In our annual recognition of Pi Day. March 14th of every year [3.14] we are reposting the following blog related to the Hebrew Menorah and the Pi ratio. The Menorah is one of the sacred pieces of “furniture” in the Hebrew Temple & Tabernacle, that themselves were designed by the Creator using universal constants like Pi/Phi in addition to the Ark of the Covenant.
The Structure of the Hebrew Menorah and the Pi ratio.
This blog post is an expansion on my original study called “The Biblical Cosmology of the Hebrew Menorah” on my website [www.try-god.com]. The first study focused more on the history of astronomy and cosmology, with an emphasis on the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the potential impact of a Biblical Cosmology. This current study shifts focus to a greater emphasis on the Biblical aspects of the Menorah’s structure, and the implications of this structure. I am including the introduction to the original study along with some of the mathematical aspects of the first study, mainly pertaining to the structure of the Menorah and the Pi ratio.
The traditional concept of the history of cosmology reads as a timeline of the “discoveries” of the greatest scientists. Men like Ptolemy, Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Einstein and Hubble are the shining lights of scientific progress, and certainly human science owes these men much. According to conventional history, the idea of a heliocentric “universe” or solar system, originated in ancient Greece, specifically Aristarchus of Samos back in the second century BC. This idea however, did not catch on in a big way until Copernicus, who while reviewing some of Aristarchus’ ideas, seized upon this concept and ran with it. He did this at his own peril due to the prevailing worldview of the time, especially that of the Roman Catholic Church, based on a geocentric view of the solar system espoused by Ptolemy, that held sway in intellectual and religious circles for over 1500 years. The graphic below from Harmonica Macrocosmica [A. Cellarius, Amsterdam 1660] 1 depicts a Sun-centered, Copernican view of the cosmos.
This article on Biblical cosmology depicts the idea of a heliocentric “universe” predated the Second Century BC and Aristarchus, by at least 1300 years, and its genuine roots are found in the OT Scriptures. From a historical perspective, this is a potentially radical statement, sure to have many critics however, once the following Biblical evidence is viewed in light of the principles of Biblical Astronomy, the foundations of this concept are inescapable. This article supplies an example of potential revisionist power that Biblical Astronomy can have on the conventional view of the History of Astronomy.
This study examines the celestial symbolism of the sacred Hebrew candlestick instituted under Moses and the Levite priests of the Old Testament. The Menorah is a divine piece of furniture that was kept in the holy place of the Hebrew Tabernacle, which contained the Altar of Incense, the Table of Shewbread and the Veil through which the Holy of the Holies was accessible. As a powerful symbol from God’s Word, the Menorah embodies an extensive Biblical cosmology, including both the Hebrew zodiac of twelve major Constellations, with its thirty-six decans, and a heliocentric concept of the solar system, centuries before Homer wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey! God revealed the divine plans of the Tabernacle to Moses in the mid-2nd millennium BC, in the 14th century.
The various elements of the structure of this Candlestick follows the order of the Torah in the first five books of the Pentateuch. The structure of this sacred seven-branched Candlestick was said to embody the light of the Torah in seven categories or individual aspects of this Lamp as follows: 2
Figure 1. The Menorah and Genesis 1:1. 3
1. The seven branches of the Candelabra are built on the first seven words of Gen. 1:1.
GENESIS 1:1 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” As we will see below, the sevenfold pattern of the Menorah embodies the Creator’s spiritual and temporal order as the Creator’s three-fold light is shed in Creation, evident on multi-levels in God’s Word, and culture of Israel, including their mathematical, astronomical and religious aspects. A primary area where the mathematical and astronomical aspects of the Menorah structure intersect as seen in Judean Time-keeping.
