Biblical Astronomy of Pi the Lunar Mansions-Part 2.
With the month of March 2020, the signs of Spring are in the air, which may be good or bad depending on your tolerance for allergies. But we always emphasize the positives here, and one thing I always look forward to in March is the 14th day of the month, [3.14] aka, Pi Day! Our tradition has been to recognize certain aspects of the Biblical incidence of Pi in God’s Word, which you can reference in some of the links in this study or our March archives on this blog. This month’s article holds some new and exciting pi references relating to the circle of Lunar Mansions, that I think you will enjoy.
In Part 2 of our study on the Lunar cycle, we begin with some further history on ancient Chinese Astronomy, and their emphasis on the Lunar Mansions. The Lunar Zodiac was first referenced in China under Emporer Yao in the 23rd Century BC. In China’s astronomical records, the Pleiades star cluster was among the earliest of Lunar houses on record, dating to 2357 BC, when the star Alcyone in the Pleiades was near the vernal equinox. 1 The 7 stars of this famed cluster are named by Job [9:9, 38:31] and referred to collectively as a “heap or accumulation, and the congregation of the judge or ruler,” said also to be referenced in Rev. 1 as a “mystery.”
20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candle-sticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.
The Pleiades Star Cluster
This reminds us of the divine seven-fold pattern of the order of Cherubim according to their regular distribution around the four colored curtains of the Tabernacle walls of both the Holy Place, and the Holy of the Holies. As we find this pattern in the earthly Tabernacle, so we also find it in the Heavenly Tabernacle, as Rev. 15:5-8 reveals, seen in Part 1 . [cp. Rev. 8: 2]
This mystery of the seven stars can refer to the Angel’s first estate prior to their revolt, when Lucifer as the Bright and Morning Star led the angels as Morning stars and sons of God, in their collective shouts of joy, praising the Almighty, [Job 38:7, Isa. 14:12-20, Ezek. 28:12-19]. But once iniquity was found in Lucifer, he was cast out of heaven taking 1/3 of the angels down with him. [Rev. 12:7-9].
“Seek him that made the seven stars and Orion, and turned the shadow of death into the morning, and made the day dark with night: that called for the waters of the sea, and poured them out upon the face of the earth: The Lord is his name …” [Amos 5:8] KJV
We find hints of this in Milton’s description of Creation at the dawn of the world, in Paradsie Lost; where he says of the Sun,
the Dawn and the Pleiades before him danc’d, shedding sweet influence…2
“He had in His right hand seven stars, out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength.” [Rev. 1:16]
This reference in Rev. 1:16 is certainly reminiscent of the helical rising of the 7 stars of the Pleiades. There is a fable linked to one of these seven stars, that was lost in infamy. The Poet Aratos wrote;
As seven their fame is on the tongues of men, though six alone are beaming on the eye… 3
Pleiades Star Map
Reportedly, this 7th Pleiad star disappeared around the time of the Trojan War [1194-1184 BC], where according to Rolleston, “the star shot like a comet towards the North pole,” leaving only six main Pleiad stars. One of these was named “Maia” in Greek, tracing to the Chinese “Mao,” preserving the historical roots of this Pleiad, from the 23rd Century BC in ancient Chinese culture. In addition to the lunar mansions, Chinese astrologers going back to Yi Xing also predicted solar eclipses by analyzing lunar position and motion. For every revolution westwards on the celestial globe, the Sun would move a degree to the east while the Moon also moved 13 and 7/19 degrees eastwards. After 29 rotations of the celestial globe, the Sun and Moon would meet for a solar eclipse. Chinese astronomical tools included star maps, like the Dunhuang Star chart, one of the oldest remaining star maps in existence, along with armillary spheres. Their celestial globe depicted 28 lunar mansions, with the celestial equator and ecliptic.
