Birth of Jesus Christ

The Feast of Hannukah and the Magi

In our previous December blog post for 2017, we looked at the astronomical heritage of the Magi going back to Abraham. This final post for 2017 will focus more on this heritage through Daniel, as we compare some of the celestial signs that brought the Magi to Jerusalem during Hannukah week in 2 BC, to current heavenly signs in 2017.

“The truth regarding “his star” became accessible knowledge to the Magi going back to when the Persians took over the Babylonian Empire {Daniel 5:31}. As recorded in Daniel 6, at the time of transition, Daniel retained the high position he had held under Babylonian rule. According to Daniel 6:3, Daniel was again set over the Magi, and therefore could fully instruct them in the accurate knowledge of Biblical prophecy written in the stars. Thus, Daniel and his Judean companions in the courts of Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian, and Darius the Persian passed their knowledge of the history and spiritual significance of the Constellations to the Magi who preserved it and hence were aware of the promise of the birth of the Judean King.” 

In the context of Daniel’s many Messianic prophecies, he founded and lead the Magi as the legitimate group of astronomers, preserving the principles of the Bible Patriarchs, that would play a key spiritual and historical role in recognizing and presenting gifts at the birth of the Messiah. As Gentile astronomers in recognition of the promised seed, the Magi were some of the first non-Judeans to realize the coming glory of the Son of God, as the prophecy of the Magi in Isaiah 60:3-6 indicates: “And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.”

Around 600 years before the birth of Christ, Daniel as Rab-mag, and chief of the Magi, proved to be an exceptional man of God. Daniel’s distinguished career not only included being a principal administrator in two world empires-the first two empires prophesied in King Necbuchadnezzar’s dream of the Great image [Dan. 2:31-47], but also wielded great political power as “ruler over the whole province of Babylon,” with his Judean companions, [Dan. 2:48-49].  The ancient Magi formed a Priesthood of the Medes known for their profound spiritual knowledge, with special expertise in interpreting dreams. Darius the Great empowered them over the state religion of Persia, [Dan. 6:1-3]. In this capacity, where both civil and political counsel was invested with religious power, the Magi became the supreme priestly caste of the Persian empire, continuing their prominence into the Seleucid and Parthian empires. Their duties even included the choice and election of the king of the realm.

Figure 1. Daniel interpreting Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, [Dan. 2:31-47].
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Since the times of Daniel, the fortunes of both the Persian and the Jewish nations were closely related. Both the Persian and Israelite nations fell under Seleucid domination following the conquests of Alexander the GreatIsrael regained its independence under Maccabean leadership, as the Persians became the ruling group within the Parthian Empire.

From the book of Daniel and historical sources, the meaning of the “abomination of desolation” in one sense is the desecration of the Temple when Antiochus IV set up a statue of Zeus in the Jerusalem Temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar on December 25, 167 BC, honoring the birth of the Sun god. With this act of desolation Antiochus is seen as a forerunner of the future anti-Christ, who will also defile the third Temple. This desolation of the temple motivated the Jews into a revolt resulting in their political independence for the first time since the Babylonian Captivity. As Judah Maccabee marched into Jerusalem to purify the Temple, idols were torn down and the defiled temple altar was dismantled with a new altar and holy vessels to replace them. The first day of a new feast was set to re-dedicate the Temple on the 25th of Kislev, the same day when, three years earlier, Antiochus issued his decree. This end of foreign rule has been celebrated in the current Jewish festival of Hanukkah, meaning “dedication” (of the sanctuary) from 164 B. C. until today. This feast however is not recognized as one of the main seven feasts on the Hebrew Calendar starting with Passover. Even though Hannukah was not a feast sanctioned in the OT Law, the Jews honored this feast with much esteem.

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

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Tradition tells us however, when Judah offered prayers of dedication in the Temple in 165 BC, only one vessel of sanctified oil was found—enough for one day. Miraculously, it burned for eight days! This is remembered by the kindling of lights for eight days, in the lighting of the Menorah Lamp. With this miraculous spiritual recognition, the Feast of Dedication [John 10:22], not only memorialized the removal of idols and idolatry from the Temple during this period of the Maccabees, but Jesus Christ also honored this feast celebration during his ministry. In 27 AD when Jesus opened his ministry to Israel, there were 9 weeks from the end of the Feast of Tabernacles on Oct. 11th, [Tishri 22] to the start of the Feast of Dedication on Dec. 13th 27 AD [Kislev 25] in the late fall and early Winter of 27 to 28 AD, during which time Jesus sent out the 70, [Lk. 10:1-24].

John 10:22-25

22 And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter. 23 And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon’s porch. 24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father’s name, they bear witness of me.

Reverting back to the time of the Magi’s trek to Jerusalem, “The Star of Bethlehem,” as it has been known in tradition for centuries, has caused untold confusion with regards to the birth-date of Jesus Christ. Much of this confusion is due to the fact that the Magi actually presented their gifts to the child Jesus on Dec. 25th, 2 BC who was about 15 and 1/2 months old by this time. This holiday via Roman Catholic tradition, related to the pagan holiday Saturnalia, on the Winter Solstice that was celebrated as “Christ-mass,” once Christianity became the official state religion of Rome. However believer’s with any knowledge of this subject realize this was not Christ’s birthday. Dr. Earnest Martin documents the many reasons why the Eclipse of 4 BC, which many historians have favored, does not qualify as the sign marking the death of Herod. Instead, Dr. Martin makes a very strong case for the Jan. 9, 1 BC Blood Moon Eclipse as the one marking Herod’s Death. This provides a temporal framework for the birth of Christ on Sept 11th, 3 BC one hand, with this January 1 BC Eclipse on the other, when Jupiter was observed in the skies over Jerusalem and Bethlehem by the Magi.

Upon leaving the massing of planets in August of 2 BCJupiter continued in its westerly retrograde motion observed by the Magi in their normal early morning observations. It entered Virgo by December 4th of that year, shortly before dawn, where it took up a Meridian position during the conjunction of Venus-Mars. The eclipse that shortly preceded Herod’s death occurred on January 9, of the same year. Thus it was sometime during this five week period from December 4th to January 9th that the Magi journeyed from Jerusalem to Bethlehem and saw the star of Matt. 2:9.

As Dr. Earnest Martin relates:

“…This apparent westward motion of Jupiter each day would have indicated to the Magi to proceed in the same westward direction toward Jerusalem. During their visit with Herod, the Magi were directed to Bethlehem by the input of the Judean Scribes.” 


Figure 2. The Caravan of the Magi entering Jerusalem.

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Matthew 2:2
Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.

This question from the Magi is the first question in the NT, and very pointed one directed at Herod, who had secured the title of “King of the Jews” from Augustus Caesar, but was not able to secure Jerusalem for another three years, until after five months of Roman siege. History has no problem recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s Capital city although the UN today and the Palestinian’s are unwilling to do so. Herod gained the throne of a thorny buffer state situated between two dominating world empires of Rome and Parthia, and as then, this continues to show Jerusalem and Israel as perhaps the most contested and important piece of real estate in the world

Herod and his scribes had directed the Magi to Bethlehem because of a scriptural prophecy. Now the star confirmed this location by appearing directly before them as they approached the city of David. Both Scripture and the Heavens were directing them. Interestingly, their journey brought them to Jerusalem in December, at which time a joyous festival called the Feast of Dedication, Hanukkah, took place. The significance of this time is apparent when one considers that the Feast of Dedication marked the restoration of worship in the Temple after a period of foreign occupation. Now, the Magi were coming to pay respect to, or worship, the young King of the Judeans, who was the true Temple. [emphasis mine]

On December 25th, 2 BC, from our website study; “The Stars over Bethlehem,” Jupiter became stationary for six days in Virgo, due to its annual retrograde motion during the Feast of Dedication, at the time of the Winter Solstice. Although Hannukah is a joyous time for Israel, and a time for gift giving, this was the opposite theme of Solstice festivals celebrated by the pagan Gentiles. Since the start of the eight day celebration of Hannukah began on December 23rd, the Magi presented their gifts on the 3rd day of this festival. The Jews viewed Hanukkah as a 2nd feast of Tabernacles symbolizing their redemption with and the entire world to God. No fast, or mourning was allowed during the eight days of this time of joy and festivity. From the Jewish perspective, there was no better time for the Magi to present their gifts to a child in Israel than at the time of Hanukkah. Here all of Israel commemorated their triumph over the idolatry of the Gentiles and the renewal of their lives to the God of Abraham.

