech; polysyndetyn, or many (19) ands emphasizing each aspect of Gen. 15:1-6, and the Bible structure separated by the connective “ands.”[22] [cp. Gen. 13:14-16, 22:17, 32:12]

Genesis 15:1-6 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. 2 And Abram said, Lord God what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? 3 And Abram said, Beholdto me Thou hast given no seed: and lo, one born in my house is mine heir. 4 And behold, the word of the Lord came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir. 5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 6 And he believed in the Lord; and He counted it to him for righteousness. 7 And I will establish My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant to be a God unto thee, and thy seed after thee. 8 And
I will give unto thee,
and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession, and I will be their God.
 

When God told Abraham to “tell the stars, if thou be able to number them,” He was not telling him to get out his abacus and start counting the stars one by one, because as we just read in Jer. 33:22the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites that minister unto me.

Thus God was referring to His promise of innumerable abundance in Abraham’s seed, since he was to be the father of believers. Another aspect of “telling the stars,” is God may have been referring to other aspects of the inherent celestial order which had appeared previously in Joseph’s Dream of [Gen. 37:9-11 & 12] 12 tribes in Joseph and his brothers– [see birth order of Joseph’s brothers at the dinner table in Egypt, Gen. 37;9-10 and 43:33-34.] 

Bullinger’s Companion Bible provides the structure of this part of Gen. 15;1-21 related to the Abrahamic Covenant, which is a Repeated Alternation as follows; 23

The Covenant Made: The Seed and the Land

v. 1 The Covenant Maker-the Word of Jehovah
vvs. 2-3 The Enquiry; What will you give?
vvs. 4-5 The Covenant Announced; The Seed-look to the Stars of heaven.
v. 6 Abraham’s Belief
v. 7 The Covenant Maker-an Everlasting Covenant with Jehovah [center]
v. 8 Enquiry; Whereby shall I know? Land as an Everlasting Possession
vvs. 9-11 The Covenant Prepared
vvs. 12-16 An Everlasting Covenant with all flesh
vvs. 17-21 Abraham and Sarah’s seed Isaac-an Everlasting Covenant with his seed.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the words divinely utilized in this section of God’s Word. The word “tell” in Gen. 15:5, is the Bible’s first usage of the Hebrew word caphar [H5608], meaning to “inscribe, celebrate, narrate, tell, make known, or praise.” It also means “a scribe, or writerwhen used in reference to a person.”24 This word is used in Psalm 19:1; rendered “declare” in the KJV; as The Heavens declare the glory of God… [Psalm 97:6]. God was telling Abram to look up at the heavens and recount, declare, or narrate the truth revealed in the Celestial Gospel, if he could. Abram not only knew of the existence of a Celestial Gospel, but knew it well enough to narrate its themes sufficient to please God. He also realized that despite the physical impossibility of child-bearing at Abram and Sarah’s advanced ages, his recognition of the Promised Seed, prophesied in the stars he  owned by realizing this seed would come out of his own loins. This was a major revelation to Abram that his promise to have a child at his advanced age would also fulfill God’s promise of the coming of His only begotten Son. Because Abram believed God in this personal realization, God counted [H2803] his believing act, to him as righteousness. This is the foundation of salvation by faith in the N.T. [Rom. 4:17-22], because God not only mercifully witholds the wrathful judgment we deserve, due to sin, but He also freely shares the Grace of His righteousness with us as we follow Abraham’s example to believe.

The word “counted” in verse 6 above, is chashab in Hebrew, meaning to reckon or esteem, meditate, combine or devise. [25It is also an accounting term used in the 7th Sabbath of years and the sacred 50-year Jubilee system of timekeeping in ancient Israel [Lev. 25:27, 50-52, 27:18, 23]. The Levitical Law shows us both cardinal and ordinal ways of “counting,” in this record, but it does not portray them as interchangeable. As we see in  this Bible record, the ordinal meaning of a number includes more than just a numerical sequence where a certain number occurs in a series. We find numerous examples of this, for instance when God names and numbers the 12 tribes of Abraham’s seed as they relate to the 12 constellations starting with the Alpha/Omega Zodiac signs of [Virgo & Leo] seen in The Great Sphinx, and His ordering of the Celestial Gospel in the Heavens.