2. The Seven Lamps of the Menorah supported by its seven Branches, shed their light kindled by the High Priest by burning the pure Olive oil, symbolizing the anointing of the holy spirit. [Ex. 27:21, 1Sam. 3:3]
The ancient Biblical truths of the Almighty Creator God, Who rested on the 7th day, defined division of time, based on the Creation Week. God’s Creation of the Sun, Moon and Stars to mark signs, seasons, days and years, divided and separated between the light and darkness of these heavenly bodies, providing a universal temporal order for the earth. The Seasons and appointed times [moed] depict the holy feasts when man was to recognize special calendar times ordained by the Almighty, according to a mandate from heaven, to honor God’s Covenant relationship with man. These sacred Spring and Fall feasts relate to the sevenfold Menorah Branch structure seen in Fig. 2 below.
Figure 2. The Menorah and the Hebrew Feasts and Holy Days.
The standard order of Creation Week is inherent in Genesis 1-2. This Creation Week set the Sabbath pattern, found in the 7 x 4=28; Lunar Mansions. The transition from the end of one lunar phase to commencement of the next lunar phase is a most revered calendar unit across world cultures. In this way, God set aside the Sabbath Day as holy, consecrating the Sabbath in Israel for all time, which is a big reason why Israel has abided by a lunar calendar. We also find historical recognition of the influence of this seven-fold pattern in various septenary units of measurement. The Egyptian Royal cubit was composed of 7 hands or 28 fingers, as a standard cubit, with a 7th hand added. In truth, Gen. 1:1 has 7 Hebrew words with a total of 28 letters. By dividing 28 times the product of the letters by seven times, the product of the words, a calculation of the Pi ratio results. 4 This is a practical reckoning from the ancient world seen below, with astronomical and calendar applications. “According to a septenary system of reckoning, the circumference of a circle was considered 22/7 of the circle’s diameter, as an approximation of the Pi ratio=3 1/7 or 3.142857, which is still applied as an adequate calculation for many engineering problems today.” 5
Figure 3. Luni-solar Calendar cycles and the Hebrew Feasts.
The following information comes from Leo Tavares and his website on Mathematical Monotheism, [https://sites.google.com/site/mathematicalmonotheism/the-genesis-1-1-mirror-code]. Since the Hebrew Alphabet is alpha-numeric, where every letter in their alphabet is also a specific number, below are the “numerical values of the 22 letters in the Biblical Hebrew alphabet, as they relate to Genesis 1:1:
GENESIS 1:1 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”
Thus the numeric values of these seven Hebrew words are as follows
913 + 203 + 86 + 401 + 395 + 407 + 296 = 37 × 73
A note from Tavares on his site on #37 is; “For the sum of the Fibonacci numbers indexed to the first 37 decimal digits of Phi (after the decimal point) = 401.” This shows a relation between the Pi and Phi ratios, that we have previously illustrated in various blog posts.
Not only does the center word value of Genesis 1:1 stand out as its only PRIME word value, it stands out as its SHORTEST word. In fact, it is made up of the first and the last letters of the Hebrew Alphabet (the Aleph and the Tav). As God is the FIRST and the LAST in (Isaiah 44:6): This verse in Isaiah of 7 Hebrew words read as follows:
ISAIAH 44:6 “I am the FIRST, and I am the LAST; and beside me there is no God”
Since the Creator God, Almighty fittingly is set in the center of these 7 words like, the central candle of the Menorah between the other six candles, [Rev. 1:20] this highlights the Biblical teaching that God is the FIRST and LAST (Isaiah 44:6):
ALEPH + TAV = 401
This reveals an internal code of mirror symmetry in Genesis 1:1 that the sum of the Prime Factors of the three words to the LEFT of 401 yields the same value as the Prime Factors to the RIGHT of 401. Below are the Prime Factors of the Genesis 1:1 word values:
Genesis 1:1 in the original Hebrew:
הארץ ואת השמים את אלהים ברא בראשית
913 + 203 + 86 + 401 + 395 + 407 + 296 = 2701
This is summarized below:
913 = 11 × 83
203 = 7 × 29
86 = 2 × 43
401 = 401
395 = 5 × 79
407 = 11 × 37
296 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 37
LEFT PRIME FACTOR SUM:
(11 + 83) + (7 + 29) + (2 + 43) = 175
RIGHT PRIME FACTOR SUM:
(5 + 79) + (11 + 37) + (2 + 2 + 2 + 37) = 175
LEFT/RIGHT PRIME FACTOR SYMMETRY:
175 (401) 175
As God is the FIRST and the LAST in (Isaiah 44:6): The numerical value of the seven Hebrew words in this passage is as follows:
61 + 557 + 67 + 265 + 162 + 61 + 86 = 1259
This number is directly tied to 401 through the mathematics of a Circle. How? Aside from the fact that the numerical value of “ISAIAH” = 401, a Circle with a circumference of 1259 units yields a diameter of 401 units, according to the Pi formula.
