Darkness of the Crucifixion
The darkness that Matthew, Mark and Luke all record as covering the land from the sixth hour to the ninth – noon to 3 pm is often assumed as the result of a Solar eclipse. In fact, the NEB, Dr. Moffat’s 20th Century NT, uses this term. In so doing they have all fallen into a pretty obvious mistake.1 The Crucifixion at the Passover, requires a Full Moon, yet there cannot be an eclipse of the Sun at a Full Moon. Furthermore, the darkness is said to have continued for three hours, but the maximum time a Solar eclipse will last is about 7.5 minutes. Whatever the nature of this mysterious darkness, it certainly was not a Solar eclipse.
This event is recorded in 3 Gospel accounts; Matt. 27:45, Mark 15.33 and Luke 23.44-45. Since the Gospels each record the events of the ministry of Jesus Christ to Israel from distinct viewpoints, Matthew emphasizing him as a King, Mark as a Servant and Luke as the Son of Man, and John as the Son of God, each Gospel record is true in its perspective of Christs’ four fold ministry to Israel. What follows is a basic comparative study of this event from the Gospels starting with Matthew.
Matthew 27: 45-54 NIV
Matthew and Mark both record the words of Jesus in Aramaic with an English translation- a unique handling of this Scripture. Why does this Scripture include the Aramaic words when most other passages do not? The translators handling of this phrase also implies that the Heavenly Father deserted His Only begotten Son in his hour of need, who had done exactly as the Father had purposed for his life to complete the redemption of mankind. Certainly, a perfectly just and loving Omnipotent Father would not do less than even human fathers have done in dealing with their obedient children-be there for their kids in time of need! There must be more to this than what appears on the surface, and there is!
The Aramaic words were supplied due to the translators uncertainty of their proper rendering. There are other examples of this in Scripture; [Matt. 5:22, Mk. 5:41, I Cor. 16:22]. 3
As we consider the Aramaic words “lema sabachthani“ in Matthew, we find no equivalent for lema or lama, but there is a word “lmna,” meaning; for this purpose or reason. 4
The root of the word “sabachthani” is [shbk or shbq] meaning to spare, leave, reserve or keep. This is used in Rom. 11:4,” And what was God’s answer to him? “I have reserved [shbk] for myself seven thousand who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” This is quoted from I Kings 19:18, and the same word is translated “remaining” in [I Kgs 10:11, Deut. 3:3, Josh. 10:33]. 5 With this evidence we can ascertain the true meaning of Christ’s utterance “My God, My God for this purpose was I spared or reserved.” 6 This leads into Jesus’ loud cry resulting in what Mark records as breathing his last breath while Matthew adds that “he gave up his spirit.” Luke goes into more detail by recording Jesus’ words; “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit,” BEFORE he BREATHED HIS LAST. This separates the two acts showing the Lord’s amazing discipline and focus to complete his perfect sacrifice for humanity, carrying out the details of His before he expired.
Crucifixion Darkness – Bing images 7
John records another element of Jesus’ last utterances in [Jn. 19:30] “It is finished: and he bowed his head and gave up the ghost.” This was Jesus’ Cry of Triumph, not defeat in death, but exalting God’s purpose for his sacrifice and the redemption of mankind! God never would desert Jesus completing his life’s purpose given by the Heavenly Father, He was there to support and help Jesus drink from this cup that he asked the Father to set aside in his prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus was clearly seeking an alternative to fulfill God’s purpose, other having to endure the excruciating events leading to and including his crucifixion, but his goal remained to do the Father’s Will. The Gospel of John inserts these events prior to what Luke 23:46 records “Jesus called out with a loud voice, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.” When he had said this, he breathed his last.” This details a more complete picture of Christ’s crucifixion events.