Chinese astrologers also used the Metonic Cycle, which they called the Zhang cycle due to the dynasty in which it was discovered, circa 600 BC. The Metonic Cycle converts 19 solar years to 235 lunar months. This also helped Royal Chinese astrologers predict solar eclipses, which they were highly motivated to accurately foretell, since their lives depended upon it, in some cases.
Western Astronomy has always been more focused on the Solar Zodiac, including the 12 signs or constellations that the Sun passes on the ecliptic during the year. However, in ancient China, attention was paid more on the 28 Mansions marking the movement of the Moon during a lunar month. This lunar focus of the Chinese Calendar, divided time in lunar months, having the practical benefit that the day of the month was evident by looking at the lunar phase, along with the current location of the Moon against the stars.
28 Chinese Lunar Mansions
The 28 Mansions of the Chinese Lunar month (xiu or sù), one in each day of the sidereal lunation, served to name the days of the month before the Gregorian Calendar was adopted. Star locations were measured relative to the xiu divisions and their distance from the North pole. The month was divided into four symbols, representing four weeks of 7-days in a lunar month, and also the Four Seasons.
As we will see below, the common themes surrounding the 28 Lunar Mansions in various cultures of the ancient world, shows a unity of astronomical knowledge, rooted in the Biblical Patriarchs who founded the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, China & Israel after the flood. The ancient Biblical truths of the Almighty Creator God, Who rested on the 7th day, defined a division of time, based on the Creation Week. God’s Creation of the Sun, Moon and Stars to mark signs, seasons, days and years, divided and separated between the light and darkness of these heavenly bodies, providing a universal temporal order for the earth. The Seasons or appointed times [moed] depict the holy feasts when man was to recognize special calendar times ordained by the Almighty, according to a mandate from heaven, to honor God’s Covenant relation with man. The Creation Week set the pattern of the Sabbath, found in the 7 x 4=28; Lunar Mansions.
The transition from the end of one lunar phase to commencement of the next lunar phase is a most revered calendar unit across world cultures. In this way, God set aside the Sabbath Day as holy, consecrating the Sabbath in Isreal for all time, a big reason why Israel has always abided by a lunar calendar. Historical recognition of the influence of this seven-fold pattern is found in various septenary units of measurement. The Egyptian Royal cubit was composed of 7 hands or 28 fingers, as a standard cubit, with a 7th hand added. In truth, Gen. 1:1 has 7 Hebrew words with a total of 28 letters. By dividing 28 times the product of the letters by seven times, the product of the words, a calculation of the pi ratio results. 4 This is an example of a practical reckoning from the ancient world seen below, with astronomical and calendar applications.
“According to the septenary system of reckoning, the circumference of a circle was considered 22/7 of the circle’s diameter, as an approximation of the Pi ratio=3 1/7 or 3.142857, that is still applied as an adequate calculation for many engineering problems today.” 5
The following information comes from Leo Tavares and his website on Mathematical Monotheism, [https://sites.google.com/site/mathematicalmonotheism/the-genesis-1-1-mirror-code]. Since the Hebrew Alphabet is alpha-numeric, where every letter in their alphabet is also a specific number, below are the “numerical values of the 22 letters in the Biblical Hebrew alphabet, as they relate to Gen. 1:1:
GENESIS 1:1 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”
Thus the numeric values of these seven Hebrew words are as follows
913 + 203 + 86 + 401 + 395 + 407 + 296 = 37 × 73
A note from Tavares on his site on #37 is; “For the sum of the Fibonacci numbers indexed to the first 37 decimal digits of Phi (after the decimal point) = 401.” This shows a relation between the Pi and Phi ratios, that we have previously illustrated in various blog posts.