THE CIRCLE OF THE FIRST AND THE LAST
“I am the FIRST, and I am the LAST; and beside me there is no God” (Isaiah 44:6) = 1259
DIAMETER = 401 units
“ISAIAH” = 401
FIRST + LAST Hebrew letters = 1 + 400 =
CENTER word value of Genesis 1:1 = 1 + 400 =
The Aleph and the Tav are the FIRST/LAST letters of the 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The PRIME FACTOR SUM of the 22 Hebrew letter values points right back to “The Circle of The First and The Last” that we just saw. Remarkably, it yields the PRIME ORDER of 1259.“ 6
This practical reckoning of the pi ratio also relates to the 22 letters of the Hebrew Alphabet, including 7 vowels, providing a linguistic and mathematical blueprint for Israel. As with all language systems, the Hebrew alphabet is a system of writing expressing a language’s sounds, both consonants and vowels, by
means of single letters. Alphabets can function to move beyond outer appearances, and access deeper meanings in reality. Alphabets embody the presence of the infinite within the finite. Since the Creator spoke all Creation into reality, the Almighty chose the Hebrew language and Semitic culture as the primary carrier and access point for in-depth concepts leading the presence of God within His Holy Word, and fellowship in His Temple. This includes a key function of the alphabet; to enable the seeker to experience spiritual growth processes in fellowship with his Maker, via a series of accessible, substantive and systematic images, whereby the Almighty chose to reveal Himself.
This correlates to the structure of the Menorah which contains a total of 22 cups; 3 on each branch [6×3=18], plus four cups on the central servant branch [18+4=22]. This corresponds to the first 22 words of Deut. 1:1;
Deut. 1:1 These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab
We find this structure laid out also in the 11 fruits of the Menorah linked to the first 11 words of Exodus 1:1;
Ex.1:1 Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob
There are also 9 flowers at the top of each branch before the Lamps, [Num. 8:4] built into the Menorah, which correlate to the first 9 words of Leviticus 1:1;
Levi. 1:1 And the Lord called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,
As the Father of Lights the Almighty shed His spiritual light as it translated in the physical realm so that it would register to the human senses. The Electro-magnetic light spectrum that registers to human vision is depicted below. This electromagnetic spectrum is generally divided into seven sectors, in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency.
Gen 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. Gen 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. We must remember what John 1:5 tells us about the relationship between light and darkness;
“And the light [God] shines in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.”