Only Matthew includes the earthquake [Amos 8:8] at the time the Veil in the Temple was rent; while Mark and Luke don’t cite the earthquake, or graves opening and the raising of the dead from their tombs, [Matt. 27:52 -53]. We know from Scripture [I Thess. 4:15-17, I Cor. 15:51-52] that God has resurrected no one to eternal life yet—except Christ. There is also uncertainty concerning the veracity of these two verses in [Matt. 27:52-53] due to numerous instances this section of [Matt. 27] is omitted by the Ante-Nicene Church Fathers, when they quoted [Matt. 27], casting a long shadow of doubt on these verses. However, if included it could only fit with God’s Word [I Cor. 15:22-23] if those raised from the grave were like Lazarus, to live out their natural lives thereafter. Those raised could not precede Christ as the first fruits from the dead.
The timing of the opening of the Holy of Holies with the death of Jesus the High Priest points to the way of access back to the Almighty being opened not only for Israel, but ultimately all mankind resulting from the spiritual rebirth that Jesus made available. As far as physical and scientific evidence for this earthquake at the crucifixion of Christ goes, the following link records a widespread earthquake around Jerusalem around the year 31. Geological evidence is centered on this year with an accuracy of +/-5 years, covering 26-36 AD. This reference that the force of this earthquake was “sufficiently energetic to deform the sediments at Ein Gedi but not energetic enough to produce a still extant and extra-biblical historical record.” It seems we are more dependent upon the accuracy of the Scriptural record versus the geological in this case. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00206814.2011.639996]
In support of this while analyzing earthquake activity in the region, geologist Jefferson Williams of Supersonic Geophysical and colleagues Markus Schwab and Achim Brauer of the German Research Center for Geo-sciences studied three cores from the beach of the Ein Gedi Spa adjacent to the Dead Sea. Varves, which are annual layers of deposition in the sediments, reveal that at least two major earthquakes affected the core: a widespread earthquake in 31 B.C. and a seismic event that happened sometime between the years 26 and 36. The latter period occurred during “the years when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and when the earthquake of the Gospel of Matthew is historically constrained.”
Mark 15:33-39 NIV
The events taking place during this darkness adds even more emphasis to the spiritual magnitude of this center point in History. All the enemy’s forces of darkness were focused on killing God’s Perfect Son, during these three hours of darkness over the land. Matthew’s statement that the Veil of the Temple was rent in twain, at the time of the earthquake, exposing the holy of holies to public view at this time, shows how Christ embodies the Veil. Only the high priest was allowed to pass through the veil once a year during the Day of Atonement. According to Edersheim; “The veil was 60 feet high, 30 feet wide, and a cubit thick.” 8 Tearing a veil like this especially from top to bottom was beyond human capability. As the High Priest, Christ embodies the veil between us and God, standing in the gap between God and man. With the perfect sacrifice of his crucifixion, the veil ripping supernaturally was the sign that Christ’s substitution was accepted by the Almighty. Thus Sin no longer separated God from Man. All now have an open invitation to draw near to God with boldness and confidence by faith in Christ. The timing of this door opened by the Lord, setting the way of life before all, is starting to close as the Lord’s victorious return draws nearer. The Gospel accounts draw a picture where the events in the Temple with the Veil, are synchronized with the events of Christ’s Crucifixion on Golgotha.
The Veil in the Hebrew Temple ripped – Bing images
When Jesus breathed His last breath on the Cross, Caiaphas the High Priest was stationed at the Temple’s inner court, sacrificing the Passover lambs. As Jesus shouted, “It is finished!”- the veil was miraculously torn inside the Temple. God Himself ripped the veil of the temple in half from top to bottom, declaring that the way back to Him had been restored and was now available to anyone who approached Him through the precious blood of Jesus! This is what the Apostle Paul referred to, that Jesus “…hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us” (Eph. 2: 14, Heb. 10:19,22). After Christ’s Sacrifice, it is no longer necessary for a high priest to do these annual sacrifices, because the blood of Christ is a once and final perfect sacrifice forever!
Luke 23:44-47 NIV
Both Matthew and Mark record the final element of this record, the Centurion’s declaration, after witnessing this litany of miraculous events that “Surely this man was the Son of God!” Its good to see some Romans wising up to the truth, like Pontius Pilate and even Tiberius while some crucified with Christ couldn’t do the same. This will always be an individual choice of the human heart before God.