In a previous blog post last month we referenced the truth that the Gentile Magi arrived during Hannukah-the festival of lights, as a 2nd Feast of Tabernacles, allowing for those who missed the first one in September. It is fitting that the initial Gentile recognition and response to the light of the world took place during the festival of lights, showing God’s Grace to all mankind, [Hag. 2:7]. The timing of the winter Solstice is also key here because the Gentile Magi appeared at the expected birth of the heathen sun-god, but honored the true Son of God instead, marking a much needed transition from the heathen world’s idol practices, to the true veneration of the Promised Seed-Jesus Christ.

With both Mars and Venus in Ophiuchus, during this sign in December of 2 BC, we can see the archangel Mars-Michael, standing to protect the ascendant Morning star-the young toddler Jesus, during this time of the enemy’s attack. A noteworthy point here is Jupiter was standing still in the heavens for about six days during the Hanukkah celebration, near the intersection of the ecliptic and the Meridian in Virgo. This focuses our attention on the path of Jupiter intersecting the ecliptic; the Sun’s path, pointing out the celestial relationship between Jupiter and the Sun, not to mention their kindred symbolism.

Martin states that:

… while Jupiter was in its “standing still” position in Virgo over Bethlehem, so the Sun was also “standing still.” All know that December 25th is in the usual period of the Winter Solstice. The word Solstice means “Sun stands still.” These stationary coincidences of Jupiter and the Sun are quite related, and would have appeared significant… 5  

Both the King Planet and the Sun were standing still during the week of Hannukah the Festival of Lights in 2 BC! This brings us to Hannukah from 12/13 to 12/21 in 2017, where the heavens are alive with follow-up celestial signs in the wake of the Rev. 12 sign of 9/23/2017. We see Jupiter in Libra moving towards the first of a triple union with Zuben El Genubi, seen below.

Figure 3. 12/21/2017 union of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra, with Mars near Spica in Virgo. 6

The significance of Libra not only refers to the perfect sacrifice of Jesus Christ, but also includes the judgement of God on mankind. The ONLY way man can be weighed in Libra’s balances and NOT found wanting, is believing in Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of God who bought our redemption by spilling his innocent blood at the cross, [Rom. 10:9-10]. This truth is embodied in Libra’s star, Zuben Al Chemali-the Price that Covers! 7

Jesus is the only one ever who was not only qualified, but actually laid down his life for all mankind, making him the only Way of Salvation, the Alpha and Omega-the first and last way God made available for the redemption of all humanity. Last month in our Nov. 15th blog, I supplied the Christ-centric interpretation of the Saturn-Venus union in Sagittarius which follows. In this blog we will see an alternative view of this sign based on the first of the four riders of the Apocalypse. [Rev. 6]

To brighten our holiday season this year, there is a Christmas Day conjunction of Saturn and Venus in Sagittarius! On Dec. 25th, 2017 Venus the bright and Morning Star unites with Saturn, displaying Christ’s victory over the evil one, as seen in Sagittarius where our quickly returning Lord Jesus Christ is portrayed in triumph, conquering to conquer! Here the star picture of the mounted Archer has his arrow aimed at the red heart of the ScorpionAntares, while the foot of Ophiuchus crushes the Scorpion’s heart. As we noted in our previous blog post, Saturn has just completed its triple union with Saiph, the star in Ophiuchus’ other foot which was stung by the Scorpion, bruising the heel of the 1st and 2nd Adam’s, [Gen. 3:15]. This shows Satan’s persistent evil to obstruct God’s purposes any way he can, even though he knows he is defeated. This planetary conjunction near the conqueror’s Bow, shows the deadly accuracy of our Lord’s aim [Figure 4] to destroy the works of the enemy, [I John 3:8b].

The Hannukah feast and celebration is founded upon the defiling of the Jerusalem Temple by Antiochus IV. As a forerunner of the future anti-Christ who will declare himself-God in the third Jerusalem Temple [2 Thess. 2:3-12], the celestial signs surrounding Hannukah week deserve closer scrutiny. We find during the week of Hannukah on 12/17/2017 a massing of planets in Ophiuchus, [Fig. 4] and Venus in union with the star Saiph in the Serpent-bearer’s bruised foot. This planetary alignment in Ophiuchus includes the presence of Mercury, and the Sun. Also both the Moon and Venus are located in Ophiuchus’ wounded leg. This takes place eight days prior to the Christmas day union of Venus and Saturn in Sagittarius. Sagittarius like certain other Mazzaroth signs can have a dual meaning depending on the planets occupying its space. In the classic sense of the Sun moving in the 12 houses of the Mazzaroth [Ps. 19], each sign carries a specific meaning regarding the Sun of God-Jesus Christ, [Mal.4:2]. However, when a planet like Saturn-Satan enters a sign of the zodiac, it carries a darker significance related to the enemy. Normally, the 12 Mazzaroth signs tell of the Christ, but when we see Saturn in Sagittarius we may also be viewing signs related to the anti-Christ, especially during Hannukah for the reasons stated above. As we shared in some recent blogs, the Saturn-Saiph triple union in Ophiuchus occurred while Jupiter was in Virgo’s womb. These concurrent triple conjunctions resulted from the retrograde motions of the planets involved. This also included the Mercury’s retrograde around Regulus in Leo, as Jupiter was exiting the womb of Virgo. Mercury’s retrograde during this time occurred from Aug 13 to September 5, 2017. As Jupiter departed Virgo’s birth canal, Saturn was moving towards the bow of  Sagittarius. It is interesting that one of Sagittarius‘ brightest stars is named Nunki-meaning the prince of the earth, which also relates to the anti-Christ. We find an example of this in [Dan. 9:25-27] where the first prince refers to the Messiah in v.25, but the second prince comes with his army to destroy the city and the sanctuary, not something the Messiah will ever do. This prince was Titus the future Roman Emperor, who like Antiochus VI was a forerunner of the Antichrist. 8

Figure 4. Massing of Planets in Ophiuchus during Hannukah Week in Dec. 2017. 9

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As stated above, Venus the bright and morning star in its lead up to the Christmas day union with Saturn, is in conjunction with the star Saiph in Ophiuchus’ foot. This is a follow-up to the previous triple union between Saturn and Saiph, which completed Sept. 6th 2017. As Venus joins Saturn in Sagittarius we can see elements of Rev. 6 coming to life.

Rev. 6:1-2

1. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see. +And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

Sagittarius is pictured below as a mythical beast called a Centaur-which forms the combined bodies of a horse and a man. So we have a bowman riding a horse, unified with his steed, with his crown [Corona Australis] going forth conquering to conquerDaniel spoke about “beasts” in his prophecies [Dan. 7:17, 23] in reference to kings that would arise out of the earth. John in the book of Revelation [13:18] also refers to the number of the beast. 10

Figure 5. Sagittarius and Scorpius-Jamieson

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As a follow -up to the Mercury retrograde concluding the first week of September 2017Mercury’s next retrograde, according to NASA began in Sagittarius on December 3rd, encompassing the entire week of Hannukah 2017. A result of Mercury’s final retrograde of 2017 includes a triple union with Saturn in Sagittarius. The first conjunction of Mercury-Saturn on November 28 is the first in this series of three Mercury-Saturn conjunctions. A triple conjunction is when two planets, or a planet and star, appear together in close proximity on three different occasions in a short time-frame. The second Mercury-Saturn conjunction occurs on Dec. 6, 2017, when Mercury moves less than 1.5o under Saturn. After the 2nd meeting of Mercury with Saturn, the messenger planet in retrograde unites with Venus, heralding the bright and morning star on December 15. The third union in this triple conjunction will be the closest of this series, with Mercury swinging about 0.7o (seven-tenths of a degree) south of Saturn on January 13, 2018.  This Jan. 13th conjunction next year will be easily visible [Fig. 6], in the morning sky since the shining Crescent Moon will spot-light Mercury and Saturn together.

Figure 6. The third of three unions of Mercury-Saturn from Nov. 28th 2017, to Jan. 13th, 2018.  

 

The fall and winter of 2017 has been a beehive of triple planetary conjunctions leading up to and surrounding the Rev. 12 sign on 9/23/2017. I have linked many of the studies that tell this story in this final blog post of 2017, especially for the many new friends we have welcomed into the Biblical Astronomy Fellowship this year! If you take the time to check out the details of these linked studies, it will bless you in getting a fuller picture of what the Heavenly Father has set in the heavens for our edification for a time such as this. It is a genuine pleasure to meet you all, and I’m enjoying all the comments and feedback with all of your individual contributions!

Its a joy to share with such a fun and sharp bunch of folks, and I wish all of you the best of Holiday Seasons and the opportunity to help each other into a prosperous and blessed New Year!

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!!

God Bless each and every one of you and your families…

 Amen!!