The Hebrew word for “number“-(ed), “manah” [*H4487], means to “divide into parts, or arrange, allot or assign, appoint, or order.” [26] Here we start to see the difference between what mathematics categorizes as the function of Ordinal Numbers: specifying an order and succession in the elements or hierarchy of a group, which goes beyond Cardinal Numbers, referring simply to counting individual parts. As we recognize both mathematical categories, related to the Bible’s first usage of the Hebrew words “caphar” and “manah,” we find on one level, regarding the innumerable posterity of his seed, God was teaching Abram, the difference between simple counting of parts, with Cardinal Numbers, compared with the organization of Abram’s seed in groups related to the tribal celestial order, as found in Ordinal numbers, embodied in God’s Covenants contained in the Celestial Gospel, and ordering the tribal camping of 12 tribes under Moses in the wilderness.

God’s statement to Abram builds on an earlier promise in Genesis 13:16, where God would make Abram’s “seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.” This earlier promise from God to Abram established a relationship between Abram’s earthly/natural seed, or offspring, while the later promise in Gen. 15:5 links Abram’s heavenly/spiritual seed in the stars, with the Celestial Gospel. The truth of the Gospel in the Stars prophecy of the coming of Christ, rooted in Abram’s genealogy, not only hit Abram personally, but inseparably tied Abram’s seed to the stars of this prophecy, becoming the Father of many nations, as seen in Isaac, wherein Abram’s seed was called [H7121-Qara] and Jacob-Israel’s 12 tribes. This truth echos in Job 38;

Job 38:31-33
Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion? [32] Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons? [33] Knowest thou the ordinances [H2708] of heaven? Can you set the [His] dominion thereof in the earth?

From a Bible perspective outside the books of Genesis and Job, God revealed His Word and Will to the Patriarchs in the stellar witness and Celestial Gospel of the Promised redeemer of mankind. When we consider the Hebrew word “mazzaroth,” we find a very early reference to the 12 Mazzaroth signs, occurring as a unit in Job. Later references to the 12 signs of the ecliptic in Scripture, are built upon what we find here in Job and the Genesis Patriarchs. This provides added evidence of the antiquity of this knowledge of the entire zodiac, in the context of the Biblical Patriarchs. In the graphic below we find the 12 Tribes of Israel linked to the Mazzaroth 12 signs, with 3 tribes camped on each side, 4-square and the Tabernacle in the centerwith Moses, Aaron and the Priests in the middle inside the square.

Image result for mazzaroth images

[Num. 2] illustrates the pattern of Isreal’s 12 tribes camped around the Tabernacle in the wilderness, seen also in the order of tribal names engraved on the 12 stones of the High Priest’s breastplate. The word or “ordinances” in Job 38:33 is [H2708-chuqqah] rooted in [H2706].27 In Ex. 28:17-21 below, we see 12 precious stones of the High Priest’s Breastplate in correspondence to Israel’s 12 tribes in their wilderness camping order.

Faulkner also has issues with Rolleston’s “claims that there are allusions to the twelve signs of the zodiac in Jacob’s blessing on his twelve sons in Genesis 49 (Rolleston 1865, part 1, p. 17). There are at least 2 problems here. First, one is hard-pressed to find a commentary on Genesis to support this interpretation. Second, the alleged links between the blessings for each son and the zodiacal signs are extremely creative. The only obvious possible connection is the one supposedly between Leo and Judah in that Judah is referred to as a lion. However, there is not even a hint of the other 11 connections that Rolleston makes to Gen. 49. Rolleston speculated that each son carried a symbol from one of the signs of the zodiac and that Jacob pointed to each zodiacal symbol in pronouncing his blessing. This is entirely speculation on Rolleston’s part, and I have found no commentary that mentions, let alone endorses, this idea.” 28

Again while Dr. Faulkner mostly limits his research to Commentaries, and Josephus, we go to the source to find the truth of Scripture teachings on these topics in the original languages. Some Commentaries can be good, but we always want to get back to what Scripture actually is saying, not man’s opinion of it.