Amos 8:8-10 NIV
This prophecy in Amos 8 is interesting because it includes four key elements present in the Crucifixion Darkness Gospel records. Verse 8 refers to the land trembling-or an earthquake, verse 9 states; the sun would darken at noon and darken the earth during daylight. Verse 10 refers to religious festivals-like Passover which Jesus fulfilled as the Passover Lamb sacrifice, and the end of the verse tells of mourning for an only Son-another reference to the death of Christ. These details confirm the fulfillment of this Messianic prophecy from Amos.
The scope of Christ’s Crucifixion is world wide and universal for without Christ, all the world is in darkness. He took all our sins to the cross to make atonement for our forgiveness, and reconciliation to the Father. The darkness marking Christ’s crucifixion reinforced and symbolized the impact of the crucifixion, as the sins of men were cast upon the only begotten, sinless Son of God. Since the Son of God embodies the Sun as the light of the world, even as the Sun itself was darkened for three hours, so we see the stain and shadow of sin obscuring the Light of the World for three hours.
The events and chronology of the crucifixion of Christ have puzzled scholars for millennia. Many times the historical records support the Scriptural accounts verifying Bible truths. To zero in on the time of Christ’s crucifixion, it helps to know his birthday, but there are other historical mile markers leading us to his ultimate sacrifice, starting with when Pontius Pilate reigned in Judea. Searching the historical record tells us that Pontius Pilate was the fifth Prefect of Judea from 26 to 36 AD, under the emperor Tiberius. To reveal the exact year when Jesus was crucified and resurrected from the dead we need to ascertain which day of the week Scripture says that Jesus rose from the grave. Catholic tradition teaches a Friday crucifixion, but could Jesus have been crucified on Wednesday as [Matt. 12:40] says when Jesus was in the womb of the earth for a full three days and three nights, then raised on the First day of the week AFTER these full three days and nights in the grave?
3 Days and 3 Nights in the Tomb– Infographic. x.
A key in separating the ANNUAL feast days, that were also Sabbath days, called HIGH holy days, is that they took precedence over the weekly Sabbaths. This is the origin of the tradition of a Friday crucifixion because those holding to this idea have considered only a weekly Sabbath in the week of Passover. But, God’s Word draws a clear distinction for us in John 19:31 that this particular Sabbath/Annual feast day was Not the Weekly Sabbath day. In other words this particular Sabbath day called a High Day, was the Feast of the first day of Unleavened Bread, Not the weekly Sabbath. John 19:31 also says that the Scribes and Pharisees did not want to crucify Jesus on this particular SABBATH day during a High Feast day of Unleavened Bread, where no manual labor was permitted.
Luke puts the beginning of Jesus’ ministry shortly after John’s Baptism [Shebat 20, 27 AD] in “the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Ceasar, Pontius Pilate being Governor of Judaea…” [Lk. 3:1-3]. Augustus died in AD 14 and was succeeded by Tiberius. The records of Tiberius Caesar’s reign tell us that Tiberius Julius Caesar reigned alone as Emperor from 14-37 AD. Wikipedia says “Tiberius was the son of Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Octavian, later known as Augustus, in 39 BC, making him a step son of Octavian. Tiberius later married Augustus’ daughter, Julia the Elder, and later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar.” xi Once Augustus adopted Tiberius in 4 AD, he was granted both military and legislative powers. 13 AD saw his powers made equal to Augustus, due to the latter’s sickness. This lead to Tiberius starting his sole rule as Emperor in 14 AD, due to the death of Emperor Augustus on August 18th. History also tells us that Tiberius was co-regent for a short time during the last few years of the reign of Augustus, perhaps starting circa 12 AD. Thus the 15th year of Tiberius aligns with 27 AD, where we find Jesus starting his ministry with John’s baptism when he was about 30 years of age.
There are other historical confirmations of this Scriptural record, for example from Tertullian who references the crucifixion darkness. Tertullian, as a prominent Christian lawyer, 160 – 225 A.D., in his Apologia XX1, states that accounts of the darkness were preserved in the national archives of his day – (an “Apology” was a defense of the Christian faith). He also states that Tiberius Caesar, the emperor during Christ’s lifetime, appears to have believed in Christ’s divinity and that Pilate became a Christian as well.