 

Footnotes

1. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, American Christian Press, p. 17.

2. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin

3. IBID, Dr. Earnest Martin p. 47.

4. Jesus Christ our Promised Seed, American Christian Press, p. 63-64

5. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin

6. Picture credit on Plate 3: https://jeffreylhunt.wordpress.com/2017/09/30/2017-2018

7.  Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger p. 46

8. The Abomination of Desolation and other Prophetic terms of Biblical Eschatology [ppg. 4,8] Jon Nessle

9. Stellarium Ophiuchus Planetary Alignment Hannukah 2017.

10. The Abomination of Desolation and other Prophetic terms of Biblical Eschatology [ppg. 4,8] Jon Nessle

 

 

 

 

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Birth of Jesus Christ

Abraham and the Prophecy of the Magi


Among the Old Testament Prophecies concerning the Gentiles coming to the Lord, perhaps the most noteworthy are from Isaiah. This holiday season it seems appropriate to point out that one of these prophecies refers specifically to the Magi. These prominent Gentile astronomers from ancient Persia, were faithful to accurately recognize and pursue the celestial signs revealing the Birth of Christ, and we can find precious few other examples of God’s faithful servants at the end of the OT Law Administration who walked at this critical time in history, with such resilient believing. In Isaiah 60 we find beautiful examples of Messianic prophecies:

Isaiah 60:1-3,

Isa. 60:1 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.

The word “arise” in verses 1-3, is not only used of the Sun and light in general, but it and two of it’s derivatives occur in [Isaiah 60:1-3, Jer. 23:5]. As we have seen in regards to Jer. 23:5, the planet Jupiter, the sedeq planet is linked with the Messiah, Jesus Christ the righteous zemach-branch, and is one of five primary Old Testament prophecies pertaining to this Branchas the coming promised seed.

For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.

The rising of Israel referred in a great sense to the birth of the Promised seed, who embodied the rising spiritual light in Israel. Included in the Gentiles coming to this rising light in Israel were the Magi. When the Magi came to Jerusalem and Joseph Mary in Nazareth they presented gifts of Gold, Frankincense and myrrh, [Matt. 2:11]. The record from Matt. 2 below reveals the context where the Magi followed the Star [Jupiter] to where it stood over where the young child was. Another aspect shedding light on the first 3 verses of this record concerns its structure based on Introversion, as seen below:

Isaiah 60:1-3 Israel’s rising is come. 1

A/v. 1 The Rising of Israel
 B/ v. 1 The light shining
   C/ v. 1 The Glory of Jehovah
     D/ v. 2 Darkness covering the earth
     D/ v. 2 Darkness covering the people
   C/ v. 2 The Glory of Jehovah
 B/  v. 3 The light reflected
A/ v. 3 The Rising of Israel 

The central part of the structure above shows how the darkness covering the earth and its inhabitants was chased away by the light of the Messiah shining from Israel. As the Gentile nations were drawn to this spiritual light of the ages, lead by the Magi’s response, those nations responding in service to the Almighty will not only see the Glory of Jehovah, they will share in it. God has made provision for the nations through His New Covenant of salvation, via Jesus Christ. Thus the people of the world have the open door and freewill choice to share in God’s riches, but those who refuse God’s Mercy, will suffer His Judgment.

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Matt. 2:9-11

When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshiped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh.

 Isaiah’s Prophecy not only refers to the Caravan of the Gentile Magi with their train of camels, but also their gifts of gold, and frankincense along with their most heartfelt gift of joyful homage in praise of the child messiah. Nowhere else do we find this singular description of key elements in reference to the Magi as seen here in Isaiah 60.

Isa. 60:5-7

Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee.

The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the LordAll the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify the house of my glory.

Only this particular band of Persian Magi astronomers, were singled out in their faithful 800-mile caravan across enemy territory, in recognition of the heavenly signs of their long awaited and prophesied Messiah. With their royal gifts fit for a king that abundantly supplied the need for Joseph and Mary to protect and care for their special young son, the intrepid Magi have highlighted the annals of Biblical history sent by God as pathfinders of the Messiah.

The roots of the astronomical practices and expertise of the Magi can be traced back to Abraham, who was called out of Ur of the Chaldees in ancient Babylon. This record not only sets the basis for the history of Biblical astronomy going back to the Patriarchs, here in reference to Abram before he became the Father of many nations, but also details the relationship between God’s Covenant with man and the seed of Abraham. As this record details how God ordered this relationship, a distinction must be made in two categories of numerical order. The first is Cardinal Numbers and the second is Ordinal Numbers. To get a clearer idea of this distinction from a Biblical viewpoint let’s look at a discourse God had with Abraham. The record we will scrutinize is Genesis 15, [cp. Gen. 13:16, 22:17, 32:12]

Genesis 15:1-6 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. 2 And Abram said, Lord God what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? 3 And Abram said, Behold, to me Thou hast given no seed: and lo, one born in my house is mine heir. 4 And behold, the word of the Lord came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir. 5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 6 And he believed in the Lord; and He counted it to him for righteousness.

When God told Abraham to “tell the stars, if thou be able to number them,” do you think He wanted him to get out his abacus and parchment and start counting the stars one by one? Or perhaps God was referring to the promise of the innumerable abundance of Abraham’s posterity, since he was to be the father of many nations? Another possibility is God might have been referring to the inherent celestial order that He first revealed to Adam, who taught it to the rest of the Biblical Patriarchs that followed him. Or maybe God wanted Abram to pay attention to the timekeeping aspects of the stars as he numbered them. There is certainly much more to this record than what tradition holds, as we consider it thoughtfully, from its various aspects. The main key to unlocking the truth in this record lies in avoiding private interpretation and allowing God’s Word to speak for itself. In this process of allowing God to speak through His revealed Word in this record, we should take note of the figure of speech polysyndeton, or many (12) “ands,” that emphasizes each aspect of the verses above, separated by the connective “and.”2

The word for “tell” in verse 5, is the Bible’s first usage of the Hebrew word caphar [H5608], meaning to “inscribe, celebrate, narrate, tell, make known, or praise.” It also carries the meaning of “a scribe, or writerwhen used in reference to a person.”3 This word is used in Psalm 19:1; rendered “declare” in the KJV; as The Heavens declare the glory of God… [Psalm 97:6]. God was telling Abram to look up at the heavens and recount, declare, or narrate the truth revealed in the celestial gospel, if he could. Abram not only did this accurately and well enough to please God, He was assuring Abram that although he is of advanced age and without heirs, he would, nevertheless, have many descendants, seeing that the promised seed, prophesied in the stars would come out of his own loins. For Abram’s acts of believing, God counted [H2803] it to him for righteousness. This is the foundation for salvation by faith in the N.T. [Rom. 4:17-22], because God not only mercifully spares us of the wrathful judgement we deserve due to sin, but He also freely shares the Grace of His righteousness with us, which we do not deserve.

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The Word for “counted” in verse 6 above is chashab in Hebrew meaning to reckon or esteem, meditate, combine or devise.It is also an accounting term used in the context of the 7th Sabbath of years and the sacred 50-year Jubilee system of timekeeping in ancient Israel [Lev. 25:27, 50-52, 27:18, 23]. The Levitical Law shows us both cardinal and ordinal applications of “counting,” in this record, but it does not portray them as inter-changable terms. As we will see from its Biblical usage in this record, the ordinal meaning of a number includes much more than just the numerical sequence, or where a particular number occurs in a series. We can see numerous examples of this especially where God utilizes the phi ratio in His organization of Creation.

God’s statement to Abram builds on an earlier promise in Genesis 13:16, where God would make his “seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.” This earlier promise from God to Abram established a relationship between Abram’s seed, or offspring, in the earth, while this later promise in Gen. 15:5 connects Abram’s seed with the stars.

The Hebrew word for “number“-(ed), “manah” [*H4487], means to “divide into parts, or arrange, allot or assign, appoint, or order.”5 Here we can begin to see the difference between what mathematics categorizes as the function of Ordinal Numbers, that specify the order and succession in the elements or hierarchy of a group, as opposed to Cardinal Numbers, that refer simply to counting individual parts. In our recognition of both mathematical categories here, related to the Bible’s first usage of the Hebrew words “caphar” and “manah,” we find on one level, regarding the innumerable posterity of his seed, God was showing Abram, simple counting of parts with Cardinal Numbers, compared to the organization of Abram’s seed in groups related to the celestial order, in Ordinal Numbers. As we consider the context of both promises to Abram in Genesis 13 and 15, we find God showing Abram, the Sexegesimal numerical order he applied numbering the stars, would also apply to ordering his seed!