And you shall enclose in it enclosures of stones, four rows of stones: the first row shall be a row of a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; And the second row, a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a diamond; And the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; And the fourth row, a chrysolite, and an onyx, and a jasper; they shall be set in gold in their enclosures. And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to their names; they shall be like the engravings of a signet, each according to its name, for the twelve tribes. Exo. 28:17-21

The Israelite camp was divided into four parts according to the 4 points of the compass, with 3 tribes on each side of a square enclosing the TabernacleJudah; Leo, Issachar; Cancer and Zebulon; Virgo to the East toward the sunrise when camping around the Tabernacle. The 3 tribes matched with the 3 precious stones in the 2nd row [Ex. 28:18], of the High Priest’s Breastplate. On the South-Reuben; Aquarius, Simeon-Pisces, and Gad-Aries, matched the stones in the first row of the Breastplate, [Ex. 28:17]. The Tabernacle was in the center of the camp with the Levites-Libra the altar, who were not counted [v.33among the 12 tribes. The tribes in the West were Ephraim/ Manasseh;  the 2 horns of Taurus the Bull, with Benjamin-Gemini, matching the stones of the 4th row on the breastplate; [Ex. 28:20]. on the North the tribe of Dan, the serpent of Gen. 49:17, was substituted with the Eagle-Aquila [Ezek 1:10, Rev. 4:7], matched the stones of the Breastplate’s 3rd row [Ex. 28:19], with Asher-Sagittarius and Naphtali-Capricorn. The standards of each tribe are also included whereby their camp was pitched. [Numbers 2:1-34]. The pattern of the camp also reflected on the breastplate of the High Priest, was 3 tribes square on each side of the Tabernacle. 29

Recalling [Gen. 1:14] the lights in the firmament of Heaven were to be for “signsseasons, days and years.” The word for “signs” [H226-owth] 30 is the same Hebrew word that refers to 12 constellations of the Mazzaroth. These signs were afterward, [Gen. 15, 37, 49, Num. 2, Deut. 33] identified with God’s Covenant with Abraham and his seed in the 12 sons of Jacob, as the 12 tribes of Israel, supplying a direct link, to the Celestial Gospel in these Signs. Even as God called; [H2171-Qara] named and numbered the stars of the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth on the Zodiacal Band and the poles, with their decans that witness to the narrative of the Celestial Gospel, so He sovereignly called each of the Old Covenant Believers in the Royal Genealogy of the Christ-line leading to the Promised Seed Jesus Christ. Those of us in the body of Christ have also answered the call specifically from the Heavenly Father Himself, Who knew us before the foundations of the World, to share in the spiritual heritage of the New Birth, wherein we shine as the bright lights God has called us be-forever with Him, in Christ.

In Joshua 4, when the nation of Israel first crossed into the Promised land, there was a special sign” [H226] that occurred on this noted occasion, marked by the Hand of God, and 12 special stones symbolizing the 12 tribes of Israel were used to buildmemorial to honor God, who brought Israel through the wilderness. This sign was not astronomical in nature, as it pertained to the Promised Land, being claimed by the 12 tribes, through the river Jordan. The word referring to the stones of this altar, is the same Hebrew word with the 12 stones, [Eben-H68] 31 of the High Priest’s breastplate.