Following quotes from Tertullian and info about him from website below:
“In the same hour, too, the light of day was withdrawn, when the sun at the very time was in his meridian blaze. Those who were not aware that this had been predicted about Christ, no doubt thought it an eclipse. You yourselves have the account of the world portent still in your archives.”
Tertullian, also pleads for Christians as a lawyer.
As a lawyer familiar with past decrees and other judicial records, Tertullian was able to refer his readers to the official records on file in the Roman courts. In his Apology, a “confession of faith” addressed to the Emperors of Rome, he reminds them that the Emperor Tiberius himself had looked with favor upon Jesus, saying in chapter V;
“Tiberius accordingly, in whose days the Christian name made its entry into the world, having himself received intelligence from Palestine of events which had clearly shown the truth of Christ’s divinity, brought the matter before the senate, with his own decision in favor of Christ. The senate, because it had not given the approval itself, rejected his proposal. Caesar held to his opinion, threatening wrath against all accusers of the Christians. Consult your histories; you will find that Nero was the first who assailed with the imperial sword the Christian sect, making progress then especially at Rome.” Nero, of course, was the first to persecute the Christians (64 A.D.) more than 30 years after its inception.”
Tiberius Julius Caesar\ – Bing images.
Our entire website [www.try-god.com] and [blog.try-god.com] is based upon the Scriptural, astronomical and historical evidence of the Birth of Christ on Sept. 11th 3 BC, with numerous posts and articles supporting this, fulfilling the Revelation 12 signs in Virgo and Leo, along with the reprise of these signs marking the potential victorious Return of Christ in Sept. 2017. Thus Jesus being about the age of 30 to begin his ministry, [Lk. 3:21-23] coincides with 27-28 AD. If Tiberius began his sole reign in 12 AD, this would place the 15th year of his reign as early as 27 AD which was Jesus’ 29th year, born in 3 BC. Another Scriptural and historical confirmation of this pertains to the Construction of the Temple.
The dating of the construction of Herod’s Temple, [John 2:20, read more] states; “46 years was this Temple in building…” John 2:20 was spoken at Passover in the month Nisan on the Hebrew Calendar, that calculated time regarding sacred matters. The construction time of the Temple qualifies as a great example of a “sacred matter.” According to dates provided by Josephus, construction began on the Temple in 19 BC, followed by 46 years, putting us in the week following the Wedding at Cana, [Jn. 2:1-11, 13 to 3:21] when Jesus cleansed the Temple [Nisan 14th-21st], during his 1st Passover the week of April 10th-17th in 27 AD. 12 By the time Jesus completed the work of his ministry, he was 31, that fits neatly in the time frames set forward above in God’s Word. This being the first Passover Jesus attended, [Jn. 2:13-23] with the 2nd one the next year of his crucifixion. Obviously this is 4-5 years short of the traditional, dating of Christ’s crucifixion, prior to the Blood Moon Tetrad of 32-33 AD. Thus with all these historical and Biblical time markers in agreement established on Biblical truth, a strong case is presented against traditional crucifixion dates in 32-33, with a 3-year ministry of Jesus Christ. Another difficulty with this thesis arises in that its not possible for Jesus to have been crucified in the year 32 because the 14th of Nisan falls neither on Wednesday or Friday, allowing for 3 days and nights where Jesus was in the grave. As a result, using the Blood Moon Tetrad to mark the crucifixion of Jesus Christ is not consistent with the truth of the Scripture narrative on this subject.
Another key aspect in scientifically zeroing in on the year of Christ’s birth is the length of his ministry. Many say that Jesus ministered 3+ years due to the supposed references to 3+ Passovers in the Gospel of John. We have shown the two Passovers Scripture shows undeniably that Jesus attended above. John 6:4 references the Jewish Passover that was near, but there are problems with the authenticity of this verse. First this Passover reference is totally out of context. Secondly, there are two Greek manuscripts omitting this reference altogether; [manuscripts 472 & 850]. Also if this is indeed a record of a coming Passover, there is no record in the immediate context of Jesus or his disciples attending it. 13 With no real evidence that Jesus attended a third Passover, his crucifixion in 28 AD fits the historical and Biblical records very well.