Not only does the center word value of Genesis 1:1 stand out as its only PRIME word value, it stands out as its SHORTEST word. In fact, it is made up of the first and the last letters of the Hebrew alphabet (the Aleph and the Tav). Since the Creator God, Almighty fittingly is set in the center of these 7 words like, the central candle of the Menorah between it’s other six candles, [Rev. 1:20] highlighting the Biblical teaching that God is the FIRST and LAST (Isaiah 44:6):
ALEPH + TAV = 401
This reveals an internal code of mirror symmetry in Genesis 1:1 that the sum of the Prime Factors of the three words to the LEFT of 401 yields the very same value as the Prime Factors to the RIGHT of 401. Here are the Prime Factors of the Genesis 1:1 word values:
913 = 11 × 83
203 = 7 × 29
86 = 2 × 43
401 = 401
395 = 5 × 79
407 = 11 × 37
296 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 37
LEFT PRIME FACTOR SUM:
(11 + 83) + (7 + 29) + (2 + 43) = 175
RIGHT PRIME FACTOR SUM:
(5 + 79) + (11 + 37) + (2 + 2 + 2 + 37) = 175
LEFT/RIGHT PRIME FACTOR SYMMETRY:
175 (401) 175
As God is the FIRST and the LAST in (Isaiah 44:6): This verse of 7 Hebrew words reads as follows:
ISAIAH 44:6 “I am the FIRST, and I am the LAST; and beside me there is no God”
The numerical value of the seven Hebrew words in this passage is as follows:
61 + 557 + 67 + 265 + 162 + 61 + 86 = 1259
This number is directly tied to 401 through the mathematics of a Circle. How? Aside from the fact that the numerical value of “ISAIAH” = 401, a Circle with a circumference of 1259 units yields a diameter of 401 units, according to the pi formula.
THE CIRCLE OF THE FIRST AND THE LAST
“I am the FIRST, and I am the LAST; and beside me there is no God” (Isaiah 44:6) = 1259
DIAMETER = 401 units
“ISAIAH” = 401
FIRST + LAST Hebrew letters = 1 + 400 =
CENTER word value of Genesis 1:1 = 1 + 400 =
The Aleph and the Tav are the FIRST/LAST letters of the 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet. the PRIME FACTORIZATION SUM of the 22 Hebrew letter values points right back to “The Circle Of The First And The Last” that we just saw. Remarkably, it yields the PRIME ORDER of 1259.“ 6
This practical reckoning of the pi ratio also relates to the 22 letters of the Hebrew Alphabet, including 7 vowels, providing a linguistic and mathematical blueprint for Israel. As with all language systems, the Hebrew alphabet is a system of writing expressing a language’s sounds, both consonants and vowels, by means of single letters. Alphabets can function to move beyond outer appearances, and access deeper meanings in reality. Alphabets embody the presence of the infinite within the finite. Since the Creator spoke all Creation into reality, the Almighty chose the Hebrew language and Semitic culture as the primary carrier and access point for in-depth concepts leading the presence of God within His Holy Word, and fellowship in His Temple. This includes a key function of the alphabet; to enable the seeker to experience spiritual growth processes in fellowship with his Maker, via a series of accessible, substantive and systematic images, whereby the Almighty chose to reveal Himself. Did you also know that 3-14 is Einstein’s Birthday!?
The Hebrew script, is a consonantal system with 22 characters, as part of a family of alphabets, based ultimately upon the Phoenician script. The Hebrew script was formalized around the same time as early Greek, with letters taking a varied form. For example, Resh, phonetically equal to the ‘R‘, is similar to a lower case Roman ‘r‘, each letter with its own definition. One meaning of Resh is “poverty,” [Prov. 10:15]. Lucifer prospered at God’s Right Hand, but when it was not good enough for him, he became desolate in opposition
to the Almighty, and was “plucked up” and cast away. Talk about a major “pluck up,” that has to be the biggest of all! This generally fits the mythology surrounding the lost Pleiad, as Lucifer was cast out of heaven, and rejected from his former angelic glory. [Isa. 14:12-20, Ezek. 28:12-19]
This meaning for Bet, of the interior of man, implies human freewill choice, that results from internal deliberation, spoken into action externally. This relates to the 7 polarized sets [Ecc. 3], as people chose daily actions within the ranges of human activity reflected within these 14 pairs. Also, Bet as a “house,” is intriguing in light of the truth that these 7 stars; [Pleiades] are the angels of the seven churches, since the church is considered the house of God, the dwelling place of His people, in the body of Christ, [Rev. 1:20, 1 Cor. 6:19-20].