Joshua 4:5-9 Then Joshua called the twelve men, whom he had prepared of the children of Israel, out of every tribe a man: And Joshua said unto them, Pass over before the ark of the Lord your God into the midst of Jordan, and take you up every man of you a stone [H68-Eben] upon his shoulder, according unto the number of the tribes of the children of Israel: That this may be a sign [H226] among you, that when your children ask their fathers in time to come, saying, What mean ye by these stones? Then ye shall answer them, That the waters of Jordan were cut off before the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord; when it passed over Jordan, the waters of Jordan were cut off: and these stones shall be for a memorial unto the children of Israel forever. And the children of Israel did so as Joshua commanded, and took up twelve stones out of the midst of Jordan, as the Lord spake unto Joshuaaccording to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel, and carried them over with them unto the place where they lodged, and laid them down there.
And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests which bare the Ark of the Covenant stood: and they are there unto this day.

In this record, the waters of the river Jordan also yield to God’s power and authority, in the Ark of His Covenant with Israel, clearing the way to take possession of the Promised Land. The Hebrew word for stone [H68-Eben] in Joshua 4:5 above, is the same word used for the 12 precious stones on the breastplate of the High Priest, both linked to the order of the 12 tribes [Exod. 28:10-11, 39:6-14] seen not only in the breastplate of the High Priest, but also in their order of the camp of the 12 tribes in the wilderness, [Num. 2:2ff] around the Tabernacle, in their Cardinal Directions.

Since Joshua 4 links the same word for 12 Sons and signs of the zodiac, with the 12 stones of their memorial entrance into the promised land, we see a biblical link between the 12 signs of the zodiac with the 12 tribes of Israel, each tribe with their own sign and stone. This is a dual recognition of the Covenants of the earthly/natural seed, or offspring, in Gen. 13:14, while the later promise in Gen. 15:5 links Abraham’s heavenly/spiritual seed in the stars, with the Celestial Gospel. Obviously, this is not my opinion or Rolleston’s conjecture, but only allowing God’s Word to speak for itself.

Furthermore, just as there were 12 main gates in the city of Jerusalem, so there are also 12 gates and 12 foundation stones in the New Jerusalem, (Rev. 21:12-14). The order of the tribes not only matched the order of their wilderness camp, [Num. 1:52] but also includes their own tribal Standard, [H1714-degel] 32,flag or banner, for each tribe.

Faulkner continues that; “Rolleston also claimed the same correspondence between the tribes of Israel and the signs of the zodiac is contained in the final blessing of Moses in Deuteronomy 33, (Rolleston 1865, part
2, p. 38). Here and elsewhere (Rolleston 1865, part 1, p. 12, part 2, p. 48) Rolleston further claimed that in the wilderness each of the tribes carried a standard with the tribe’s respective zodiacal sign inscribed upon the standard. It is true that the tribes had standards, or banners, (Numbers 2 and 10), but Scripture does not record what was on the standards. In the latter passage, Rolleston (part 2, p. 48), credits Josephus with this information. I searched Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews & Wars of the Jews, but I have not been able to find this; I believe that it is not found in Josephus.” 33

The Biblical record of what is recorded on these banners is made plain in; Num. 2.

Numbers 2:1-2 And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, [H1714] with the ensign [H226] of their father’s house: far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall they pitch.

Contrary to Faulkner’s opinion, there is no mystery as to what is depicted on each of these tribal banners or flags! Num. 2:2 tells us plainly that every man pitches by his own standard with the ensign [H226] of their father’s house. The word for ensign is the key being the same Hebrew word used in [Gen. 1:14, Josh. 4:5-9] linked to the 12 signs of the Mazzaroth, each of the 12 banners with the emblem of their tribal constellation. In Psalm 74 this point is driven home so there is no doubt;

Ps. 74:4 Thine enemies roar in the midst of thy congregationsthey set up their ensigns for signs.

Even the idolatrous enemies of Israel “pitched” under the colors of Israel’s tribal banners in order to infiltrate them. Both Hebrew words for “ensigns” and “signs” in this verse are the same word [H226].34 So they lifted up their banners or tribal flags emblazoned with their family sign of the 12 “signs” or constellations of the zodiac. So we clearly see how Scripture records what celestial images were evident on these standards.