Figure 3. The Menorah and the Visible Light Spectrum
In the book Jesus Christ is not God, regarding John 1:5, V.P.W stated; “The clause in verse 5 is a general rather than a specific statement regarding light and darkness, it does not refer to a specific lime in the past, in the present or in the future, but rather it is making a general statement about all time. Darkness is the absence of Light. Light, heat and all forms of energy are measured in terms of the positive never the negative. The negative is the absence of the positive. Even from a scientific viewpoint there is no way darkness can comprehend light since darkness is the absence of light. That which does not exist cannot overcome that which exists. 7
The Hebrew script, is a consonantal system with 22 characters, as part of a family of alphabets, formalized around the same time as early Greek, with letters taking a varied form. For example, Resh, phonetically, equal to the ‘R‘, is similar to a lower case Roman ‘r‘, each letter with its own definition. One meaning of Resh is “poverty,” [Prov. 10:15]. Lucifer prospered at God’s Right Hand, but when this was not good enough for him, he became desolate in opposition to the Almighty, and was “plucked up” and cast away. Talk about a major “pluck up,” that has to be the biggest of all! This generally fits the narrative surrounding Job 38:12-15, as Lucifer was cast out of heaven, and rejected from his former angelic glory. [Isa. 14:12-20, Ezek. 28:12-19]
Next in the Hebrew alphabet we encounter the letter Bet. History tells us that Bet is one of seven “double letters,” each of which has two pronunciations, two meanings, as well as two applications: a positive, and negative. Since the 7 vowels of the 22 letters of the Hebrew Alphabet, function as both a vowel and a consonant, we find two immediate applications for these double letters. “They also have 2 possible sounds, but only 3 of the seven are retained in modern Hebrew. Three of the rest are apparently used only by a few, and the double of the remaining one, Resh, is said to have been lost, supporting the narrative above related to Job 38:12-15. The 7 “double letters” have either a “hard” or “soft” pronunciation. The hard pronunciation is indicated by Dagesh; a (dot) in the center of the letter. The 2-fold usage of these seven “double letters” in Ecc. 3:1-8 comprise 7 polarized sets, each portrayed by one of these “doubles,” forming a unique figure that could be classified as a specialized acrostic. Bet is itself a word meaning “within” and “house.” Metaphorically, it depicts a mouth, a house and the interior of man, symbolizing internalized action.” 8
This meaning for Bet, of the interior of man, implies human freewill choice, that results from internal deliberation, spoken into action externally. This relates not only to the 7 polarized sets [Ecc. 3], as people chose daily actions within the ranges of human activity reflected within these 14 pairs. Also, Bet as a “house,” is intriguing in light of the truth that these 7 stars; [Pleiades] are the angels of the 7 churches, since a church is considered the house of God, the dwelling place of His people, in the body of Christ, [Rev. 1:20, 1 Cor. 6:19-20]. As the figure above also relates not only to the 7 spirits of God, that reside before God’s Throne in Heaven, [Rev. 4:5] but also the 7 Old Testament manifestations of the spirit, as seen in Isa. 11:1-2 and Figure 4 below, reflected in the Menorah in the Earthly Temple and Tabernacle.
In Figure 4 below the Menorah with each of the three branches functioning as a double with each of the seven companion OT Manifestations of the Spirit that emerge from the Holy Spirit of the Lord, on each side of the Central Servant Branch. This center branch depicts Jesus Christ the Light of the World, as the suffering servant branch who enlightens the world, [Ps. 119:105, John 15:5].
Figure 4. The Menorah and the OT manifestations of the Spirit. 9
The Menorah’s height excluding the lamps was also 17 handbreadths high [17 Tefachim+1 including the base] which also corresponds to the first 17 words of Numbers 1:1.
Num. 1:1 And the Lord spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of the congregation, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying,
Leo Tavares tells us:
The Bible details in Exodus 25:31-35 how God commanded the Israelites to make a Menorah made of pure gold, which was a lampstand with 7 branches (a CENTER branch and 3 united pairs of branches). This Biblical passage consists of 324 Hebrew letters (or 18 × 18 letters). It follows that we can represent these Hebrew letters as an 18 × 18 Matrix. When we do this, we find that the Ordinal number values of the Hebrew letters form a perfect shape of a Menorah yielding a sum of 999: 10
MENORAH = 999
As we compare this Ex. 25 text to the Standard word values of the 7 Hebrew words in Genesis 1:1 that also forms a perfect Menorah, we find some interesting parallels.