Jesus Christ our Passover Lamb – Bing images. 12 [I Cor. 5:7-8]
There are a number of legal requirements that the Lord Jesus Christ had to fulfill if every jot and tittle of the Law was to be upheld as Christ stated; [Matt. 5:18]. In order for Jesus Christ to fulfill the OT law as the legal sacrifice for Israel and all mankind, he had to abide by all stipulations of the “ordinances of the Passover,” [Num. 9:12] as stated in God’s Word. Without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sin, [Heb. 9:22] and only Christ had the sinless and innocent blood that qualified as the perfect sacrifice to redeem mankind. Even after Judas betrayed Jesus he confessed: “I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood;” [Matt.27:4]. This condition is clearly stated in Exodus 12:5, as a lamb without blemish, [I Pet. 1:18-19] along with the important truth that it had to be a lamb of the first year. If these conditions were not met according to the standards of Scripture, then those partaking in the Passover would be cut off from Israel; [Ex. 12:15]. Even more critical was that Jesus himself had to fulfill all these conditions to the last detail, or mankind would remain in a sinful, un-redeemed state, before the liberating work of the Redeemer of mankind was “finished,” [John 19:30]. In this study our focus is on this and other important Biblical conditions and regal requirements of the OT Law, that the Passover lamb had to be a male lamb of the first year, in order to redeem Israel. In the case of Jesus Christ, he did not fulfill this requirement until he became an adult male of full age starting at 30 years old. John’s Gospel also records Jesus was recognized by John the Baptist as the “Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,” [John 1:29, 36].
In the same way that liberty was proclaimed in the Jubilee, throughout all the land and to all its inhabitants [Levi. 25:10], so Jesus set at liberty them that were bruised, while proclaiming the acceptable year of the Lord at the opening of his ministry during a Jubilee year. The Jubilee celebration takes place in a single year, every 50th cycle, immediately after 7 Sabbatical cycles, marking the combination of 2 years for resting the land, with slaves freed and all debts cancelled. As Jesus proclaimed liberty in the land for Israel, so he will free all mankind from the bondage of sin and captivity in the Grandest Jubilee of all, in the harvest at the end of the world. Here we find evidence of Jesus’ recognition that he was the Lamb of the first year, because his quotation from Isa. 61 opening his ministry, makes specific reference to “the acceptable year [singular] of the Lord.” If Jesus were to complete the requirements of his assignment from the Heavenly Father, he would have to finish it via this acceptable year. This allows no room for traditional teachings that the length of Jesus’ ministry was 3+ years, because if we do, then this critical “ordinance of the Passover,” coinciding with the Jubilee cycle would not be fulfilled and mankind would remain un-redeemed. Below we find that Jesus quoted Isaiah 61 very precisely to initiate his ministry to Israel. In fact, his quotation was left incomplete! The entire quote of Isa. 61:1-2, as recorded in Luke 4:18-21, is seen below.
Why did Jesus cut this Isa. 61:2 quotation off in mid-verse? Because “the Day of vengeance of our God,” refers to events in the Book of Revelation when the wrath of the Almighty will be revealed on the ungodly, which is still future. Here is an awesome example of Jesus “rightly dividing” God’s Word. The comma separating these two phrases in this verse represents the Age of Grace that we have been living in for the last 200 centuries. This Gap of Salvation between the sufferings and glory of the Lord, is perhaps best understood in I Peter 1.
1 Peter 1:9-12 New King James Version (NKJV) 9 receiving the end of your faith—the salvation of your souls. 10 Of this salvation the prophets have inquired and searched carefully, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you, 11 searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in them was indicating when He testified before-hand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. 12 To them it was revealed that, not to themselves, but to us they were ministering the things which now have been reported to you through those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven—things which angels desire to look into.
Thus the part of Luke 4 Jesus read aloud referred to his first Coming, Which is why it could be fulfilled in the listeners ears, while the rest that he left unsaid from Isaiah 61 includes the Age of Grace ending with his Second Coming-still in the future to be fulfilled.