Num. 24:2 Balaam saw Israel abiding in their tents with banners for each tribe according to their tribal order…

Numbers 23:21b-24.

The Lord his God is with himAnd the shout of a King is among them.

22 God brings them out of EgyptHe has strength like a wild ox.
23 “For there is no sorcery against JacobNor any divination against IsraelIt now must be said of Jacob and of Israel, ‘Oh, what God has done!’ 24 Behold, the people rise up as a great lion, And lifts himself up like a young lionHe shall not lie down until it devours the prey, Andrinks the blood of the slain.”

The “Shout of a King” here is a direct Messianic prophecy of Christ in verse 21, in God’s Covenant with the seed of Abraham. The references to the 3 stages of the lion’s growth in verse 24, links into the next chapter in Numbers 24, relating directly to Gen. 49:8-10.

 Numbers 24:9-14

‘He bows down, he lies down as a lion; And as a lion, who shall rouse him?’[a]Blessed is he who blesses you, And cursed is he who curses you.”

 14 And now, indeed, I am going to my people. ComeI will advise you what this
people will do to your people in the latter days
.”

The union of the celestial signs of Leo the lion, with the woman Virgo in the female-headed Great Sphinx also depicts the life of Jesus, from birth, starting with the setting of Spica on September 11th, 3 BC. This is depicted in Gen. 49:9 as his human maturation from lion’s whelp, where his prey is provided for him, to stalking his own prey, unto his ultimate victory casting down and rending the dragon.

Lion of Judah Names of Christ Banner

Genesis 49:8-10
“Judah, you are he whom your brothers shall praise; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father’s children shall bow down before youJudah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He bows down, he lies down as a lion; And as a lion, who shall rouse him? 10 The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feetUntil Shiloh comesAnd to Him shall be the obedience of the people.

These verses break down the maturation of the Lion of Judah, from lion cub, to adult Lion, to aged Lion. The specific relationship of this prophecy with the triple union of Jupiter-Regulus in 3-2 BC was presented in the segment of my DVD Seminar on the Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ included below. This lays out the astronomical and prophetic details of the Birth and ministry of Jesus Christ. 

The prophecies of Balaam in Numbers relating to Jacob’s prophecies in Genesis 49, deal with the destiny of Jacob/Israel in general, but they also prophesy of the Promised Seed Jesus Christ specifically.

 As we have already seen, the Celestial Gospel began with Noah before the Flood. Yet, according to Faulkner; “If the Gospel in the Stars was antediluvian as claimed, then there were two millennia to garble the message before any sources that we have regarding the names of stars and constellations. Not only are there no texts preserving the original knowledge of the gospel in the stars, but we know of no sources before Rolleston claiming that there ever were such texts, or that any ever lived who believed such things. The first source we know of to make this claim is Rolleston’s book. Let me be clear—it is obvious from Rolleston’s book that she had no texts that clearly taught her thesis. Instead, she created the meanings to support her thesis without reliance upon any older texts. The evidence we have is most consistent with the gospel in the stars thesis not being an ancient idea at all, but entirely the invention of Frances Rolleston less than 200 years ago.” 35 This exposes Faulkner’s total lack of recognition in the foundations of the Celestial Gospel, being rooted in God’s Old Covenant promises with the Bible Patriarchs after Adam. This also does not include extra-Biblical evidence from ancient Egypt, from artifacts like the Denderah Zodiac and the Giza Plateau.

With the Covenant linkage, we have set in the Covenants of Noah and Abraham, David all the way through the New Covenant in Christ, unbroken continuity in Old Covenant Scripture, including the foundations of the Celestial Gospel with no gaps! Faulkner’s assertion that there are no ancient texts thus falls by the wayside as we read and assimilate the Scriptures we find numerous instances where Hebrew words used in the Bible match the ancient star names in this presentation!  [Job 9, 38, Gen. 3;15, 37, 43-Joseph, Gen. 49, Num. 2, Deut.33, Ps. 19, Jer. 31-33] [Check Rolleston’s charts on Heb. Star names used in Bible.]