This is the basis of the relation between the 12 tribes of Israel and the 12 signs of the zodiac, recorded later in [Genesis 49, Num. 2], regarding the 12 sons of his grandson Jacob.

The Genesis 15 record tells us that Abram was fully aware of these implications of God’s revelation to him, as he affirmed the story of the promised seed written in the heavens, along with God’s promise to him regarding his seed, with believing. God thus credited him with righteousness. Abram was successful because he didn’t try to invent his own celestial order, by counting all the innumerable stars of the heavens, or alter the 12-fold order of the zodiac God revealed to him, on the contrary, he faithfully received the celestial order set up by God, and looked for the wisdom and blessings contained therein, that God graciously pointed out to him. This powerful truth is what set Abram apart from his Sumerian neighbors back in his home town of Ur of the Chaldees, whose fame still persists for their idolatrous practices in Astrology. God found a faithful man in Abram, who trusted and gave the Almighty the proper praise for His Omniscient Wisdom, that He established in the Order of Creation. As a result, God rewarded him with a new name; “Abraham” and made him the “Father of Many Nations.” As he honored the Creator, Abraham accepted the divine numerical and mathematical order contained in God’s promises to him, not as his own idea, but he acknowledged that the basis of God’s Wisdom is found beyond the category of human wisdom, and its roots reside with the Almighty.

As we have seen above in God’s promise to Abram regarding his seed, the Hebrew word “manah,” denotes the Ordinal function of numbers. “Manah” is the root for a related Latin word used in the context of a unit of currency, or “money,” and was also “unit of weight called a ‘mina;’ or pound that was divided into 60 shekels.”6 The ancient talent was indeed divided into 50 minas of 60 shekels. There is another related Hebrew root of this word, which carries nuances for divisions of time, seen in the division of the Israel’s calendar into the sacred and civil, on Nisan and Tishri 1. This example is also detailed in our website [www.try-god.com] article “The Calendar of the Biblical Patriarchs,” showing how the divine mathematical standard was adopted in the classical world and handed down to us today. A key to the temporal order is found in the celestial time-keepers, whose orbits, rule over the order of all terrestrial temporal cycles. In this way the stars shed the physical light of their mathematical order upon the Earth, in the universal temporal order of our planet. There is more Biblical evidence of the standard division of currency reflected above in the book of Ezekiel, where Hebrew currency: “maneh” was measured according to a 60 shekel Sexegesimal standard, as a sub-division of the shekel of the sanctuary. God’s divine system is always right “on the money.”

Ezekiel 45:12 And the shekel shall be twenty gerahs: twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh. (15+ 20+ 25 =60)

Here Ezekiel depicts a pattern of regular counting (3,4,5) of Cardinal Numbers whose totals (multiplied by 5), yield the base 60 Ordinal Number system, which is found consistent throughout multiple levels of Creation and was a dominant Ordinal standard in ancient cultures, from Babylon, to India and Greece, even ancient Mexico. The mathematical organization of this ordinal system is found in the idea that the shekel, as a building block of a Sexegesimal order, was subdivided itself according to a pattern of 20 gerahs. We have already seen this numerical pattern reflected in the celestial order, in the cycle of Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions every 20 years, forming a larger cycle of 60-year unions, in the temporal order of our solar system. This celestial order relating to Jupiter and Saturn is one reason they were deemed the rulers of the temporal world (cronocraters) in many an ancient cosmology. Ultimately, this planetary Conjunction cycle opens a window unto the master base 60 cycle ruling the firmament, the precession of the equinoxes, [25,920/60 yrs=432] gives us an example of God marking the Intelligent Design of His creation with His mathematical Symmetry. God illustrates this principle by His use of the phi ratio, or the mathematics of the golden section, on successively larger scales in Creation, from the micro to the macro [Eph. 2:18-22]. For a detailed treatment of the phi ratio in the Creator’s Intelligent Design of the solar system and many other aspects of Creation, please refer to (www.spirasolaris.ca/sbb4c.html).

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There are other scriptural accounts comparing Israel’s multitude to the innumerable stars and the sands of the sea which are good subjects for further study;  (Gen. 16:1-16, 21:1-3, Gen. 22:17, Gen. 32:4-13)

The Prophet Jeremiah also was inspired with these ancient metaphors conveying God’s assurance that the kingship of David’s family and the service of the priesthood would continue. “Like the host of heaven which cannot be counted, and the sand of the sea which cannot be measured, so will I multiply the offspring of my servant David, and of the Levites who minister to Me.” (Jer. 33:1, 22)

As we claim our place in God’s eternal inheritance, we should never forget that our pathway through the Stars to God’s own Right Hand was mapped out for us in eternity past in the foreknowledge of the Almighty, [Eph. 1:4].

Thanks Be to God for His abundant Grace and Mercy to the Faithful in Christ Jesus this Holiday Season…

 

Footnotes

1. Companion Bible, E.W. Bullinger -Marginal notes on [Isa. 60:1-3]. 

2. Figures of Speech used in the Bible,- Polysyndeton E.W. Bullinger

3. Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon. note on #H5608.

4. IBID note on #H2803.

5. IBID note on #H4487.

6. The Heritage of the Past, from the Earliest Times to 1500. p.93. Stewart C. Easton.


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Celestial Symbolism of the Cherubim in Ezekiel’s Vision

This blog post is a response to a recent question from one of the online forums I participate in. Since this involves one of the more mysterious sections of Scripture concerning Ezekiel’s visions at the River Chebar, I thought it might bless some folks to hear a Biblical Astronomy perspective on Ezekiel’s vision.  Lets begin with a view of Moses’ OT Tabernacle, to set the context from the earthly Tabernacle representing God’s actual heavenly Temple.  

The eastern door to the Tabernacle represents the way, the truth, and the life, of John 14:6, which is embodied in Jesus Christ as the light of the world, and the door of the sheep, the Good Shepherd [Jn.10], the true way which leads unto life.

The truths of Jesus as the Shepherd are vividly seen in 3 Psalms 22, 23 and 24, showing the sufferings and glory of the Lord. As Prophet, the Good Shepherd gave his life not only for the sheep, but for the safe-keeping of all people who would come unto him [John 10:11]. As the High Priest and the Great Shepherd, he is the first, last and only door, the Alpha and Omega, which provides the way of access through his blood and resurrection [Heb. 13:20] unto life, into the true spiritual fellowship with our Heavenly Father. As the King and Chief Shepherd, his return will exhibit his final glory, coming as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, [I Pet. 5:4, Rev. 19:16].

Thus, like the eastern shepherd, Jesus Christ embodies Jehovah-Nissi: the redemptive name for God protecting His people, [Ps. 23:1].

The Door, or gate giving access to the holiest of all was covered by a veil in both the Temple and Tabernacle. The veil of the Tabernacle, which hung on four pillars, separated the holy of the holies, the central point of God’s presence among His people, from the holy place. Woven into the fabric of this linen veil, the Cherubim were depicted, a special class of angels who are always prominent in God’s throne-room. They are uniquely pictured as having four faces that correspond to the “four royal signs” of the zodiac, ruling the four-corners or celestial pillars of heaven, previously seen in Num. 24.

Figure 1. Hebrew Tabernacle Ground-plan 
Hebrew Tabernacle layout

Numbers 24:5-9;
How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O IsraelAs the valleys are they spread forth, as gardens by the river’s side, as the trees of lign aloes which the Lord hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the waters. He shall pour the water out of his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters, and his king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted. God brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn: he shall eat up the nations his enemies, and shall break their bones, and pierce them through with his arrows. He couched, he lay down as a lion, and as a great lion: who shall stir him up? Blessed is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that curseth thee.

In verse 8 above the Hebrew word for “unicorn” is [reem] also found in the Song of Moses, where it refers not only to a single horn but two horns of a bull.

Figure 2. Taurus the Bull from Bayer’s Star Atlas [1603] 1.

star names

   Taurus the Bull is evident in Deuteronomy 33.

Deut. 33:13-17

13 And of Joseph he said, Blessed of the LORD be his land, for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that coucheth beneath, 14 And for the precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and for the precious things put forth by the moon, 15 And for the chief things of the ancient mountains, and for the precious things of the lasting hills, 16 And for the precious things of the earth and fulness thereof, and for the good will of him that dwelt in the bush: let the blessing come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the top of the head of him that was separated from his brethren. 17 His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.

Here in Moses’ Song, he uses the same language found in Numbers 24 in the horns of the “reem” or “Unicorn,” as the KJV renders it. It is common knowledge that the popularly imagined unicorn, the mythical beast, is not pictured with more than one horn, but the Bull is. These Bull horns are identified with the sons of Joseph in verse 17. The Bull’s head is also one of the four heads of the Cherubim.