The “Flower” of Lunar Phases.
The external dimensions of the Tabernacle reflecting the 12.368 lunar synodic months or 12 7/19‘s are interesting, also when we consider the intercalation pattern utilized in Israel, to align the solar and lunar calendars. The present Hebrew calendar consists of two types of years, the sacred and the civil year. The sacred year is based on directives given to Moses, and is the official calendar year of religious feasts. The OT calendar received by Moses, began in the spring month of Abib, [Ex. 12:2]. With God’s revelation to Moses on Mt. Sinai, including the Tabernacle and the Ten Commandments, this information on the Hebrew Calendar was a built-in practice of the OT Law since at least the 14th Century BC,
nearly a thousand years before Greek scientist Meton developed the “19-year Metonic cycle” in Athens, circa 432 BC. The dimensions of 12 7/19, reflects the seven leap years in every 19-year cycle. Both Sacred and Civil Years contain 12 lunar months for 354.25 days until the leap year adds a 13th intercalary month. These 7 extra months are dispersed over 19-years. An approximated 209-days of lunisolar separation time are accumulated through close observation of the Sun, Moon, and Stars during this 19-year cycle. The extra 209-day cycle is divided into seven intercalary months to reinforce the sacred 7-day week,
alternating between 29-days and 30-days each in the Hebrew calendar.
The intercalary month is included seven different times, every 2 or 3 years within the 19-year, lunisolar “Metonic” cycle of the Hebrew calendar. The intercalary month also called Second Adar, was added between the months of Adar, and Nisan. Second Adar is inserted by adding it to the end of the 12-month lunar year.
The Hebrew lunisolar calendar thus emerges with a number of assumptive connotations. Seven Days and nights, with the Sabbath between the weeks, the lunar phases started with New Moon crescents and intercalary days, all enshrined divine providence upon Earth. The Creator’s temporal order of the lunisolar calendar also sums into longer periods of Jubilee cycles.
The Jubilee year is the Sabbatic Year that follows seven successive Sabbatic years (Levi. 25: 8-54). The numerical matching of 7 days to 7 years was basic to mounting the 50-days to Pentecost and the 50-year Jubilee cycle. After six years, the 7th year was a Sabbatic year. Seven multiples of seven years are 49 years resulting in a 50-year Jubilee. The Jubilee year gave rest to the soil, reverted landed property back to original owners, and freed Israelites that were formerly slaves. These calendar statutes reinforced the
appointed feasts of God.
As we investigate the Tabernacle structure further, we find that the distribution of the Tabernacle’s internal colored curtains, hung in relation to the wooden planks forming Tabernacle walls, are worthy of a closer look. Each of the violet curtain stripes bore an image of Cherubim angels embroidered on three-colored curtains of violet, crimson and purple. “The entire 140 cubit length [14 x 10] of the combined sheets of curtains, were each 28 cubits long, giving 9 full series of colors [9 x 3=27] with a surplus cubit for another entire colored stripe, [totaling 28].” 9 This reflects in practical terms the Lunar Sidereal cycle which is between 27 and 28 days; [27.3 days].