We are blessed in Abraham’s seed as the stars of heaven…

Gen. 22:17-18
That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed My voice. [Num. 24:7]

The 89th Psalm uses celestial imagery to depict the glory of the throne of the Promised Seed.

Psa 89:36 His seed shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before me.
Psa 89:37 It shall be established forever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven. Selah.

The 89th Psalm witnesses to the everlasting endurance of the true offspring of God, whose authority is symbolized in the soli-lunar cycles of day and night, commemorated in Israel’s calendar, and embodied in the regal reign of the King of Kings. Christ ultimately fulfills and supersedes the rule of these celestial bodies, as the object of their prophecy and witness. The authority and everlasting rule of his royal throne was first seen early in the Davidic dynasty. The throne of King Solomon had no equal in any kingdom, according to
I Kings 10.

God’s redemptive plan included His eternal purpose to save sinful mankind through the last Adam, Jesus Christ, announced first in Genesis 3:15. Thus the balance of Scripture records the working out of that promise, until the fullness of the return of Christ. And by his obedience, sacrifice, and resurrection, he saved humanity from their sins. Thus Covenant Theology blended with a biblical understanding of dispensations, helps us envision the glorious unity of Scripture. As it spotlights the graceful loving Hand of Almighty God our Maker, as He guides us back into fellowship with Him, through our redeemer, and Lord-Jesus Christ our Promised Seed!  AMEN!

God Bless!

Rene’


Footnotes

1. A Further Examination of the Gospel in the Stars, Faulkner [www.Answers in Genesis.com]
2. IBID
3. IBID
4. Strong’s Concordance, [H7121-Qara] James Strong.
5. [H226-owth] James Strong.
6. IBID [H3974-maor] James Strong.
7. A Further Examination of the Gospel in the Stars, Faulkner [www.answers in genesis.com]
8. “Universe by Design,” p. 134, Chapt. 1 FN. Dr. Danny Faulkner
9. Strong’s Concordance, [H1285-beriyth] James Strong.
10. Lexical Aids to the OT-Zodhaites-p.1583.
11. [www.pinterest.com]
12. E.W.Bullinger’s Companion Bible. Marginal note on Gen. 8:22.
13. “Number in Scripture.” ppg. 123-125, E.W. Bullinger
14. Fingerprints of the Gods. ppg. 242-243. Graham Hancock
15. [www.slideserve.com]
16. OT History Class-Jon Nessle
17. IBID-Session 6.
18. Strong’s Concordance, [H2710-chaqaq]. James Strong.
19. IBID, [H2706-choq] James Strong.
20. IBID, [H2710-chaqaq]. James Strong.
21. IBID, [anthropos-(G444)] James Strong.
22. “Figures of Speech Used in the Bible.” [polysyndeton], Bullinger.
23. E.W.Bullinger’s Companion Bible. Marginal note on Gen. 15:1-21 structure.
24. Strong’s Concordance, [H5608-caphar] James Strong.
25. IBID, [H2803-chashab] James Strong.
26. IBID, [*H4487-manah] James Strong.
27. IBID, [H2708-chuqqah] James Strong.
28. A Further Exam of the Gospel in the Stars, Faulkner [www.answers in genesis.com]
29.  E.W.Bullinger’s Companion Bible. Marginal note on Num. 2.
30. Strong’s Concordance, [H226-owth] James Strong.
31. IBID, [Eben-H68] James Strong.
32. IBID, [H1714-degel] James Strong.
33. A Further Exam of the Gospel in the Stars, Faulkner [www.answers in genesis.com]
34. Strong’s Concordance, [H226-owth] James Strong.
35. A Further Exam of the Gospel in the Stars, Faulkner [www.answers in genesis.com]


 

Comments on Facebook

To those of you interested in commenting on this post please go to our Facebook Group Page 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/bibleastronomy

Comments Off on Old Covenant Foundations for the Celestial Gospel