 [Ezek. 1:5-6Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man. And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings

According to Ezekiel the Cherubim each had four faces and four wings. Since angels operate as intermediaries between God and men we can see this symbolism in the Cherubim, first with their four wings at the four corners of heaven. They also had four hands of a man under each of their wings, depicting their service from God in heaven to men on Earth.

Figure 3. The four Heads and Wings of the Cherubim

Image result for Cherubim of Ezekiel's vision images

There is another element of dominion seen in the Cherubim in it four faces. In Man who is created after God’s image, with the Lion we have the king of the non-domesticated animal kingdom. With the Bull as the king of domesticated animals, the Eagle as the king of the fowl of the air, [Gen.1 26-28]. As we can see from this picture above the Cherubim embody these four signs of the Hebrew Mazzaroth in the four Cardinal Directions.

Exodus 36 gives us details of the colors utilized in the veil of the Tabernacle depicting the Cherubim. Let’s consider some of this color symbolism in the services of the Tabernacle and Temple.

Exodus 36:35-36 And he made a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with cherubims made he it of cunning work. And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.

The veil hung from four pillars, representing the terrestrial number, and the earth’s orientation to the four Cardinal Directions and points of the compass. The symbolism of the number four is prominent in the imagery above, not only in the four pillars holding the Tabernacle’s veil, but also in the four colors of the Tabernacle shown in the veil. The four colors are blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. Blue represents peace, showing us the presence of God and is seen in the Son of God as the Prince of PeacePurple represents royalty, and is seen in Christ the King of Kings. Scarlet or Red represents blood, and is seen in the Man Jesus Christ, the high priest offering the perfect sacrifice and sin offering of his own life for our redemption. The linen was White, symbolizing the purity and righteousness of the Servant of God. Thus the four colors of the Tabernacle collectively embody the four-fold ministry of Jesus Christ as the chief cornerstone in the four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, showing his dominion over all Creation. As we have seen, these four pillars correspond to the four Cardinal Directions, known as the equinox and Solstice  seen on the ecliptic and Equator at the four-corners of the heavens.

Figure 4. The Four Celestial Signs at the four points of the Compass; Man, Eagle, Bull and Lion.

The Four Cardinal Points

These four cardinal points correspond to the tribes, zodiacal signs and colors as follows:

Eagle/Aquila [replacing Scorpius below]
North/Scorpion/Scorpius/Dan/White (omitted in Num. 24, Ps. 75:3ff)
East/Lion/Leo/Judah/Purple. (Numbers 24:9)
South/Man/Aquarius/Reuben/Red. (Numbers 24:7)
West/Bull/Taurus/Ephraim & Manasseh/Blue (Numbers 24:8)

Figure 5. Aquila the Eagle above the Serpent-Serpens.

Image result for constellation Aquila images

Ezekiel’s vision at the river Chebar describes these living creatures, specifically their four faces, matching the signs at the four Cardinal Directions of the heavens. As we have noted regarding the North, it was omitted for various reasons, one of which may have been due to the tribe Dan’s idolatry (Judges 18:30-31). Manasseh was added to replace Dan to maintain 12 tribes, but Dan’s exclusion was not only due to their idolatry, but also because this tribe led the ten northern tribes into idolatry. This is why in the four faces of the Cherubim, the serpent is replaced with the Eagle-Aquila the natural enemy of the serpent. We can see this in the graphic above with the decan Aquila pictured directly above the tail of the serpent-Serpens, held by Ophiuchus. This also explains why Ophiuchus, the serpent holder is not usually included in the 12 Signs of the Hebrew Zodiac. 

In the North we find the face of the decan Aquila the Eagle [Ezek. 1:10], replacing that of his natural born enemy, the Scorpion/serpent, as is evident in the triple sign of the man Ophiuchus, as he wrestles Serpens the serpent, while stamping out the light of the star Antares, in the heart of Scorpius the scorpion. Ezekiel’s vision is recorded below.

Ezekiel 1:3-11
The word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him. 4And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire5Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man6And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings7And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the color of burnished brass. 8And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings. 9Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 10As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.11 Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies.

Figure 6. Artist’s Rendition of Ezekiel’s vision at the River Chebar. 

Related image

The matching of the faces of these four living creatures with the four signs at the cardinal points in Numbers 24, is worth a closer look. First, this correlation between the four Cardinal Directions of the horizon seems an obvious celestial reference, supported by the celestial wheels within wheels connected with the Cherubim, [Ezek. 1:16, 20-22, 10:1-22]. These wheels relate to the celestial structure of the ecliptic and the Equator, as one wheel is pictured within the other, and the points where they cross are the equinoxes. One Hebrew word for “wheel” in Ezekiel, [10:2, 10] is galgal [*H1534],2 a variation of Gilgal [*H1536],3 the “Hill of God,” [I Sam. 10:5] where Joshua set up an altar of twelve stones [Josh 4], one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel. The word galgal is also the root of our word “Galaxy,” showing a celestial application of these wheels even into the modern day. Similar to the stellar reference of the 12 precious stones of the High Priest’s breastplate, as symbols of the twelve signs of the zodiac, Joshua’s altar marked their entry into the promised land, which was first deeded to Abraham [Gen. 13:14-15]. God marked the end of the Israel’s sufferings in the wilderness even as He had marked their exit from Egypt, with a miracle of parting of the waters, both of the Red Sea and of the Jordan River. He also marked the beginning of Israel’s reign of kings both in the anointing of Saul, along with the first Passover in the Promised Land at GilgalJosh 5:9-10 has a figurative portrait of this initial Passover, as these “wheels of God’s justice” rolled over the heathen that stood in Israel’s way. The first Passover was a prophecy of Jesus Christ the King of Kings from the regal line of David, who would rule instead of Saul. Thus when we view the two phases of the return of the promised seed, first in his sufferings second in his glory, we can see the following division along the lines of Jesus’ ministry as seen in the four gospels:

Sufferings 

He came as a man/Son of Man/Luke/Aquarius
He sacrificed his life/Servant/Mark/ Eagle for Scorpion

Glory

The Son coming in judgment/Son of God/John/Taurus
The Lion-king of Judah rending his prey/King/Matthew/Leo


Figure 7. MacDonald’s Conception of Ezekiel’s Vision [Ps. 18:6-19]

Image result for Cherubim of Ezekiel's vision images

These four royal celestial signs or “Stars” forming the four faces of the Cherubim, have a long history. They are mentioned together in a Sumerian-Akkadian Cylinder Seal going back as far as 3150 BC. 5 These “Royal Stars” at the Cardinal Directions, represent implied archaeological evidence that knowledge of the entire zodiac existed in ancient Sumeria-Akkad, due to the symbolism of these four key stars relating to the entire zodiac. The celestial reference, to the stellar wheels within wheels linked with these Cherubim, [Ezek. 1:16, 20-22, 10:1-22], however goes even deeper. These wheels not only relate to the general celestial structure of the ecliptic and Equator, as one wheel is pictured within the other, with their points of crossing at the equinoxes, but the entire Hebrew Mazzaroth is pictured here.  This not only includes the regular solar cycle where the Sun  circles in the 12 signs of the zodiac for a month each, providing the 365-day calendar of the year, but also includes the Sun’s retrograde motion where the Sun rises at the vernal equinox in each of the 12 signs/tribes for 2160 years. Thus while the annual Solar cycle moves forward, the backwards or retrograde motion of the Sun, called the precession of the equinoxes, spends 2160 years in each sign of the Mazzaroth. This is the mystery of Ezekiel’s “wheel within the wheel,” with the simultaneous motion of these solar cyles, the longer of which is 25,920 years. Since Ezekiel was a contemporary of the Prophet Daniel who was the President and High Court “astrologer” for the kings of Babylon and Persia, they could have had opportunities to interact concerning the principles of Biblical Astronomy.

Figure 8. The Hebrew “wheel within a wheel” from Ezekiel’s vision. 6

As symbolic references to the four quarters of heaven, the 4 unified faces of these living creatures [Rev. 4:6] represent a composite of the celestial narrative, witnessing to the return of the promised redeemer, and his judgment on the assembly of the wicked.

The 22nd Psalm reveals more details of this evident celestial pattern, in the context of the Lord’s sacrifice, in Golgotha’s foreboding shadows. This is the record of the assembly of the wicked passing their depraved judgment on the Lord, as they orchestrated the events that surrounded Jesus’ crucifixion. But as his immanent return speeds towards us, the mighty conquering judge will execute his righteous verdict with everlasting consequences for the evil ones.