GENESIS 1:1 MENORAH
Genesis 1:1 = (913 + 203 + 86) + (401) + (395 + 407 + 296)
401 + (9 × 9 × 9) = (913 – 296) + (407 – 203) + (395 – 86)
31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same. 32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side: 33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick. 34 And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers. 35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. 36 Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold. 37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it. 38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuff–dishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. 39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. 40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount.
Verse 37 indicates the purpose of the lamps of the Menorah, “that they may give light…’ It is noteworthy that this is the same purpose of the celestial luminaries stated in Genesis 1:14-16. Interestingly, the word for “lights” in the firmament [Gen. 1:14, 16: *H216–maor] is the same word used in reference to the lamps of the Menorah, (Exodus 20:27, 35:14). Moreover, the same Hebrew word that refers to the Menorah’s individual lamps, also refers to the individual celestial lights of the Sun and Moon in Gen. 1:16. Thus we have a perfect correspondence between the purpose not only of the individual celestial lights and each of the Menorah’s lamp’s, to shed light upon the Earth. The emphasis with a Sun-centered system is placed on the Light of God. God’s Light is the Source of Life on Earth, even as God is the Source of Light. The celestial lights support this order from the Hand of the Creator.
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:  And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.  And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
Since the same Hebrew words are used in reference to both the luminaries of the firmament and the lamp-stand of the Tabernacle, we are wise to notice the details of the Menorah’s celestial symbolism.
Here we find Biblical evidence in the Menorah regarding the Hebrew zodiac, structured as the earliest known heliocentric model, as seen in the Menorah Solar System, far ahead of Aristarchus of Samos
(270 BC), who was the first of the ancient Greeks to re-submit the idea of a Sun centered cosmos. With the Son of God and light of the world embodied in Jesus Christ as the central Servant Branch of the Menorah and Hebrew zodiac, we see the original roots for a Sun-centered solar system that Copernicus gets credit for, despite the position of antagonism in the Roman Catholic Church centuries after his death. This idea was first established with the Hebrew Menorah, [Ps. 19] that was structured on a celestial plan of the ancient solar system of seven planets, with luni-solar cycles and the Sun as the center candlestick [Rev.1:20], always enlightening the Earth with a heliocentric viewpoint.
Both Philo and Josephus were early observers who provided context for the Menorah’s rounded branches, associating them with larger astronomical concerns. This approach hearkens back to a link with the lamps of the lampstand and the planets that first appears with the prophet Zechariah already during the sixth century B.C., who described the five visible planets, and the Sun and the Moon, as the “eyes of YHWH:”
These seven are the eyes of YHWH, which range through the whole earth. [Zech. 4:18]
In (Figure 5.) below we see the first candlestick, or Menorah in the form of what James Strong has called a “stylized tree.” Strong gives his own description of Exodus 25:33 quoted below:
Ex. 25:33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick.”
Strong’s geometric synopsis of this verse states:
“It will be perceived that each section of the semicircles of which these lines are the radii is composed of two members: the shank (a plain tube) and the bulb (or swell), and that each has a third part or base (a circular double flange, as a means of connection, hence an actual joint) only where it is united to a different kind of piece; i.e., at the bottom and top of the central shaft and of the six arms, including the intersections of the shaft with the arms.”11 [emphasis mine]
Figure 5. The Hebrew Menorah. 12
When we apply what we have already seen in the Biblical teaching of the Sun’s dual symbolism, to the Menorah, then it takes on a new light, associating the Sun not only with the solar system, but also the circular zodiac. The very structure of the Menorah shows its central shaft as the foundation of the candle, since it holds the main light as the centerpiece of the candlestick. All the branches of the candlestick are attached to the central shaft, even as they obtain their light from the main candle. This pattern is mirrored in the solar system as the planets and moons do not generate their own light, but reflect the light of the Sun, in their orbits. We find not only the order of the solar system reflected here but also that of the ecliptic in 12 Constellations. This is evident in the semi–circular pattern based on the pi ratio. By expanding on Strong’s analysis of the Menorah this comes to light. In Strong’s smaller geometric model of the Menorah, we note bulbs on the six branches of the candlestick that are projections of the central bulb, from whence all the radiating lines of the central light emanate. These projections of the central light on the six branches, (five naked eye planets and the Sun & Moon) depict how these luminaries reflect the Sun’s light in their individual orbits upon the Earth. This system shines light on the temporal periods and orbits of each naked-eye planet in our solar system, in relation to the Sun’s light. This is revealed first in the context of the mathematics of the 7×7=49 standard, a primary trait of light in Creator’s celestial order.