The 28 Lunar Mansions divide into 7 x 4 along the lines of the four Cherubim angels each with seven mansions. Since these Cherubim angels were depicted on the violet stripes preceded by the crimson stripe and followed by purple stripes of curtains, they were designed to align with the middle of the wooden planks of the Tabernacle walls. As the curtains conform to the numbers of the sidereal lunar cycle, they represent the Lunar phases in coordination with the solar cycle represented by the gold plated wooden planks. Thus we find it noteworthy that the “regular sequence of colors, Cherubim panels, loops and knobs, cycle around the full circuit of Tabernacle walls in perfect order until the 2nd curtain terminates in the last 1/3 of the 19th wooden plank.” 10
With the 19th wooden plank reflecting the 19th solar year, from the start of this sequence, we can see how the curtains symbolize the sidereal lunar cycle, aligned with the “Metonic cycle,” seven times in 19 solar years, on the 1st Tabernacle wall. If there is any lingering doubt regarding this alignment, it is quickly erased, as this symmetrical pattern mirrors the opposite wall on the other side of the room. This is realized as the “third curtain piece terminates with a crimson half stripe at the rear 1/3 of the 19th wooden plank. This symmetry is maintained by the “reversal of order of stripes on the opposite side of the room, completing the corresponding position of the 20 violet Cherubim panels, with seven at the end.” 11
As we find mirror symmetry in the verse structure of Genesis 1:1 and Isa. 44:6 above, so we can see the same type of symmetry in the Menorah, and the structure of the Tabernacle curtains, mirrored on opposite sides of the enclosure. Again, this would have been at least 700 years in advance of the Babylonian or Chinese employment of the “Zhang” or Metonic cycle, assuming the practice of the intercalary cycles reflected in the alignment of curtains with the walls reflecting the Creator’s temporal order in the Hebrew Tabernacle.
Figure 1. The Four Lunar Phases
Divisions of seven-day weeks divide the four basic lunar phases seen in Figure 1. Starting with a New Moon and the first sighting of its crescent, the Moon is observed according to regular monthly patterns from New Moon, waxing to 1st Quarter Moon, to Full Moon, then waning to 4th Quarter Moon, and back to New Moon. Original Hebrew illuminations of lunar time, put God between the weeks on Sabbath Days.
The Hebrew word for “time” [H6256-eth] in Ecc. 3:1, means “the right or proper time. In the plural it refers to circumstances, events or courses of time. Strong’s says there are three principle situations described by eth–a. Regular events. b. An appropriate time for unrecurring incidents. c. A set time. The Greek equal is Kairos [G2540]. 12 The monthly lunar phases would fall under the 1st or 3rd of the three options above; the regular events or lunar phases of the repeating sidereal lunar cycle.
Figure 2. Monthly Lunar Phases
As seen in the Tabernacle measures above, the synodic lunar month measures 29.53o59-days. Alternating lunar months of 29-days or 30-days were common practice in lunisolar calendar systems. The average lunar month of 29.5-days repeats upon sighting the New Moon. This Lunar cycle dictates the pattern of Lunar light and darkness, and these 14 pairs of “times” depict 14 sets of opposites, between the light and dark of the Moon, wherein this range of human activity, the Almighty fellowships with His people.
One of the overarching purposes of Ecclesiastes is to explain the Meaning of life, by first realizing that meaning in life is not to be found in life itself, which from a humanistic view is meaningless, being hostile and inscrutable, and thus a vanity as Solomon summarizes. But from a godly perspective, when we view life from the purposes of the Life-Giver, then the true meaning of life can be ascertained. Its main purpose was to show the futility of human existence apart from God.
I trust you have found this Tabernacle Tour valuable in expanding your understanding of the Hebrew Lunar Calendar, and the Lunar Mansions from multiple Biblical perspectives.
1 Star Lore Myths Legends and Facts, p. 409 William Tyler Olcott
2 IBID, ppg. 408-409
3 IBID, p. 420
5 Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins p. 306
7 Otiot: Sacred Signs, from “The Book of Sacred Names.” Jacobus G. Swart
8 The Tabernacle of Isreal, James Strong, p. 41
9 IBID, James Strong, p. 83
11. IBID, p.84
12. Strong’s Concordance, [H6256-eth]. James Strong
Comments on Facebook
To those of you interested in commenting on this post please go to our Facebook Group Page