Psalm 22:11-23 
11 Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help.
12 Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.
13 They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion.
14 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels.
15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death.
16 For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
17 I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.
18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
19 But be not thou far from me, O LORD: O my strength, haste thee to help me.
20 Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog.
21 Save me from the lion’s mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns. [reem]
22 I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

Figure 9. Idols at the four winds of heaven, from  ancient Egypt shown with four heads and four wings.

Image result for Cherubim of Ezekiel's vision images

In this Psalm, the wicked natures of those who brought about Jesus’ crucifixion are discernible in these obscene caricatures of the four winds of the host of heaven. These dark shadows of the Cherubim rejoiced in the Lord’s demise and death as they encircled him like dogs, ravening Lions and gaping bulls, embodying the idol masks of Astrology, as seen in some renditions from Egyptian idols above.  This was the peak of the power of this wicked assembly, but their time is past and their doom is sure. As verse 14 above tells us: Christ was “poured out like water,” which depicts him in this celestial context as the man of Aquarius, who pours the living waters of the gift of holy spirit into the saints. This also agrees with aspects of the common Hallel, as the last words of Psalm 118 rang throughout the Temple, during the Feast of Tabernacles in the last days of Christ’s ministry. We find this Biblical record in John 7.

John 7:37-44 
37In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. 38He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. 39(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.) 40Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet. 41 Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? 42 Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was? 43So there was a division among the people because of him. 44And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.

Thus Christ himself embodied the fulfillment of the rite in which the believers had just taken part during this feast, that was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost when these rivers of living water flowed from the twelve apostles, as they first spoke in tongues. The context of John 7 was the last and great day of the Feast of Tabernacles, revealing a deeper significance to the priestly ceremony involving the waters from the Pool of Siloam, which the priest retrieved in his golden pitcher. Alfred Edersheim enlightens us on these details:

   “It was on that day, after the priest had returned from Siloam….and for the last time poured out the water to the base of the altar; that the Hallel had been sung to the sound of the flute, the people responding and worshiping as the priests three times drew the three-fold blasts from their silver trumpets– just when the interest of the people had been raised to the highest pitch, that from amidst the body of worshipers, who were waving towards the altar quite a forest of leafy branches as the last words of Psalm 118 were chanted-a voice was raised resounding through the Temple, startled the multitude, and carried fear and hatred to the hearts of their leaders. It was Jesus who stood and cried saying (the words of John 7:37-38). Then by faith in him should each one truly become like the Pool of Siloam, and from his inmost being rivers of living water flow….” 7 [emphasis mine]

All the resistance of the enemy, nor the stiff-necked leadership of Israel could stop the long prophesied and inevitable Will of God, from coming to pass. The authority of God’s only begotten Son is close to being fully realized, and the evil ones will reap the full judgment awaiting them. Psalm 22 illustrates this important element of the Hebrew cosmology, that was corrupted even further by idolatrous Israelites, who followed the examples of heathen star religions in Sun worship in the adoration of pantheons of celestial heroes, in mythos of ancient Astrology. This corruption degrades the truth and purity of the theme of eastern access, to the holy of the holies in the Temple and Tabernacle, replacing it with a form of man’s works, the basis of all false religion.

As we honor the Biblical Astronomy inherent in Ezekiel’s vision at the River Chebar, much astrological confusion falls away to reveal beautiful and sagacious Scriptural truths  that prophesy of the Lord Jesus Christ. These are the truths we can adhere in honor to Him.

Footnotes

1. Picture credit Figure 2. Constellation Taurus from Bayer’s Star Atlas [1603].
2. Strong’s Concordance, notes on H1534, James Strong
3. Ibid, notes on H1536.
4. Picture credit for MacDonald’s Concept of Ezekiel’s Vision.
5. The Sumerian World, Harriett Crawford.
6. Picture Credit [Jewishenclopedia.com]
7. The Templeits Ministry and Services, Alfred Edershiem ppg. 222-223

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Birth of Jesus Christ

The Biblical Astronomy of the Christmas Day Signs in 2 BC and 2017

This week we were all reminded of the importance of the Jupiter-Venus conjunction series and the critical role it has played regarding the birth of Christ, with their dazzling June 17th, 2 BC union, as Jupiter and Venus were closely aligned in Leo. As we have noted this continuing series related to the Celestial Sphinx relating to the modern Blood Moon Tetrads, our eyes have been opened to the key role embodied by this series, with its end-time applications. The Nov. 13thJupiter-Venus union saw the King Planet and the bright and Morning Star, less than 1/3 of a degree apart, 1 [Rev. 22:16]. During the Jupiter-Venus conjunction, Mars was mid-body in the constellation Virgo. Both Mars and Jupiter are moving east, Mars towards Virgo, and Jupiter moving towards Libra. Following the celestial signs around the 9/23/2017, Rev. 12 sign, Venus is involved in some noteworthy activity. While moving through Leo playing its part in forming the 12 stars in Virgo’s Crown and the 2017 triple union of Mercury-Regulus, Venus and Mars converge in Leo, remaining in close proximity in the first week of October. Rising in the dawn skies of October 5th, Venus passes 2 tenths of a degree from the arch-angel Mars-Michael, as seen in Plate 1 below. 2

Plate 1. Oct. 5th, 2017 Venus-Mars Conjunction in Leo

 

On Nov. 19th, after leaving its union with Venus, Jupiter unites with Zuben El Genubi in Libra, on its easterly ecliptic path into Sagittarius.
After the November 13th Jupiter-Venus union, the king planet continues on its ecliptic approach entering Libra, where it will remain forty-one weeks, in a subsequent 9-month retrograde into 2018. This is the first of a triple union between Jupiter and Zuben El Genubi in Libra, that will be completed in summer of 2018, resulting from Jupiter’s retrograde in Libra. The dates for this triple union are supplied below; 3

1. 12/21/2017 union of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra.
2. 6/2/2018 union of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra.
3. 8/15/2018 union of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra.

In later Nov. 2017, we find Mars the archangel Michael moving into conjunction with Spica in the morning sky, see [Plate 3]. This union takes place on November 29th, with Mars 3 degrees north of Spica. Below we can see the Jupiter-Mars conjunction in Libra in early January 2018. This sets the stage for the triple conjunction of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra based on the 2018 retrograde of Jupiter.

Plate 2. The Jan. 7th, 2018 Jupiter-Mars conjunction 4

 

In the morning sky on January 7, 2018, Mars finally overtakes Jupiter in Libra, in an eye-opening conjunction, with Mars only 3 tenths of a degree separated from Jupiter. The JupiterMars union of January 7th 2018 takes place after the first of 3 unions Jupiter will undergo in Libra, this time about 1/2 a degree apart from Libra’s brightest star– Zuben El-genubiDecember 21st 2017, finds Jupitein direct motion passing North of Libra’s alpha star, meaning “the purchase or price which is deficient.“5  Jupiter’s union with this bright star in Libra speaks to man’s inability to redeem himself, because he has been weighed in the balances and found wanting.

 

 


Plate 3. 12/21/2017
union of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra, with Mars near Spica. 6

The significance of Libra not only refers to the perfect sacrifice of Jesus Christ, but also includes the judgement of God on mankind. The ONLY way man can be weighed in the balances and NOT found wanting, is by Believing in Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of God who bought our redemption by spilling his innocent blood at the cross, [Rom. 10:9-10]. This truth is embodied in Libra’s star, Zuben Al Chemali-the Price that Covers! 7

Jesus is the only one ever who was not only qualified, but actually laid down his life for all man-kind, which makes him the only Way of Salvation, the Alpha and Omega-the first and last way God made available for the redemption of all humanity.

To brighten our holiday season this year, we will be treated to a Christmas Day conjunction of Saturn and Venus in Sagittarius! On Dec. 25th, 2017 Venus the bright and Morning Star unites with Saturn, displaying Christ’s victory over the evil one, as seen in Sagittarius where our quickly returning Lord Jesus Christ is portrayed in triumph, conquering to conquer! Here the star picture of the mounted Archer has his arrow aimed at the red heart of the ScorpionAntares, while the foot of Ophiuchus crushes the Scorpion’s heart underfoot. As we noted in our previous blog post, Saturn has just completed its triple union with Saiph, the star in Ophiuchus’ other foot which was stung by the Scorpion, bruising the heel of the 1st and 2nd Adams, [Gen. 3:15]. This shows Satan’s persistent evil to obstruct God’s purposes any way he can, even though he knows he is defeated. This planetary conjunction near the conqueror’s Bow, shows the deadly accuracy of our Lord’s aim [Plate 4] to destroy the works of the enemy, [I John 3:8b].

Plate 4. The Arrow of Sagittarius aimed in the Galactic Center to the Heart of the Scorpion.