The symbolism of the candlestick also extends beyond our solar system to include the circle of 12 signs of the zodiac. Strong’s emphasis above on the geometric design of the Menorah, exhibits the Hebrew zodiac as in Genesis 49, with Jacob’s prophesies over his twelve sons. We should note that these lines noted by Strong as “the radii of the semi-circle,” reflecting the symbolic light of the world, if extended into a complete circle, the radii would divide it into 12 equal parts of 360 degrees of the circle according to the pi ratio. We can be safe in making this conceptual leap in the implied design of the Menorah, because we have already seen this pattern in the Temple pillars: Jachin and Boaz. This makes the Menorah the most complete piece of the furniture of the Temple and Tabernacle, acting as a celestial symbol of the structure of both our solar system and the zodiac. It is the most complete because it is the third aspect we have observed that utilizes the pi ratio, following on the great Brazen Sea and the Temple pillars. These aspects of The Celestial Symbolism of the Temple and Tabernacle utilize the pi ratio to depict the Hebrew calendar of 12 months of 30 days in the sacred 360-day year used by Noah. The Menorah goes beyond this, embracing the planets in a heliocentric model of the ancient solar system, long before the Greek Aristarchus of Samos proposed it in the second century BC.
The Menorah’s implicit use of the pi ratio incorporates the previous usage of this principle in the Brasen Sea and the Temple pillars, while adding the symbolism of the heliocentric solar system to these previous applications, all incorporated into a single model. This systematic usage of the Pi Ratio in the sacred furniture, altars and Pillars of the Temple and Tabernacle, are supported in the consistent application of this mathematical principle as illustrated above in the Pi mathematics of the circle as seen in the practical reckoning of Pi in the 22 letters and 7 vowels of the Hebrew Alphabet applied to the Menorah structure of [Genesis 1:1 and Isa. 44:6], that we saw related to the central number of 401 in Gen. 1:1, where the Circle with a circumference of 1259 units yields a diameter of 401 units, according to the Pi formula.
This consistent, orderly, progressive and systematic usage of the Pi ratio in the architecture and design of the Hebrew Temple and Tabernacle, and its sacred elements and furniture, illustrates the purposeful application of this advanced mathematical principle, far in advance of human science awareness or application. This shows the Word of the Almighty Creator as the true Source for these and other advanced mathematical and geometric concepts that were applied not only in Sacred Architecture, but in the Intelligent Design of all Creation itself. As we continue our quest to seek out and expand tangible scientific evidence of the awesome works at the Hand of our Creator and Heavenly Father, the distant thunder echoing in our ears will become an undeniable storm of cascading truths overwhelming any credible opposition, until the ultimate realization and witness of Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of the Almighty Heavenly Father of Lights, to whom every knee shall bow and every tongue confess. The Sooner this realization comes, the greater benefit to the recipient.
1. Harmonica Macrocosmica [A. Cellarius, Amsterdam 1660]
3. www.traditionsjewishgifts.com , picture credit
5. Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Thompkins p. 306
7. Jesus Christ is Not God, 2nd edition, p. 97
8. Otiot: Sacred Signs, from “The Book of Sacred Names.” Jacobus G. Swart
9. www.gotlifequestions.com, picture credit for Figure 4.
11. The Tabernacle of Israel, Its structure and Symbolism, ppg. 68-69 James Strong
12. IBID, picture credit for Figure 5.