[Isa. 61:1-2]. “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me, Because the Lord has anointed Me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the prison to those who are bound; 2 To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn…”
Luke 4:18-21 (NKJV) records Jesus’ quotation of Isa. 61 as he announced the opening of his ministry;
18 “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, Because He has anointed Me To preach the gospel to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted,[a] To proclaim liberty to the captives And recovery of sight to the blind, To set at liberty those who are oppressed; 19 To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”[b] 20 Then He closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all who were in the synagogue were fixed on Him. 21 And He began to say to them, “Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your ears.”
Jesus opening his ministry reading the Isaiah 61 scroll – Bing images
Not the Prophets or the angels themselves knew about the Great Mystery of the Age of Grace [Rom. 16:25-27, I Cor. 2:7-10], that was kept secret by God since the world began. Christ’s ministry to Israel preceded the Age of Grace, which opened on the Day of Pentecost in 28 AD, when the Holy Spirit was first poured out on mankind and the Apostles first spoke in tongues. We have seen above how we got this date of 28 AD, counting forward from Sept. 11th 3 BC at the birth of Christ-30 years, to Christ opening his ministry to Israel. This brings us to 27 AD, then allowing a year+ [70 weeks according to Dan. 9:24] for the Lamb of the first year to complete his work, which he finished in 28 AD. It is interesting to observe that there are thirty Jubilees that bring us from the Exodus and the opening of Christ’s ministry, when opening the scroll to Isa. 61:2, Jesus certified the “acceptable year of the Lord” in a 7-fold prophecy, (Lk. 4:18-21). This fits neatly with the truth that in fulfilling the O.T. Law, Jesus as the embodiment of the Passover male lamb of the first year [Exod. 12:5), Jesus was in the first year of his manhood according to Hebrew reckoning, starting at 30 yrs old, [Luke 3:23]. This period of the Lamb of God in his first year is clarified even further by the Prophet Daniel. In Daniel 9, a specific period of 70 weeks was foretold; [Dan. 9:24-27] and decreed by God for Jesus to fulfill the Messianic redemption of his ministry to Israel. In this 70-week period Jesus was crucified, resurrected, and ascended, exploding the myth that his ministry lasted any time beyond 2 years. This however, is not the only Biblical or historical evidence of Jesus’ birth on 9/11/3 BC, or regarding the length of his ministry. We have also considered evidence concerning the construction time to build Herod’s Temple, along with the Rule of Tiberius Caesar of Rome. History tells us that Tiberius’ rule [Luke 3:1], over the Rome Empire began in 12 AD, but he shared a co-regency with Augustus Caesar who died in 14 AD. This makes Tiberius’ 15th year of rule-27 AD, which was Jesus’ 29th year.
The 3 hours of Darkness on Christ’s Crucifixion Day have been attributed to many potential causes including a Miracle, Planet X and others. We have shown scientific evidence that it is impossible for a solar eclipse to account for this darkness, and that it was used by unbelievers to give a naturalistic explanation for a supernatural event. It is noteworthy that the Apostle Peter in his Pentecost sermon cites various fulfilled heavenly signs predicted by Joel. Joel 2:31 says; “The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood” (Acts 2:20) was accepted by the audience without controversy. If Planet X or some other unknown planetoid, obstructed Sunlight from Earth’s view, then this could have caused a Red Moon also. Until they can be scientifically or historically verified further, the Scriptural record stands above all on the most solid ground, supported by history.
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i. NEB, Dr. Moffat’s 20th Century NT
ii. Hour of Darkness Jesus Crucifixion picture credit- Bing images
iii. The Word’s Way, VP Weirwille p. 270-fn.
iv. IBID, p. 270
v. IBID, p.270-271
vi. IBID, p.272
vii. Crucifixion Darkness -picture credit- Bing images
viii. “Life and times of Jesus the Messiah” Alfred Edersheim
ix. Veil in the Temple- picture credit, Bing images
x. 3 Days and 3 Nights in the Tomb– infographic; [Beyondtoday.tv]
xi. Wikipedia on Tiberius
xii. A Harmony of the Gospels-Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ
xiv. Passover Lamb – picture credit -Bing images
xv. Jesus opening his ministry reading the Isaiah 61 scroll – Bing images