Image result for Sagittarius-Scorpio constellation images

Of course, this week’s Jupiter-Venus union on Nov. 13th, 2017 reminds us of the Jupiter-Venus conjunctions marking the birth of Christ, on Sept. 11th, 3 BC. With the arrival of the new born king on the scene his sufferings to fulfill the OT Law as the Passover Lamb were ahead of him, where now he is looking forward to his Glory in eternal victory, and the redemption of his purchased possessionthe Church of his spiritual body. The Christmas Day conjunction of Saturn and Venus in Sagittarius, recalls the exploits of the Magi in 3-2 BC, with notable celestial activity. 

Matthew 2:9 

When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.

According to astronomical calculations, Jupiter was not visible crossing the Meridian, the “high point” over Bethlehem from September through November of 2 BC …However by December 4 of 2 BC, Jupiter became visible at the Meridian shortly before dawn…the eclipse
shortly preceding Herod’s death occurred on January 9, 1 BCThus it was sometime during this five week period from December 4th to January 9th that the Magi journeyed from Jerusalem to Bethlehem and saw the star of Matt. 2:9.
8 

In reference to “came and stood over” in verse 9:

Astronomically, stars and planets are similar to the sun in that they rise in the east and set in the west. Furthermore, a star or planet is like the sun in that it will reach a high point in the sky in relation to the observer. At this point it is on the Meridian (longitude) of the observer. During the day, the sun reaches this point at noon. Consider the stars and planets in their nightly courses. They rise in the east. At some time during the night each will reach its highest point in relation to the observer, the Meridian. If this occurs in the southern sky as one is travelling south, as with the Magi travelling from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, the star would appear to come and stand over one’s destination.9

We should recall at this juncture Jupiter’s annual activities including its retrograde motionbegan on December 25th, 2 BC. Martin states: “Jupiter arrived at its ordinary time for retrogression and it became stationary among the stars. But this time something unusual happened. In 2 BC as viewed from Jerusalem, Jupiter came to its normal stationary position directly over Bethlehem on December 25th…not only that, the planet assumed its stationary position while in the middle of the Constellation of Virgo, the Virgin. 10

Thus, according to Martin, the same astronomical phenomena that initiated Jupiter’s three Conjunctions with Regulus, its annual retrograde motion would have caused Jupiter to stand still in the heavens for about six days near the intersection of the ecliptic and the Meridian mid-body in Virgo. This occurred in week of the celebration of the Feast of Dedication in December of 2 BC. Also recall the relationship between the cycles of the Sun and Jupiter, and that the Sun, mid-bodied in Virgo for the twenty-day period, from August 27th to September 15th, marked the birth of the promised seed.

Martin goes on to say that: “on December 25th, 2 BC at the ordinary time for the Magi’s pre-dawn observations, Jupiter would have been seen in Meridian position (directly over Bethlehem) at an elevation of 68 degrees above the southern horizon. This precise position would show the planet shining directly down on Bethlehem while it was stationary among the stars.” 11

 Martin’s assertion that Jupiter began its retrograde motion on December 25th, 2 BC, aligns with the start of the Feast of Dedication, that year which was from December 22 to 29. As the Magi left Jerusalem, they saw Jupiter on its nightly course. Looking south they saw it high in the sky, nearing its apex on the Meridian of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Thus, the king planet-Jupiter was clothing Virgo, as the Sun did during the birth of the promised seed, mirroring the movement of the light of the world, while clearly marking the birthplace of the King of the Jews for the Magi.

Plate 5. The Journey of the Magi (1894) by James Jaques Joseph Tissot “12

Image result for Magi Caravan images

These were important celestial indicators for the Magi, who would have seen the spiritual significance of “his star”—Jupiter, in” Virgo during the month of December in 2 BC, directly over Bethlehem, indicating the birthplace of the King of Kings, who would inherit David’s throne. In this light, we can understand Balaam’s great prophecy in Numbers 24, as a reference to this.

Num. 24:17-I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh, there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and he shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

“Star out of Jacob and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel“- Star = H3556 (kowkab) figuratively an illustrious Prince who is the star to rise out of Jacob, holding the scepter as ruler over Israel. 13 We should note the figure of speech polysyndetyn utilized in this verse regarding the “many ands” which emphasize each aspect of the verse appearing between the “ands.” This “star” was associated with the sceptre rising out of Israel, is a celestial reference to the sign of Leo the Lion with specific implications for it’s brightest luminary, Regulus the king star, the brightest star on the ecliptic also known as the “heart of the Lion.” The King’s sceptre is the symbol of his power over the heathens and those who oppose his purposes, by which he will rule over them with an unbending authority or “rod of iron,” [Ps. 2, Rev. 19:15]. Regulus was known by the ancients as the only king star which is linked with this scepter. This fulfills Jacob’s prophesy, that one holding this scepter would arise out of Judah according to Genesis 49. Secondly, the regal authority of this star is established in the king planet-Jupiter, whose authority as we have just seen, was symbolized by Leo the Lion, of the tribe of Judah that provided the regal stock from which the kingly line of Israel arose, first in King David, and ultimately in Jesus Christ from the “root of David” [Rev. 5:5]. The triple planetary Conjunction of the king planet Jupiter, with the king star Regulus in Leo from 3-2 BC, thus aligns specifically with the prophecy of Genesis 49:8-10, which shows the maturation of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Balaam’s revelation here in Numbers 24:17 provides a Scriptural basis for the connection between the “star of Jacob” [Jupiter] and the “Sceptre,” to the advent of Christ the King, who came forth out of Jacob’s genealogical line. Secondly, there is a celestial double meaning in the phrase: Star out of Jacob, with connotations for both the general and specific aspects of our Celestial Prelude. The complete details of the correlation between the triple Conjunction of Jupiter and Regulus in 3-2 BC, and the record in Gen. 49, is available through our bookstore on the DVD “The Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ.” This unique teaching provides the in-depth instruction on the celestial pageantry of the birth of Christ, along with the history of the Magi and numerous related Biblical Astronomy topics that time does not allow in this blog post.

  As we have shown, the ecliptic is structured so that each of the 12 primary signs of the zodiac of 30 degrees has three decans associated with them, of 10 degrees each. The first decan of Virgo called Coma, is depicted in the Dendera zodiac as a seated mother nourishing her infant son. Coma is the Hebrew name of this Constellation which means “the desired.” The Egyptian name for this decan of Virgo was Shes-nu the desired son, [Hagg. 2:7].14  It was in the head of this child, the desired of the nations, as Haggai prophesied him to be, that a supernova appeared over 100 years prior to the birth of Christ. E.W. Bullinger refers below, to the popular belief regarding this general sign that was prevalent in and before the first century BC:

“a traditional prophecy well known in the East, carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star would appear in this sign [Coma] when he whom it foretold, would be born.” 15

Plate 6. Jupiter-Saturn triple Conjunction of 7 BC.

Jupiter-Saturn Triple Conjunction

This tradition was based on Balaam’s declaration in Numbers 24, meaning that Balaam’s prophecy holds additional import. First, The new star, or supernova located in the head of the infant in Coma, visible for a total of over 270 years, was the general sign that prepared the Magi to be on watch for specific aspects of the second part of the Celestial Prelude, involving the series of celestial signs from 7-5 BC. These signs seen in the triple planetary Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7 BC would set the stage for the Magi’s recognition of the triple planetary union of Jupiter-Regulus from 3-2 BC, marking the long prophesied birth of the promised seed. Here we see the third aspect of Balaam’s prophecy in relation to the scepter, symbolic of the reign of the king planet Jupiter. As we have seen in our study, Jupiter is the planet that the Magi called “his Star” in Matt. 2:2.

there shall come a star out of Jacob“- In Numbers 24:17, when “Jacob” is referred to, it refers not only to his seed, but also the land that was promised to him, in his Covenant with God.  Bullinger states in reference to this star in Numbers 24:17 that the word “come” is, come forth (as in the Revised Version). He translates “there shall come a Star out of Jacob,” as: “There shall come forth a star at or over the inheritance or possessions of Jacob,” thus indicating the locality which would be on the Meridian of this star.”16 [emphasis mine]

This “Star out of Jacob” would not only be unique in its Messianic symbolism, of the Promised Seed, but also because of the terrestrial link of his birthplace-Bethlehem of Judea, in the Promised Land of Jacob’s inheritance. This holy land, especially the town of Bethlehem, was specifically marked out by his star-Jupiter, as God guided the Magi to the birthplace of both David and Christ. Rolleston has an notable remark regarding this:

“The Magi forewarned that the star must appear over Jacob, over his inheritance, would see that star in Coma passing over the center of that inheritance: but as it would also appear to pass vertically over every part of it that was nearly in the Latitude of Jerusalem, thus they could not at once fix on the spot of the Messiah’s birth, therefore they went to inquire; the Latitude, as it were, being given by the star, the longitude by the prophecy.” 17

Rolleston’s quote reveals that she also fell victim to the confusion between the general and specific signs of the Celestial Prelude. It was not the new star in Coma that led the Magi to Bethlehem, which had been shining brightly for over 100 years, but the ScepterJupiter in Virgo s
tationary due to its retrograde motion during the winter Solstice that stood over Bethlehem, the inheritance of Jacob, that inspired the great joy of the Magi. It was the dual triple Conjunctions of Jupiter-Saturn that identified the king planet as “His Star,” and the same star that got them started on their caravan which led them to Jerusalem in August of 3 BC. Since Coma is the “L”-shaped decan of Virgo, pictured below, adjacent to the Woman in the heavens, the Magi saw both the supernova in Coma, AND Jupiter in Virgo, simultaneously aligned on the Meridian in the same part of the skies over Bethlehem. We have depicted this graphically in the banner of this blog post.

Plate 6. Coma an ancient Decan of Virgo

Image result for Decan Coma

Here we see the Witness of the Stars, and the Scriptures, working together to bring the Magi to the toddler Jesus, because their alert observation of “his star” brought them to Jerusalem and the scribe’s declaration from Micah 5:2, when Herod questioned them, sent the Magi south towards Bethlehem. Tracking again the historical references to the Coma supernova, Ignatius, one of the Church Fathers and the Bishop of Antioch, in about 69 AD, records that: “At the appearance of the Lord a star shone forth brighter than all other stars.” If we are careful not to confuse this reference with the planet Jupiter, we can deduce that this supernova was still visible to Ignatius over 200 years after it first appeared, thus marking the general time-frame of Jesus’ birth. Joseph Seiss has some viable historical references which narrow down the period wherein this supernova was visible:

Hipparchus about one hundred twenty-five years before Christ, observed it [the Coma supernova] as a new star, and was led by it to draw up his catalog of starsPtolemy, about one hundred and fifty years after Christ, refers to it as having been observed by Hipparchus, but as having become so faint as hardly to be any longer distinguishable.” 18

  A point of interest here regarding Hipparchus is that he is generally credited with the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes by modern science in about 134 BC. He reportedly came upon this discovery while studying the star Spica, on a celestial map produced by his predecessor, Timocharis. He noticed that Spica was about 2 degrees away from it’s location on the star map, and decided that its movement averaged one degree every 75 years; [close to the actual 72 years]. This is a key to remember in our study of Dendera’s zodiac related to Spica, and this general sign detailed in other sections of our [www.try-god.com] website. Rolleston also records the appearance of this bright new star in 125 BC, so bright that it was visible during the day.

The Magi would have witnessed both this star shining brightly in Coma, in the head of the young desired son, seen as already standing on his mother’s lap, not as an infant in a manger, [Plate 7]. Just below Coma in VirgoJupiter was in retrograde motion standing still on the Meridianon December 25th during their early morning observations around 4:25 am in 2 BCJupiter was standing high overhead, directly above Bethlehem, as the Magi approached from Jerusalem, the general sign in harmony with the specific. This gives another reason why the Magi were the only group to recognize the specific signs of the Messiah’s birth, because the general sign was a fixture in Coma from about 128 BC to 150 AD, marking the general period the Promised Seed would appear. The typical person wouldn’t have noticed any irregularity in the heavens, because it does not stand out unless coupled with the knowledge of the specific signs, regarding Jupiter, which brought the Magi to Israel in the first place. This is another reason why the Magi were overjoyed when they saw “his star” over Bethlehem. Also of interest, is the truth that the Gentile Magi arrived during Hannukah-the festival of lights, also recognized as the second Feast of Tabernacles in Israel, allowed for those who missed the first one in September. It is fitting that the initial Gentile recognition and response to the light of the world took place during this appropriate time, indicating God’s Grace to all mankind, [Hag. 2:7]. The timing of the winter Solstice is also key here because the Gentile Magi appeared at the time of the expected birth of the heathen sun-god, but honored the true Son of God instead, marking a much needed transition from the world’s idol practices, to the true veneration of the Promised Seed-Jesus Christ. This understanding of the distinction between the general and specific signs surrounding the birth of Christ should clear up the majority of the confusion and controversy related to this topic of study, if the Bible is recognized as the standard of truth, supported by history and the accuracy of the Biblical Astronomy as detailed here.

With both Mars and Venus in Ophiuchus, during this sign in December of 2 BC, we can see the archangel Mars-Michael, standing to protect the ascendant Morning star-the toddler Jesus Christ, during this time of the enemy’s attack. A noteworthy point here is Jupiter standing still in the heavens for about six days during the Hanukkah celebration, near the intersection of the ecliptic and the Meridian in Virgo. This focuses our attention on the path of Jupiter intersecting the ecliptic; the Sun’s path, pointing out the celestial relationship between Jupiter and the Sun, not to mention their kindred symbolism.

Martin states that:

… while Jupiter was in its “standing still” position over Bethlehem, the Sun was also “standing still.” All know that December 25th is in the usual period of the Winter Solstice. The word Solstice means “Sun stands still.” These stationary coincidences of Jupiter and the Sun are quite related, and would have appeared significant… 19

Plate 7. Sunset Horizon from Jerusalem at Christ’s birth on 9-11-3 BC.

Image result for Virgo-Coma images

Malachi 4:2 
But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

The word arise” in verse 2, is not only used of the Sun and light in general, but it and two of it’s derivatives occur in [Isaiah 60:1-3, Jer. 23:5]. As we have seen in regards to Jer. 23:5, the planet Jupiter, the sedeq planet is associated with the Messiah, Jesus Christ the righteous zemach-branch, and is one of five primary Old Testament prophecies pertaining to this Branch, as the coming promised seed. However, with the stationary choreography of Jupiter and the Sunwe have an added Messianic-solar link. The reference of “arise” above, is very interesting when considered not only from the aspect of Jupiter standing still, in Virgo, but also referring to the zemach-branch and the setting time of the star Spica in Virgo, whose ancient Hebrew star name refers to the four-fold ministry of Christ seen in the four Gospels. Thus it serves as a singular celestial marker of the moment of Christ’s birth, following on the heels between the setting Sun and New Crescent Moon at Virgo’s feet, [Plate 7] during the first moments of Tishri 1, in 3 BC! Thus, Virgo set the context for both Jupiter standing still on the Meridian  as a reference to Bethlehemthe birth-place of Jesus Christ, and the star-set of Spica in reference to Jesus’ birth-time, at the beginning of New Year’s dayTishri 1, on Israel’s Calendar.

This scenario provides us with the exact moments of the birth of Christ, about 20 minutes after sunset, with the setting of the Star Spica,  coinciding with the first appearance of the Crescent New Moon on the first of Tishri, the newly born king was manifested to his earthly parents Mary and Joseph. Fifteen months later in Dec. 2 BC, the Magi paid their visit and homage to the toddler Jesus, imparting their gifts unto the young king, which would finance the impending trip of the royal family to Egypt, and away from Herod.

With this year’s Christmas conjunction we are reminded of our Lord’s 1st Advent, but even more we see his quick and victorious Return for the redeeming of the Church of his spiritual body, that we may ever enjoy our victory with him and the Heavenly Father.

Amen!

 

Footnotes

1. Starry Night Pro, Astronomy Software on Jupiter-Venus union of Nov. 13th, 2017.
2. Bruce McClure in “Tonight” for Plate 1 picture credit.
3. Starry Night Pro, Astronomy Software on the triple union dates of Jupiter-Zuben El Genubi in Libra, 2017-18.
4. Picture credit on Plate 2: https://jeffreylhunt.wordpress.com/2017/09/30/2017-2018
5. Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger p. 45
6. Picture credit on Plate 3: https://jeffreylhunt.wordpress.com/2017/09/30/2017-2018
7. Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger p. 46
8. Jesus Christ Our Promised Seed,  p. 235. American Christian Press
9. IBID p. 234.
10. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin p. 49.
11. Ibid
12. Picture credit on Plate 5The Journey of the Magi (1894) by James Jaques Joseph Tissot
13. Strong’s Concordance on H3556, James Strong.
14. Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger
15. The Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger ppg. 36-37.
16. IBID footnote p.37
17.  The Mazzaroth, Frances Rolleston. Footnote on “The Star of Bethlehem.”
18. The Gospel in the Stars, Joseph Seiss, p. 161.
19.  THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin. p. 60.

 

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